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Full text of "Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society"

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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 



EOE 1886-87. 



Thk Council of the Bristol and Gloucestekshike Akch.4:ological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors alone 
are responsible for their several Papers and Communications, andtJie 
Editor for Notices on the Books. 



♦ 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

FOU 1886-87. 

Edited by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., d-c. 

VOL. XI. 



BRISTOL 

FEINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEFFERIES AND SONS, 
CANYNGE BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Transactions at Deerhurst , . . . 1-5 

Transactions at Dursley .... 185-219 

Notes on Saxon Architecture, with a description of Deerhnrst 

Priory, Gloucestershire. By J. C. Buckler . . 6-81 

Notes on the Conventual Buildings. By T. S. Pope, Architect 81-83 
On the Saxon Baptismal Font in Deerhurst Priory Church, 

with notes upon other Early Fonts. By Alfred E. Hudd, 

F. S.A. . . . . . 84-104 

The Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst. By the Rev. Georqe Butter- 
worth, M.A., Vicar. .... 105-116 

Cirencester Free Grammar School. By the Rev. E. A. Fuller, 

M.A. . . . . . . 117-129 

" Kirby's Quest," Contributed by Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., 

G. C.M.G., &c., President .... -130-154 
The Will of Richard Dixton, Esq. Communicated by the Rev. 

E. A. Fuller, M.A. . . . . 155-160 

The Treasurer's Account for 1885-6 ... 220 

The President's Address .... 221-242 

Notes on Tanner's Chapel in Dursley Church. By Sir John 

Maclean, F.S.A., &c. . . . . 243-245 

Ancient Church Embroidery in Gloucestershire, By Mary 

Ellen Bagnall-Oakeley ; with Addendum . 246-259, 364 

A doubtful point in the Genealogy of Hicks of Beverston. By 

the Rev. Francis J. Poynton, M.A. - . . 260-265 

On three Skulls found near the London Road, Gloucester. By 

John Beddob, M,D,, F,R,S, . . . 266-268 

Court Roll of the Manor of Bicknor Anglicana, co, Gloucester. 

Communicated by Sir John Maclean, F.S, A,, &c, . 269-279 
Further Note on the Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, By the Rev. 

George Butterworth, M.A , . . 280 

Some Notes on Wresden, Uley. By W. P, W. Phillimore, 

M,A.. B.C.L. ..... 281-290 

List of the Merchants' Hall, Bristol, 1732. Communicated by 

E. F. Eberle. , . . . . 291-292 

Notes on Milo de Gloucester, and his connection with the 

Forest of Dene. By A. W. Crawley-Boevey, M.A., 

Barrister-at-Law .... 293-303 

On the Manor House of Wotton-under-Edge, and its Inhabi- 
tants. By V. R. Perkins .... 304-308 
Notes on the Church of Wotton-under-Edge, By the Rev. H. 

Sewell, Vicar ..... 309-311 
Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire, 3rd Henry IV., with an 

Introduction, by Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c. . 312-3.30 

A Domestic Outrage in Gloucestershire, about the year 1220. 

By Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c, . 331-335 

Notes on a Roman Inscribed Stone at Weston Birt. By Sir 

John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. . . . 336-339 



* 



1396871 



NOTICES OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

Hasted's History of Kent. By the late Rev. Thomas Streat- 
FEiLD and the late Rev. Lambert B. Larking, Edited by 

Henry H. Drake, &c. . . . . . 161-165 

The Family of Brocas, of Beaurepaire and Roche Court, Here- 
ditary Masters of the Royal Buck Hounds, with some account 
of the English Rule in Acquitaine. By Montagu Burrows, 

Capt. R.N., M.A., F.S.A 165-171 

The Highlands of Cantabria : or three days from England. By 

Mars Ross and H. Stonehewer Cooper , . . 171-174 

The Feudal History of the County of Derby. By John Pym 
Yeatman, Esq., F.R.H.S., and by Sir George R, Sitwell, 
Bart., M.P., F.S.A., and Cecil J. S. Foljambe, Esq., M.P., 

F.S.A. ....... 174-176 

King Edward VI. Supreme Head. By Frederick George 

Lee, D.D ....... 176-177 

A Literary and Biographical History or Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. By Joseph Gillow. Vols. I. 

andlL ....... 177-180 

The Religious Houses of the United Kingdom. Compiled from 

Official Sources . . . . . . . 180 

The Registers of Perlethorpe, in the County of Nottingham. 

Edited by George W. Marshall, LL.D. . . . 180-181 

The Registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. By A. W. Cornelius 

Hallen, M.A. ...... 181 

Church Plate of Kent. By the Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson, 

Hon. Canon of Canterbury, M.A. . . . . 181-183 

The Jubilee Date Book.— The Regnal years of the Kings and 
Queens of England, from William the Conqueror to Victoria. 

By Walford D. Selby . . . . . . 183 

Publications of the Pipe Roll Society. . . , . 183-184 

Dante's Divinia Commedia. By Frantz Hettinger, D.D. Edited 

by Henr^ Sebastian Bowden .... 340-342 

The Ancient Cities of the New World. By Desire Charnay. 

Translated by J, Gorno and Helen S. Conant . . 343-348 

The English in America. — The Puritan Colonies. By J. A. 

Doyle, M.A. . . . . . . . 348-353 

Gleanings of Old Garden Literature. By W. Carew Haslitt , 353-355 



Historic Towns. — Exeter and Bristol. By Professor Freeman 

and William Hunt 355-358 

The History of the Drama in Exeter. By W. Cotton, F.S. A. - 358-360 
London Church Registers. — St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. By A. 

W. Cornelius Hallen, M. A. - - . . . 361-362 

At Bosig. By James Bakek - - - - - 362 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Edited by Rev. B. H. 

Blacker, M.A. - - - - - - 363 

The Western Antiquary. Edited by W. H. K. Wright - - 363 

Northern Notes and Queries. Edited by Rev. A. W. C. Hallen 363 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate I. Plan of the Saxon Church . . .to face p. 16 

II. Plan of the present Church . . , . ,,17 

III. View of Tower from nave . . . ,,19 

IV. Details of Church . . . . „ 22 

V. „ . . . . „ 24 
VI. Details of Conventual Buildings . . ,,81 

VIL „ „ . ■ 82 

VIIL Font Deerhurst Church . . . ,,93 

IX. Plan and Details of Saxon Chapel . . 106 

X. Inscribed Stones and Details of Chapel . ,,168 

XL Gurgoils on Tanner's Chapel, Deerhurst . ,, 243 

XIL Corbels in ,,„,,. . „ 244 

XIII. *Pomegrate from Winchcombe . . ,, 253 

XIV. ■''"Cherub from the Cirencester Cope . , ,, 254 
XV.*Pomegranate from the Buckland Cope . . ,, 255 

Fig. I. View of Wresden Farm House . . ,j 283 

2. Parish Church of Wotton-under- Edge . . ,,309 

PI. XVI. Roman Inscribed Stone at Weston Birt . 337 



About half the cost of these illustrations has been liberally paid by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. 



Pa. 



e ], line 16, for E, P. Prankerd read P. D. Pr anker d. 

139, line 3, for seundum read secunclmri. 
note 5, for Hen. I. read Edw. I. 
note 8, for cl read et. 

140, note 2, for cl read et. 

141, note 1, line 3, for Fosbroke VII., read Foshrooke If. 

,, 12, last line, insert o/ before earlier. 

142, note 3, last line, delete 7 after Westminster. 
145, line 30, for Reginaldi read Beginaldo. 

note 2, line 3, insert Esc. after Edw. I. 
151, note 5, last line, for 150 read £1. 
153, note 4, line 2, for 142 read 13. 
183, line 6 from bottom, for Vol. VII. read Fol. VI. 

line 4 ,, ,, for seventh read .su^A. 
215, note 2, line 2, for Theodore read Theobald. 
223, note 1, for Clarke read Clark. 
253, line 20, delete comma after empire. 
256, line 3l and note, for Aragon read Arragon. 
272, line 23, for vii read vi^. 
295, note 1, line 1, for rend read re)il. 



Transactions of the 

At the Spring Meeting, held ^t Deerhurst, 
17th June, 1886. 

4-'^*^ 

The Spring Meeting of the Society was appointed to be held at Deerhurst on 
the 21st May, but during the night of the 14th an immense overflow of the 
Severn occurred. The whole of the Vale of Gloucester was inundated to a 
greater extent than had been known at any previous time during 30 years. 
The village schoolroom, in which the members of the Society were to lunch, 
was submerged between 2 and 3 feet, as was also the ancient Chapel which 
they were to visit afterwards. There was, consequently, no alternative to 
the postponement of the meeting, and accordingly it was deferred to the 17th 
June, on which day a large number of Members and their friends assembled 
at the Westgate Bridge Pier, Gloucester, at 10 a.m., embarked in the 
"Berkeley Castle" Steam Boat, which had been engaged for the occasion, and 
proceeded up the river. There were present : Sir W illiam V. Guise, Bart. , 
Frasidmt of the Council, Sir John Maclean ; the Revs. S. E. Bartleet, W. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, J. F. Green, J. M. Hall, F. E. B. Witts, C. M. 
Brown, F. Palmer, W. Bazeley, Hon. Sec. ; Colonel Forbes, Dr. Payne ; 
Messrs. W. C. Lucy, E. H. Percival, E. P. Prankerd, C. Lord-Denton, 
J. D. Robertson, S. H. Swayne, E. Hartland, Hon. Treas.; &c., &c., 
and many ladies. 

On arriving opposite the Wainlode Cliff the Boat lay to for a few 
minutes to enable the passengers to observe the stratification of the section, 
to which attention was directed, and Sir William Guise kindly made some 
observations thereon. This remarkable section, which, again appears at 
Aust, has already been treated of, see ante. vol. x., p. 15. 

On arriving at Deerhurst Pier the company disembarked and proceeded 
at once to the Schoolroom in which lunch had been prepared. Sir William 
Guise presided, and the whole party became seated. 

As soon as lunch was finished an adjournment was made to the Saxon 
Chapel. In the unavoidable absence of the Rev. George Butterworth, who 
was a party to the discovery of this ancient structure, and the means of drawing 
it from its concealment, the Hon. Secretary directed attention to its chief 
features. We need not further enlarge upon it here, as Mr. Butterworth's 
carefully prepared Memoir, in which he treats of it very fully, will be found 
printed hereafter. 

The party next visited the pre-Norman Parish Church, which they 
inspected with great interest. It is altogether a very remarkable structure, 
presenting many features well-deserving most careful study, Mr. Bazeley 
called attention to the Monumental Brasses of the Cassey family of Whit- 
field Court, in the North Chapel. These Brasses have been well described 

Vol. XI, part I. B 



2 



Tkansactions at Deeehurst. 



by Mr. C. T. Davies in his "Monumental Brasses of Gloucestershire,'* and 
Mr. Bazeley will treat further of the same in the following Paper on the 
Cassey Family. 

The Vicar of the Parish, though suffering much from an attack of gout 
here joined the party, and read his " Monograph on the Saxon Chapel " which 
will be printed i7i extenso in this volume, as will also a careful description of 
the Church by Mr. J. C. Buckler, the venerable and eminent architect, who 
is still alive though considerably over 90 years of age. 

The Members, after having examined the Church as far as circumstances 
would permit, walked across the fields to Whitefield Court, when Mr, 
Bazeley made the following remarks on 

THE CASSEYS OF WHITEFIELD. 

Whitefield (or Wightfield, as it is spelt in old documents) is one of the 
hamlets of Deerhurst, and formed part of the great Manor of Deerhurst 
given by Edward the Confessor to the Abbey of Westminster. 

Whitefield is thus spoken of in the Domesday Survey : *' Edui, a freeman, 
held one hide in Wicfield of the Manor of Deerhurst in the time of King 
Edward, Walter Pontherius holds it now."^ 

I have no doubt that the Registers of Westminster Abbey contain many 
references to the tenants of Wightfield ; but I have not yet had any opportu- 
nity of referring to them.^ 

During the reign of Edward III. Gilbert Despencer and John de Legh, 
Senr., purchased of Fulk de Birmingham, Knight,^ in fee, two messuages, 
40 acres of arable land, 110 acres of meadow land, 20 acres of wood, and £6 
rent in Wightfield and Appurley, held of the Abbot of Westminster, by the 
rent of 20s. per ann. Gilbert Despencer subsequently sold his portion to 
John de Legh.* 

Now John de Molyn or John Mills had a market in Leigh and Corse in 
the time of Edward III. , and was, therefore, I suppose, Lord of the Manor 
of Leigh.5 In the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire, lately printed by 
the Harleian Society, John Mills appears at the head of the Mills of Hares- 
field pedigree as the father of Thomas Mills who married Juliana, daughter 
and heir of Thomas Rous, of Harescombe, and had a daughter married to 
Cassey, of Whitfeild.^ 

On the floor of the north aisle of Deerhurst Church lie the memorial 
brasses of Sir John Cassey and his wife Alice, with the following inscription : 
Here lies John Cassy, Knight and formerly chief Baron of the Exchequer 
of our Lord the King, who died on the 23rd of May a.d. 1400. And Alice 
his wife, on whose souls may God have mercy." There are two shields, one 
above and another below the effigy of Sir John Cassey, bearing, respect- 
ively, : Argent y a chevron between three griffins' heads erased gules ^ the 

1 Domesday Survey : Taidder's Gloucestershire, ^. 12. 

2 Regist. Westmon. MSS. Cott. Faustina A. iij. f. 112, 113, 163, &c. 

3 For " Birniiri<yhani " family, see Dugdalc's Warwickshire and Hutton' sBirmingham. 

4 Esch. Gil. Despencer, 4th Rich. II. No. 41. 
6 Rot. Glaus. 14th Ed. III. 

6 Vis. Glou. 1C23. p. 21(5. see also Ilarl. MS. 1041. fol. 4b. ; Harl. MS. 1543. fol. 17b. 



The Casseys op WmTEPiELt). 



3 



family arms of the Casseys, and Sa, three lions passant in pale argent. There 
were two shields above and below the effigy of Lady Cassey, but these 
are gone. 

If, as it seems most probable, she was the daughter of Thomas Mills 
and his wife Juliana Rous, the missing shields would have borne I, : Ermine, 
a Millrind or Inhmoline sable for Mills ; and II. , quarterly : 1 and 4, as 
above, for Mills ; and 2 and 3 : Per pale gules and azure, three lions ramp, 
erm., for Rous.^ 

Sir John Cassey was made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 12th Richard 
II. (a.d. 1389), letters of Privy Seal for that office being ordered by the 
Council on November 13th, when payment was directed to be made to him 
for the time he was in Wales (or the Welsh Marches). On the accession 
of Henry IV,, in 1399, he received a new patent, but he died in the 
following year. 2 

It is recorded in the Patent Rolls that a.d. 1395, certain Justices of the 
Peace, named Ruydale and Otho, gave false certificates to Judge Cassey 
against Thomas, 10th Lord Berkeley, and were heavily fined in consequence.^ 

This is all I have been able to gather about Sir John Cassey, who would 
seem to have been the first member of that family to reside at Wightfield, 
and hold the manor as tenant in fee under the Abbey of Westminster. 

In 1427, Richard Cassey, Priest of Tredynton, near Shipston-on-Stour, 
was buried in that Church, and there remains in the middle of the Church 
on a marble stone inlaid with brass the effigy of a priest in processional 
vestments — cassock, surplice, almuce, and cope, praying, surrounded with 
the following inscription : 

''Mttptov legum facet f)it in tavm mtavt^m 

^ame^ rector erat 'f)uim et eeelestae 
Wttnxiti qumtt quonUam Mt ipu saeertJos 
€^tioraeen!5ts eantinicus;' 

The rest of the inscription is lost. There are two escutcheons in this 
Church, Nash says, bearing A chevron between three griffins' heads erased."^ 

I learn from some notes kindly given me by Mr. Butterworth, the Vicar 
of Deerhurst, that Richard Cassey, in his will proved 1427, mentions his 
brother Nicholas (perhaps lord of the Manor of Wightfield and son of 
Sir John and Lady CasSey). "In Droitwich Church, Worcestershire, in the 
middle aisle, on a plain stone without arms or portraiture," Nash says, " is the 
following inscription : " Hie jacet Johannes Cassy, Miles, qui obiit 22 Martii 
A.D. 1414. "5 

In 1494 Elizabeth Cassey, relict of John Cassey, the elder, died, and 
was buried at Deerhurst. In her will, proved the same year, she mentions 
her sons, John Cassey and William, and expresses her desire to be buried 
near the corpse of her husband. ^ 

1 Compare Pap worth's Ordinary, p. 170, with Had. MS. 1041, p. 24b. and 1543, p. 17b. 

2 Nicholas' Ordinances of Privy Council. 

3 Pat. Roll. 18th Richard II. p. 1, mem. 26. See also Berkeley MSS. Maclean's Edition, 
Vol, II. p. 25. No. 4. and C. T. Davis's Brasses of Gloucestershire. 

4 Nash's Worcestershire II. 430. 6 Ibid. I. p. 335. 6 Mr. Butterworth's MS. 

B 2 



4 



Transactions at Deerhtjrst. 



The last mentioned John Cassey, known as John Cassey, Junior, died 17th 
January, 1507-8, seized of the Manors of Stratton, Compton Cassey or 
Little Cassey, 4 messuages and 200 acres in Ched worth, 100 acres in Elmston 
Hardwick and 200 acres in Sapperton.i 

I find this John Cassey taking part in the battle of Nibley Green as a 
supporter of William Lord Berkeley against Lord Lisle, and receiving as his 
reward an annual pension of 4 marks. This was in 1481-2, 21st Edward IV.^ 

John Cassey left his manor and estates to his son, William Cassey, who 
married Elizabeth Bruges, of Cubberley, and died in 1509, leaving Leonard, 
son and heir, aged 3^ years. ^ There is a memorial brass to this Elizabeth 
Cassey in Deerhurst Church, bearing formerly the following inscription : 
" Here lyethe Elizabeth Rowden sumtyrae wyffe to Wyll'm Cassey,^ of 
Whyghtfylde, Esquyer, after the dethe of the sayde Wyll'm was married to 
Walter Rowden Esquyer, which Elizabeth dyed the xxvi Day of Januarie 
Anno D'ne mdxxv., for whose sowle of your charitie say a Pater Noster." 

Bigland, who gives this inscription, states, that at the time of his 
visit to Deerhurst, one escutcheon remained of four, bearing quarterly : 1 and 
4 Bruges, 2 de Chandos, 3 Berkeley of Cubberley.^ 

There is another brass effigy of a lady in Deerhurst Church, which was 
discovered during recent restorations, which I should be inclined to assign 
to the wife of John Cassey, Junior, father of William, or to Elizabeth 
Cassey, relict of John Cassey, Senior, which Elizabeth died in 1494. The 
costume is of the reign of Henry VII. ^ 

Sir Robert Atkins says that Leonard Cassey died without issue, and 
that his brother William had livery of his father's manors and estates 
in 21st Henry VIII. (1529-30).'' 

I find, however, from the inquisition post mo7'tem of Robert Cassey, who 
died in 1547, that the said Robert, by a deed dated 21st February, 1530, 
settled in the hands of Sir John Bridges, of Cubberley, and other trustees, 
his manors of Stratton and Little Compton to the use of himself and his 
wife Elizabeth and their issue ; also in May of the same year he settled his 
manor of Wightfield on other trustees for himself, his wife, and heirs. ^ 
Elizabeth Cassey was daughter of Richard Poole, of Salperton.^ 

Robert Cassey died 2 June, 1547, leaving his relict Elizabeth seized of 
his manors, Henry his son and heir aged 13, and daughters Elizabeth, 
Anne, Florence and Katherine. 

Henry Cassey, who came of age in 1555, married in or before the year 
1556 Dorothy Fettiplace. 

1 Esch. 1st Ilcnry VIII. No. 50. B. and 3id Henry VIII. No. 77. 

2 Berkeley MS3., Maclean's Edition, II. p. 135. 

3 Esch, 1st Henry VIII. No. 50. B. and 3rd Henry VIII. No 77. 

4 The Parliament llolls for 12 Hen. VII., contain the following entry "Persons 
apoyntod to be coniyssioners for the shires, and with Justices of the Peas to be associated, 
Glouc'. — Will'iis Cassey Arm'." 

5 Biyland's Glouc. I. 405. (i C. Davis's Gloucestershire Brasses, Nos. 52^ 57. 
7 Atkins' Glouc. 445. 8 Esch. Ilobt. Cassey, 1st Edward VI. No. 100. 

0 Harl. MS«. 1041, fol. 41, and 154:j, fo. 33. Heralds' Visitation, 1C23, p. 125. 



The Casseys of Whitefield. 



5 



Some painted glass still in the custody of the tenant of Whitefield Court, 
but which till lately was preserved in the windows of the drawing room, 
has the following armorial bearings : I. Azure, a chevron hefiveen 3 griffins' 
heads erased or, forCassey, and II. The same impaling f ess- wise : (Z) Gides, 
two chevrons argent, for Fettiplace ; and (2) quarterly : 1 and 4 Argent, three 
torteaux ; 2 and 3, a lion passant crowned or ;^ this glass seems to com- 
memorate the marriage of Henry Cassey to Dorothy Fettiplace. 

Henry Cassey died in 1595, and his relict Dorothy died in 1609, and 
was buried at Deer hurst on March 8.'- 

The aforesaid Henry Cassey by deed dated 4th January, 23 Elizabeth, 
1581, assigned certain manors to John Gifford and others, for the use of the 
said Henry Cassey, his son Thomas Cassey, and a certain Cassandra whom 
Thomas was about to marry. ^ I find from a pedigree of the GifFords of 
Chillingham, County Stafford, that Cassandra Cassey was a daughter of 
John Giff'ord of Chillingham, and of Jocosa his wife.^ Thomas Cassey at 
the time of his father Henry Cassey's death in 1595 was 37 years of age.^ 

The Decrhurst Registers record the baptism of Thomas and Giles, sons 
of John Cassey in 1583 and 1590, and of Catherine their daughter in 1594. 

They also record the baptism of J ohn, Henry and Thomas Cassey, sons 
of John Cassey 1600, 1603 and 1611. This John Cassey, baptised in 1600, 
appears to have inherited the manor of Whitefield from his cousin Thomas 
Cassey in 1661, and sold them to Peter Fermor soon afterwards. In his 
will proved 1676 he mentions this sale ; and he is spoken of in connection 
with William Cassey in an old Deerhurst deed kept in the parish Church 
and dated 1663. 

John Cassey died and was buried at Deerhurst in 1676. 

James Cassey of Badminton, whose will was proved 1698, left lands in 
Apperley to his kinsman, Edward Cassey of Worcester, Gent.'' 

Atkyns says that in his time (1712), Thomas Cassey was residing in a 
a good house at Apperley. 

The Casseys gave their name to two hamlets in Gloucestershire, where 
they were lords of the manor. Little Compton called Compton Cassey, and 
Kilcot in Newent parish, called Kilcot Cassey. 

I would venture to express a hope in conclusion, that the owner of this 
manor will think fit to restore the painted glass to the windows, and thus 
preserve a very valuable memorial of the Cassey family, who were lords of 
the manor for nearly 300 years, and the builders of the present manor house, 
and also perhaps of its predecessors of which no doubt there are many 
remains. 

1 Papworth in his Ordinary of British Armorials, pp. 540-1, gives : Arg. two chevrons 
<m. Fettiplace. Rudder, co. Gloucester : Gu. two chevrons arg. Fettiplace, co. Worcester, and 
p. 1048 : A rg. three torteaux two and o/ie.— Gifford.— [We do not know of any family of 
Gifford who bore three torteaux. The arms of Gifford of Chilling-ham were : Az. three 
stirrups with leathers or, two and one.— Eb.] 

2 Deerhurst Registers. 3 Inq. p m., Henry Cassey, 38 Eliz. No. 106. 

4 Harl. MS., 6128 fol., 26b, Visitation of , co. Stafford. 

5 I am inclined to believe that Whitefield Court was rebuilt during the life-time of 
Henry Cassey, after his son's marriage with Cassandra Gifford. i.e. between 1581 and 1596. 

6 Mr. Butterworth's MS. 7 Mr. Butterworth's MS. 



6 



Tkansactions at Deerhurst 



NOTES ON SAXON ARCHITECTURE, 

WITH A 

DESCRIPTION OF DEERHURST PRIORY, 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
By J. C. BUCKLER, ArcJiitecf. 

Among the Additional MSS. in the British Museum, No. 
27,765, D. is a Collection of Architectural Papers and Draw- 
ings by that venerable and eminent architect, Mr. J. C. 
Buckler. Vol. X. of this collection contains a History of 
Saxon Architecture in England, including a descriptive 
account of the Priory at Deerhurst, in this County. A brief 
notice of this document appeared in the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, Vol. xxxn., p. 136, which at- 
tracted the attention of one of our members, Mr. Alfred E. 
Hudd, F.S.A., and led him to inspect the document, with 
which he was so much pleased that he obtained a transcript 
of the whole paper, and made tracings of the drawings. He 
subsequently requested Mr. Buckler's permission to print it, 
which having been very readily and courteously given, Mr. 
ETudd has very kindly placed his transcript and tracings at the 
disposal of this Society, and Mr. Buckler's description appears 
below. 

The Rev. George Butterworth, the Vicar of the Parish, 
who made the structure of the church his careful study during 
the time of the alterations executed some 25 years ago and 
since, has kindly read Mr. Buckler's Memoir and annotated 
it, his notes being distinguished by his initials. The Society 
is also indebted to Mr. T. S. Pope, Architect, of Bristol, and 
a member of this Society, for the interest he has kindly taken 
in the subject, and for his notes on the conventual buildings, 
and the preparation of plates vi. and vii.. — Ed. 



Deerhukst Priory. 



The Church. 

In these remains we see, perhaps, the nearest approach that can 
be made to the ichnography of a Saxon Monastery. 

No reference has ever yet been made any existing authority 
in architecture touching the character and quality of a group of 
buildings of the kind. Recourse has uniformly been had to 
conjecture, or to a repetition of antiquated suggestions as to the 
mutability of the religious structures of the Saxons. And this 
no doubt is true of some of them, but others there were, nobly 
founded, liberally endowed, and built with substantiality, and 
which had the good fortune to escape the severity of the Danish 
inroads. 

Deerhurst may not be the only example which has passed 
through the tremendous vicissitudes of ten centuries, and still 
retains extensive and very interesting portions of its architectural 
distinctions in originality, in beauty, and in strength ; and in all 
these respects sufficient to excite and gratify the admiration of 
ages to come. 

Structures of wood may have retained their places in the 
conventual buildings of this monastery so lately as the 14th 
century, when the last considerable change in these members of 
the design was made, and, as appears, the last important under- 
taking accomplished for the better accommodation of the inmates. 

The Benedictines formed a brave community, and were rarely 
daunted by difficulties in the prosecution of their benevolent 
undertakings ; and their wealth enabled them to accomplish their 
intentions in the handsomest manner. Deerhurst exhibits this 
generous attention to liberality, in the gift of architecture to 
a small community worthy of their grandest conceptions in 
design. The appendages of the domestic buildings at this place, 
up to the period just named, were accretions of different ages, 
fashioned with different materials, and brought together without 
regular order, or commodiousness of arrangement. The formality 
of the present lengthened pile which took the place of the principal 
chambers of earlier ages, is precisely such a range as in later days, 



8 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



under the like circumstances, supplanted the accumulated struc- 
tures tacked together from time to time as the exigency of the 
case required. 

The church also felt the influence of improvement in archi- 
tecture ; but no innovation was made at any period injurious to 
the order of the interior or in diminution of the space anciently 
assigned to the religious community. 

This church presents the earliest known example of the organ- 
nisation of the choir in accordance with the conventual rites and 
ceremonies. The parochial ^character of the church stops at the 
entrance to the choir. Beyond this division the building assumes 
another form, with greater breadth and dignity than the Saxons 
ever bestowed upon village or town churches. 

The upper or eastern half of the church was assigned to the 
convent, whose dwelling adjoined the wall of the south aisle ; 
while the lower, or western portion, consisting simply of the nave, 
with solid side walls, was for public use ; the separation being 
formed by a substantial wall, pierced with an arch of moderate 
dimensions. 1 This state of things lasted full three centuries, but 
the Saxon economy at length yielded to the advance of taste in 
architecture. The first encouragers of the science in its application 
to religious edifices had laid a sure foundation for its success, little 
as they themselves did to develope the resources within their reach. 
The Saxon style was immutable : as the founders left their 
churches, so they remained until long after the style had become 
obsolete for practical purposes. The monastery of Deerhurst had 
not changed a stone of its buildings before the middle of the 12th 
century, when the nave assumed a pattern of architecture of great 
beauty. The change was made for the use and admiration of the 
agricultural villagers ; of those who were employed by the com- 
munity and dwelt hard by the precinct walls ; and of strangers 
brought thither by secular engagements, or religious obligations. 

It was seldom, at any period, that extensive alterations were 
first undertaken at the lower end of the church. The quiet, 
1 See Note 2. p. 17.— G.B. 



Deekhurst Peiory. 



9 



•unambitious community in the 12th century were no doubt reluc- 
tant to be disturbed by builders, while they were in the enjoyment 
of a house and a church, commodious, and free from dilapidations. 
No such consideration baffled an undertaking of the kind in the 
nave; here, therefore, the pious benefactor essayed his improvement. 
Processes of this nature were consistent with the rank of con- 
ventual houses, and this of Deerhurst was one of considerable 
reputation, a term not intended to imply either extent or magnifi- 
cence. Its bounderies were probably never greatly increased after 
its Saxon benefactions, but as time advanced, and from period to 
period introduced changes in the customs of society, Deerhurst 
felt these influences, and gradually relinquished much of its 
antiquated appearance, with some of its austere habits, and of 
its primitive ceremonies. 

The quality of a large part of the buildings announces the fact 
that its palmy days were in the 13th and 14th centuries, and that 
the institution at those periods was under the guidance of men 
with power to augment its possessions, and to extend the sphere 
of its usefulness. The remains will always be viewed with ardent 
veneration by the thoughtful, who remember that this foundation, 
rebuilt and re-established in the 10th century, ^ survived to the era 
of the Reformation, and experienced with the renowned abbey of 
Tewkesbury, to which it ultimately belonged as a cell, the rapacity 
and the fury of men, savage and merciless in their vocation as 
ever the Danes had been. 

And yet there will be some room for regret in considering the 
long-lived history of this Saxon foundation. It lasted so long 
that it outgrew its strength and its ancient fame. But perhaps 
this is one of the conditions of the religious institutions of an- 
tiquity. The Cistercian community, among the rest, failed to keep 
up their renown before the knell of their confiscation and over- 
throw sounded in their ears. The 15th century was the period 
which witnessed the decrease of the worldly reputation of these 
houses of every denomination. The buildings at Deerhurst had 

1 Direct evidence for this statement seems wanting. Leland indeed states 
that the Priory was destroyed by the Danes, and the Prior Werstan was said 
to have fled to Malvern, but he gives no date. — G.B. 



10 



Transactions at Deeehurst. 



much done to them in the 14th century. Substantial and ex- 
pensive works were carried out as if the owners, looking forward 
to many years of prosperity, had taken a fresh lease of their 
mundane occupations. This cheering prospect had scarcely lost 
its freshness when the resources of patronage, and the power of 
wealth abated. Nothing more in architecture was afterwards 
done for the sake of fashion, or at the call of convenience ; the 
influence of the community faded away ; the whole constitution 
of the establishment was irretrievably shattered ; every change 
tended to decay, and Deerhurst ended its career in humble 
dependence. 

The Saxon church has escaped alteration in that part which 
would otherwise have been most difficult to interpret. No notion 
could have been formed of the plan of the eastern half, if the 
original walls had been thrown down ; but fortunately they 
remain perfect ; no hand has ever pressed heavily upon this con- 
ventual portion. Its general arrangement has been made so 
familiar by architecture of later date, that the ownership of the 
invention could not have been assigned to the Saxons without this 
example. The value therefore of this authority is very great. 
It tells plainly of the strong discernment, and the clear judgement 
of the Saxon builders, in at once so suiting their conventual 
churches, and houses, to the requirements of the religious services, 
that the experience of generation after generation of accomplished 
workmen was unable to effect any improvement in the organi- 
sation. 

The structural changes in the nave appear to have been made 
with rapidity, regardless of trouble or cost, and with increasing- 
attention to richness of design. About the middle of the 12th 
century an aisle was first added to the south side, in breadth 
commensurate with that of the aisle of the choir. A similar 
addition was afterwards made to the north side. But the 
several processes connected with the undertakings in this part of 
the church are worthy of remark. The rapidity with which the 
one followed the other as the result of a happy design, are facts 
almost startling. 



Deerhurst Priory, 



M 



The superstructure of the nave was left to press its full weight 
upon the south wall under process of excavation beneath. The 
wall was pierced with three arches, connected with which were 
arches carried across the new aisle, and pressing against the old 
piers, but springing from new piers attached thereto, and on the 
opposite side, to wall piers. It may be that this admirable work, 
from some unknown cause, was left unfinished : it was so hand- 
some, judging from its small but characteristic remains, that its loss 
would be regretted, if it had not given place to architecture of 
uncommon beauty. The same builder — he of the 12th century 

at the same time made a remarkable alteration on the outside 

of the west wall of the nave, by cutting a passage from north to 
south through the flank walls of the Saxon tower ; thus proving 
that his plan included a north aisle. But the work in this 
direction halted, and when resumed early in the 13th century, 
under another builder, he carried on the scheme of his predecessor, 
but in the new style of his own period. Like him he pierced the 
solid north wall with an arcade of three elegant arches of the 
pointed form, springing from clustered pillars worthy of the 
charmingly sculptured capitals with which they are surmounted. 
But bolder still, and possessed of adequate means and resolution, 
he determined to replace the new work on the south side with an 
arcade in corresponding taste to the one opposite, and had no 
difficulty in attaching clustered pillars to the solid but diminished 
piers previously employed. 

In the 14th century some of the earlier windows were exchanged 
for others of newer design ; and later on, fresh windows were in- 
serted in different places, the clerestory was refashioned, and the 
Saxon tower altered with fatal severity. These costly and extensive 
undertakings testify to the good circumstances of the Institution 
in the middle period of its existence.^ Also at this period con- 
^ It is probable that some of the late 14th century work was at the 
expense of Sir John Cassey, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, a.d. 1389, whose 
monumental brass in the north aisle of the church is one of the finest 
specimens of its class remaining. He lived at Whitefield or Wightfield in 
Deerhurst parish. His house is now destroyed but it is represented by a 
fine manor house on the same site. He died a.d. 1400. It is stated in Ly son's 
" Glouc. Antq.," p. 19, I know not on what authority, that much of the 
present church was built by William Whitchurch, Abbot of Hailes, in 1470, 
but the architectural remains hardly support this statement. — G.B, 



12 



TliANSACTIONS AT DeEKHURST. 



siderable employment was found for the builders, mostly, however, 
in the domestic part of the establishment. It was at this time, 
without doubt, that the great bulk of the Conventual buildings 
was wholly swept away. Its successor, the present range, was 
maltreated after the suppression ; but the poverty of the place 
saved it from the excesses of mischief. The scale of its buildings, 
and the neighbouring population, gave it some favour in the 
counsels of the destructive agents of the commission. Slight 
mischief only was done to the church and house ; the former 
continued to administer to the comfort of the cottagers, the latter 
fortunately, found an owner among the yeomen. 

The main limb of the domestic buildings faces west, and is 
placed at right angles with the church. It retains its ancient walls 
entire, and its level line of gable roof, but modern handling has 
spared only a few traces of the superior quality of the general 
design, and of the merit of its details. It measures 68ft. 9 ins. in 
length and 26ft. in depth (26ft. Gin. on plan), the walls being 2^ft. 
in thickness. To the eastside were formerly attached minor apart- 
ments, and such office appendages as were suitable to the scale of the 
society. But all tnese, and other walls and outbuildings, have either 
given place to modern substitutes for the accommodation of a farmer 
tenant, or have been cleared away as cumberers of the ground. 
In the advance of refinement arising from successful husbandry, 
the interior of the stone walls have been papered, the rafters ceiled, 
the floors spread with carpets, and the contents of the parlour 
reflected in mirrors and looking glasses. One apartment, at the 
north extremity, having been excluded from modern favours, 
retains its interesting expressions of antiquity, and reminds 
observers that many years have not passed since the days of its 
degradation. It is on the upper floor, and illumined by an elegant 
window ; but the open roof of timber was underlined in the 15th 
century with a flat ceiling framed and panelled in oak, wrought 
with great care, and in almost perfect preservation. On the south 
side of the house an original window remains : it is square topped, 
high up in the wall, and measures T.^ft. long, by 2ft. 8^ins. wide.^ 

^ The original length is here accurately given, its present length is 
10 feet.— G.B. 

t 



Deerhurst Priory. 



13 



It is of the 14th century, but has no border of mouldings, no 
recess, no label. It is filled with characteristic tracery, and is a 
very choice relic of the period. 

The church, with the bulk of the monastic dwellings, formed 
two sides of a quadrangular court into which the principal 
chambers opened. The area is now feficed by a low wall, and 
retains its original measures, which are 70 feet, by 82 feet, this 
last dimension having been obtained by stretching out the aisle 
to a level with the front of the church tower. This length, in 
conjunction with that of the domestic building, has had a cloister 
of the same primitive make and material so much in favour with 
the Cistercians — a pentice of timber, the main beams of the roof 
having rested upon a plate of oak reposed upon the stone corbels, 
still to be seen under the windows, which were carried high up in 
the wall to clear the roof of the lean-to. One of the church doors 
thus sheltered is near the west angle, the other near the east 
angle, close to the convent. 

Beyond all these visible remains, south of the court, and 
stretching eastward, were large appurtenances walled round, some 
in immediate union with the cloister. Among these appeared the 
principal gateway, but of the character, number, and order of 
these things nothing can now be said. Whatever their style of 
building in the 14th century, doubtless it was more mild and 
encouraging than at the date of the church, when every object 
maintained a frowning aspect in anticipation of Danish visitations. 
Distant walls meanly applied, have, among their promiscuous 
rubbish, venerable blocks, which in times past were more respect- 
fully employed, but they have lost their locality, and convey no 
useful information. 

The set purpose on this occasion of scrutinising the Saxon 
remains, and of giving the subject all the prominency it merits, 
has left no opportunity for worthy remark upon the later styles, 
whose examples are mingled with the original features of the 
structure. The severe processes referred to form a considerable 
portion of the history of ancient churches, and it would be remark- 
able if a Saxon example presented no such attendent events to 
variegate its design, and to intrude upon its narrative. 



14 



Transactions at Df.epvHurst. 



This most valuable church of Saxon date, has been assaulted by- 
its friends with considerable harshness, and by its enemies with 
frantic barbarity. The former offered handsome compensation for 
its reductions of primitive characters, the latter broke down roof 
and walls in contempt of the Temples of Religion. The race of 
builders in former times seem to have undertaken these changes 
as obligations requiring that character of the edifices which descen- 
ded to them should be changed, at successive periods, and with the 
utmost severity of interpolation. The object in some instances 
Avas simply to supplant the preceding architecture. But it hap- 
pened, not unfrequently, that he who began a work of the kind, 
was not able to finish it, and thus added to what in these days 
is considered the curiosity of the building. This happily was the 
case at Deerhurst, where the choir arch was destroyed, more 
probably by the workman of the 12th than him of the following- 
century, preparatory to a daring war of extermination waged at 
that time against the whole upper member of this notable example 
of Saxon genius. So great have been the sufferings of this con- 
ventual church that to common observation, the nave has been 
severed from the choir and tower. But there still remains a 
measure of the original bond of union between the extremes of the 
church. 

In whatever point of view the remains of Saxon architecture 
are considered, they cannot but be regarded as intensely interesting, 
and perhaps there is no example that presents so much valuable 
information as this of Deerhurst. The scope of the design, 
suitable for the nature of the foundation, has brought together 
members forming a plan not to be met with elsewhere — a system 
of composition to which no rival has as yet been discovered, It 
leaves no doubt as to the proficiency of the Saxon builder as 
regards the arrangement of the sacred edifice for conventual 
purposes, — nor as to his having brought mighty works of this kind 
to pass, with an amount of finish and of strength which discover 
no misgiving as to their fate in troublous times. This powerful 
method of construction was most probably limited to the church. 
The monastic range was a lonely accretion of buildings, some of 
stone, others of timber, tempting to depredators only as they 



i 



DELiiiiuRST Priory. 



15 



sheltered the community, and contained objects of pillage more 
profitable to possess, and less laborious to procure, than the gratifi- 
cation of mischief. 

The first foundation of this religious institution is of unknown 
antiquity. It had existed in the 8th century. In the 9th century 
it was destroyed by the Danes, and in the 10th century rebuilt 
and replenished with monks.^ But its miseries, although unre- 
corded, were not at an end ; for to such a condition was it again 
reduced in the reign of King Edward the Confessor, that that 
pious monarch rebuilt aud consecrated this distinguished mon- 
astery, anno 1056. ^ Deerhurst has been more fortunate than 
other Saxon foundations in the preservation of its early records ; 
and what is still more rare, the existing church coincides with the 
date assigned to it. This valuable particular is not followed by 
the slightest reference to the afiairs in architecture of later date. 
The flourishing period of the society in which it could lodge and 
pray in safety under the roof of its beautified house and church, 
supply no materials for history. The munificent contributions 
to the ornamental architecture of the entire monastery fell not 
under the notice of a chronicler. 

Deerhurst church unites in its composition the character of a 
conventual and a parish church. The origin of this kind of 
organisation rests unquestionably with the Saxons; and the 
scheme of appropriating the eastern half of the building to the 
religious community, and the western half to the parish, each in 
suitable proportion and magnitude, was constantly practiced in 
after ages as a perfect invention. The line of demarcation takes 
place at the choir arch, which answers to the chancel arch, in 
smaller churches. 

The tower, at the west end, formed the public entrance. It is 
built on an oblong plan, 14 feet 4 inches in extreme width, and 21 

1 See Ante, Note, p. 9.— G.B. 

^ No evidence exists for this statement. It is only known from a Charter 
of William the Conqueror that Edward bestowed the Priory on the Abbey 
of St. Denis, near Paris. The exact date of the donation is unknown. The 
recent discovery of a pre-Norman Chapel at Deerhurst, has had the effect, 
in an indirect way, of showing the statement of the Text to be quite 
untrustworthy. — G. B. 



16 



Transactions at Beerhukst. 



feet 8 inches in extreme depth at the base j and consists of two 
parts or porches opening in a direct line to the interior of the 
church. {Plate I. a) 

The main body of the edifice, in its original condition, con- 
sisted of a parallelogram 59 feet 2 inches by 21 feet, whereof 33 
feet 10 inches were assigned to the nave, which, by an old 
alteration has no longer a structural separation from the choir, 
but the rectangular figure retains its ancient proportions and 
boundaries. The sanctuary beyond had a lower elevation than 
the choir, and the nave a still stronger depression, ^ thus giving to 
the choir between these extreme members a very striking dis- 
tinction by its clear altitude. This member, from its destination 
and the awful interior expression studiously given to it, excites 
uncommon interest, and merits close examination. There is no 
design in any church bearing the least resemblance to this Choir 
or Presbyterium. It is a genuine Saxon production ; the thought- 
ful decision of men who brought to the study of their subject 
original ideas without assistance from earlier authority. It is 
rectangular, 22 feet 11 inches by 21 feet, and retains its lofty 
windowless walls ; except to the west the destruction of which 
boundary^ has, to a considerable degree, dispelled a gloom more 
solemn than can now be felt in any other church above ground. 
The choir had a distinct gable roof from east to west, formerly, 
and at this height sunlight was scantily supplied by slender 
apertures cut straight through the end walls. ^ The only direct 
rays which now enter, shoot through a small modern window 
close to the present roof, and facing east. 

1 See Note 1. post p. 26.— G.B. 

2 This boundary stood actually 3 feet to the east of the position assigned 
in the Text, (as was seen when the plaster was off the walls, in 1861.) We 
must give the Choir a length of 20 feet. — G.B. 

^ Traces of two loops are to be seen on the two sides of the present 
window at the east end of the chancel. Apparently the two triangular- 
headed slabs seen on the inside are connected with these loops, and give us 
their interior form, as having had a wide splay and a triangular head. The 
slabs were inserted, we must believe, when the loops Avcre disused. Possibly 
WH may lind in the lofty position of these loops an argument in favour of an 
original sanctuary of lower elevation than the one of which ruined portions 
survive. The loops would not ha\ c cleared the roof of this latter sanctuary. 
—G.B. 



i 



Plate I 



Plan of the y-::z::fK Saxon Church 




/AVAffS SI Rmi>S^ Bristol. 



Plate n. 



PLAN OF PRESENT CHURCH. 




I^^^^P EARLY ENGLISH 



^^^^ DECORATED 

vMmmm perpendicular 

I ^RemcajfiyS of Staxrccuse. SCALE 20 FT TO AN INCH. 



Deehhurst Prtory. 



17 



Various attempts have been made during several centuries 
past to depress this superiority of elevation, by subduing its roof, 
and raising that of the nave upon loftier walls ; but the Saxon 
design was accomplished in too positive a manner to be effectually 
overcome by the miscalculated efforts of later builders, who, one 
and all, seem to have approached the subject with timidity, and 
therefore failed of success. The position of the front wall of the 
choir determined the outer boundary of the aisles, ^ which appen- 
dages were commensurate with the united length of the choir and 
sanctuary, having corresponding divisions suitable to their res- 
pective and distinct services in the conventual arrangements. 

The ground plan of this monastic edifice, (Plate II.) represents 
by different degrees of shading, the original and the present state, 
of the building, the black denoting the Saxon remains. The 
writer should at once remark that in completing the plan by 
the introduction of the front wall of the choir (A. A.) he has 
introduced an arch upon the supposition, based upon more modern 
Norman authority, that the congregational part of the church 
might have been thus connected with the conventual. ^ But the 
accuracy of this notion may be questioned, and the conjecture be 
hazarded that in Saxon times the division was solid and permanent 
for the sake of privacy, at least in the centre of the boundary. 

The symmetry of the Saxon plan was first invaded about the 
middle of the 12th century, the scheme at that time being so com- 
prehensive, that it could only be partially altered afterwards, but 
in no respect extended. Great pity it is that the hand of mischief 
fell violently upon the sanctuary some time in the 16th century, 
and demolished it with the aisles, if indeed the injurious men of 
that century are answerable for the ruins on the south side. 
Certain it is that the present oak fittings of the choir are puri- 
tanical. This is confirmed by the benches and desk fixed against 

^ No, it was 9 feet to the E. of the place here indicated. In fact the 
present arched wall of the S. aisle was the boundary. {See Plate I. b). The 
position supposed by the author was at c.c — G.B. 

2 It appears certain from the existence of foundations beneath the 
pavement that there was such an arch and that the arch was a wide one, 
equal in dimensions to that at the east end of the choir. — G.B. 



Vol XI. c 



18 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



the eastern wall in connexion with those on the side, the com- 
munion table being pushed forward towards the middle of the 
floor. The date of this desecration is 1604, carved in relief, where 
in more serious days the oaken screen would have been carried 
across. 1 

The parallel shadings denotes those members of the once solid 
structure, which for useful or wanton purposes have at different 
times been destroyed. It is curious to observe that when aisles to 
the nave were projected under the first organic change, their walls 
were made in prolongation of those of the Saxon aisles, and 
were carried on to form a line of front on a level with the tower. ^ 

The tower was handled with extreme severity after the several 
innovations which were inflicted upon the original design of the 
nave. It has never presented anything more than indistinct 
expressions of the characteristic mason work which is expected to 
identify the architectural productions of the Saxons, and these 
are so slight in its outer construction as to have no very decided 
affinity to those qualities of stone work which notably distinguish 
the buildings of our early ancestors. 

This church therefore must take a lower date than is allowed 
to the greater number of examples, which present decisive evidence 
of their primitive origin; for in these, the walls of rubble are 
edged and patterned with blocks of stone arranged and jointed in 
a variable and inconstant manner, but with an absolute character 
which leaves no doubt of its having been brought to a system by 
the builders who invented it. 

The elongated plan of the tower, its remarkable narrowness, 
its sub-division, and the slenderness of its walls, are particularities 
not assembled in the design of any other example {Plate I.) The 
character last named proceeded from a just calculation of the 
strength to be obtained from the system of ties and supports 

^ This date is uncertain. The dated panel once formed a portion of a 
Jacobean oak pulpit, and was placed in its present position when the pulpit 
was destroyed. — G.B. 

2 As to the south aisle, it seems, when first added, to have terminated 
in the line of the middle wall of the tower (as shewn by foundations) : corres- 
ponding foundations do not exist in the north aisle. — G.B. 

* 



Deerhurst Priory. 



19 



supplied by the method of framing the structure. It may be here 
observed that the same scale of substance was applied to this 
church generally, but the writer should not fail to notice that the 
walls of the quadrangular tower of Sompting church in Sussex, 
are of the like thickness, and that Saxon church walls very rarely 
exceed 2 ft. 8 ins. in bulk. ' 

Their church towers were the only piles raised by the Saxons 
to which access was needed by a continuous ascent of steps, but 
to which no such facility was granted. Their architecture never 
included a structural staircase. Still the builders were not 
deterred from giving considerable distinction to this prominent 
member of the design. Stage over stage carried the elevation of 
the tower high above the roof of the church ; but massive ladders 
of oak, and trapdoors, were the only means which the Saxons knew 
of to gain access to the belfry. Some such contrivance was 
adopted at Deerhurst ; but it is by no means clear in what way 
the first floor was reached from the pavement. Whatever the 
method, it was set aside at the time of the amplification of the 
church, when a stone staircase was added to the south side of 
the tower, forming a bulk within the aisle, ^ within which is the 
entrance; {Plate II. b) but it ascends only to the stage over 
the porches, does not form a feature distinct from the aisle, and 
scarcely transgresses the even line of the parapet. 

The chamber so easily approached ever since the village church 
could command a population and make known its advance in 
importance by the beauty and riches of its display in architec- 
ture, belonged to the Pronaos, and has a door in the east wall, 
{Plate III. A.) which, in Saxon times, and long subsequently, 
opened upon a gallery against the west wall of the nave. 

But the subject here noticed requires close observation, on 
account of the excessive alteration which it has been the fate of 
this Saxon example to sustain. Its interior levels have been 
completely disordered, its exterior features barbarously mutilated, 
and more has been done to injure the character of the original 
design than in any other now remaining. Speaking of the 

1 Outside, originally, I think, See Note above,— G.B. 

c 2 . . 



20 



Transactioxs at Deerhurst. 



monastery generally, the attack upon the harmony o£ its com- 
position commenced in the 12th century, the church, as may be 
supposed being the first object of assault. The inroad upon the 
nave at this time was only exceeded in violence by the destruction 
of the upper half of the tower at a later period, when the force of 
innovation had gathered strength by the success which was felt 
to have attended the industrious interpolation of new inventions 
as they came into fashion. If this part of the architectural 
history of the church could here engage attention, it would afford 
interesting instances illustrative of the increasing demands for 
window light as time advanced, and of a gradually diminishing 
regard for the solemn seriousness of the earlier ecclesiatical styles; 
and also an equal love for showy architecture, and for a luminous 
interior. It should, however, in gratitude be told that the ancient 
builders frequently made valuable compensation for the good 
things they so rigorously exterminated. 

Allowing the necessity for lateral aisles, it must be granted 
that the mode of altering the nave was sparing and merciful ; 
inasmuch as the process has saved the upper walls, and thereby 
maintained the union of the several parts of the Saxon design, 
from the west front to the eastern extremity of the choir. This 
large addition to the bulk of the most slender moiety of the 
church would have been incomplete but for the clever thought of 
a western aisle, which could only be realized by forcing a way 
through the tower from north to south. By this means perfect 
freedom of communication was accomplished in a strictly original 
manner ; and this, like other sensible notions, carried into effect 
{Plate II. c) by the Saxon architects, became a pattern for future 
practitioners. 

The passage beneath the three archways, leading in a direct 
line from the tower into the church across the western aisle, forms 
a primitive feature in the design and, before the alteration, was 
productive of a solemn effect on entering the fane, clothed in all 
its ancient solemnity ; the porch overhead dark, the nave dimly 
lighted, and the sanctuary beyond, as seen through its lofty 
entrance, glowing with colours and artificial light, all the more 



i 



PlaieW 




Deekhurst f riory. 



21 



brilliant for the absence of the sun's rays. The three western 
entrances are alike in simplicity, and only slightly dissimilar in 
size, contrary to the rule established by the Saxons that the inner 
arch should compare in dimensions with that of the chancel or 
choir. 

The stone staircase was added to the south side of the tower 
sometime later than the chief alteration of its structure, and, as 
it would seem, was made to join the abutment of the arch of the 
western aisle. These organic changes designedly interfered with 
the original levels of the floors of the tower ; indeed one floor was 
destroyed, and the chambers immediately over the porches have 
ever since been left open to the pavement. The staircase was 
approached from the aisle, ^ and stopped suddenly several feet 
below the present floor of the middle stage in order to be sheltered 
by the parapet and roof of the aisle. Wooden steps complete the 
ascent to the middle chamber, to which an entrance has been 
rudely forced through the south wall in the opening of a window. 

The result of careful consideration of the plan of the tower, 
from the floor to the summit of its original walls, which include 
three stories, ^ and of the position of the interior entrances on the 
several levels is, that the design contemplated flights of ladders 
from the pavement, and that these were fixed and retained in use 
for several ages. The notion had not struck the Saxon mind that 
steps could be made to wind in a case of their own, and the j 
primitive thought was to fix them in an open frame, solid, steep, 
and at least incommodious. 

The Saxon walls, and the small remains of the former interest 
of the tower are brought to an end at the top of the third 
stage, 3 which was surmounted by the original belfry, less lofty 

1 Perhaps not at first. See Note 2. p. 18.--G.B. 

2 Four stories, I think.— G.B. 

3 Much of the 4th stage is ancient, as respects, at least, its E. wall ; and 
its chamber (now the clock-chamber) cannot,! think, have been visited by the 
writer. For there is in it a most remarkable window, or aperture, 8 feet 
6 inches high, which he could not have failed to describe, had he seen it. 

Apparently, above this fourth stage, there must have been a fifth, as at 
present. —G.B. 



22 



Transactions at Beerhuhst. 



than its successor, and in keeping with the general character, 
which the present superstructure is not.^ Abatement of the 
venerable and uncourtly aspect of the primitive design was an 
influential object in the alterations so persistently made in the 
structure of this church in and after the 14th century. An 
evident desire was to get rid of the Saxon architecture, and many 
of the features which could not be masked were defaced or des- 
troyed. But the power to do mischief thus recklessly, met with 
an impassable limit in the portion of the conventual church. The 
new work could not but be admired within the monastic seclusion, 
but it excited no desire for its extension eastward of the nave ; 
the time had not yet arrived for the dismemberment of the 
Sanctuary. 

Within the porch and the western aisle, which include the 
height of two stages, are dimly seen the curious features of the 
chamber of the first floor, the entrance to which is from the 
western or staircase chamber by a doorway in the party-wall near 
the north angle, and, facing it, through another in the wall next 
the church. This, in ancient times, opened upon a gallery con- 
structed of timber {Plate III. a.) The inner door is characteristic, 
it is margined with long lengths of stone, rough as from the 
quarry ; access to it being gained by a steep ladder, contrived in 
the porch, and carried up from stage to stage to the belfry. This 
part of the arrangement explains the plan of the tower ; its outer 
division was at once a porch and a staircase. At each landing 
there was an entrance and a window facing west, the one in the 
inner, the other in the outer wall.^ The contrivance for perhaps 
the first staircase in a Saxon church, was ingenious, and all that 
was desired. The preparation for it was structural, and so thought- 
fully considered that adequate strength was given to the tower 
at the same time that bulk of wall was spared. 

^ The old spire was blown down in 1666, and never rebuilt. — Bigland, 
p. 494. This old spire, of course, was not a Saxon feature. 

^ However, originally the party-wall was not, I think, carried up higher 
than the top of the second stage. It could not have been made so as to 
partially block up the two side windows in the chamber of the third stage, 
as at present is done.— G.B. 



i 



Deerhurst Priory. 



23 



To return to the chamber over the porch, l^^early in the 
centre of the wall, by the side of the curious door which has been 
mentioned, and is delineated, is a triangular piercing for very 
limited observation at the upper end of the church {Plate III. b) 
The intense gloom of this room was scarcely mitigated by the 
gleams of light which penetrated a small piercing in each side 
wall, close to the west angle and to the beams of the ceiling. 
These loops splay on the inside ; one is open to the north aisle, 
the other was blocked up by the stone staircase.^ 

The middle chamber, between the one just described and the 
belfry, contains the couplet window seen from the nave, and which 
is not only the most ancient Saxon feature in the church, but one of 
the most remarkable relics in the whole range of that architecture. 
It is altogether so unlike the character of the details in any other 
part of the building that it claims to be regarded as a fragment 
saved from the church of earlier date on the same site. Each 
aperture is 1^ ft. wide, and the dividing pillar, an oblong square 
block, 1 ft. 4 ins. wide. The side piers are narrower, all having 
impost members and plinths. The straight-lined arches are each 
formed of two deep-bedded stones nearly 3^ ft. in length, with 
plain labels. The middle pier, 1 ft. 8 ins. high and 1 ft. 4 ins. 
in width, is wrought on all sides with flutes, the indenture being 
introduced, and whimsically applied j in some places occupying 
the lower half of the flute, in others the upper, and in this manner 
the pattern is alternated. The front of the jamb is similarly 
wrought. All these blocks appear between plinths and imposts 
of bulky proportions of the primitive type {Plate III. c). 

The Saxons cannot justly be accused of a propensity to borrow 

in design, or to purloin in substance from the architecture of their 

Roman predecessors. They cared so little for the instructive 

authorities which met their vision in every direction, that they 

never consulted them with assiduity. One builder here and there, 

more curious or more intelligent than his associates, now and then 

rescued fragments from heaps of rubbish as gifts to designs which 

were floating in his mind, and which in due time were realized, as 

1 The staircase just cleared the loop : the latter opened really on a 
platform adjoining the staircase, — G,B. 



Transactions at BeeriixtrsT. 



in the famed monastic church of Deerhurst. The fragments applied 
to the couplet window in this instance, were stiff enough in pattern 
for the taste of the Saxons, whose treatment of architecture was 
such as to exclude susceptibility of ornament. {Plate V.) 

The other features in the same chamber deserving of notice 
are the windows, one in each side wall, square apertures 3=^ ft. in 
height and 2 ft. 1 in. wide, splayed, and lined and edged with 
freestone. In close connection with one jamb is a recess, 1 ft. 
10| ins. by 1 ft. 7 ins. in width, 1 ft. 5 ins. in depth, and arched 
in a semi-circle. There was exact uniformity in the design of 
this room, which appears to have been finished with greater care 
than any other in the tower ; but it is now approached by a 
defacement, and the wall which parted it from the original stair- 
case contains a gaping arch instead of a suitably narrow doorway.^ 
Of the Saxon nave very little more can be said than that what- 
ever is now to be seen of its walls over and between the arcades 
and up to the foot of the clerestory is all that was left after the 
alterations in the 13th and 14th centuries. The accomplished 
architects of those periods were not always careful to deal so 
leniently with buildings whose designs never contained a particle 
of the refinement which so eminently distinguished their own 
productions. Conceit was not in their minds at Deerhurst. They 
did not wantonly destroy what could be profitably preserved, and 
interpolated their beautiful architecture rather than make a clear 
way for its appearance. Ever before this period church builders 
had been given to spare memorials of the works of their pre- 
decessors ; and the Saxon remains, which had conveyed valuable 
instruction, albeit in somewhat rude costume, were with generous 
feeling, maintained as long as they could be made useful. 

It has been shown frequently in the course of these pages that 

the genius of the Saxon builders discovered the fertile germs of 
1 This wall, I am persuaded, is not original. That is to say, it was not 
carried higher than the floor of the room described. Consequently, the 
dimensions of the room were larger than those contemplated in the Text, as 
including the space to the west, where the original staircase came. 

This room has on its west side a window, or doorway, rising from the 
floor 6 feet high, round-headed outside and with a flat head inside, (not 
described by the writer.) On the outside it has a square-headed hood- 
moulding, terminating in animals' heads. — G.B. 



Plate V. 




DEERHtTEST pRIORY. 



25 



original conceptions, which were appreciated and fully developed 
in the finished architecture of after ages. The fitness of things 
for their destined uses in the newly-acquired religious rites of the 
Saxons, was, with surprising accuracy, present to their keen and 
correct judgment. The abstract forms given to the features or 
the ornaments of their architecture prove their acquaintance with 
symbolism. 

The memory of these early dawnings of genius were prized in 
former days, and to this feeling we owe many singular and 
valuable conglomerations in ecclesiastical buildings, the intel- 
ligence communicated by which is more certain than any other 
kind of evidence. The sweeping processes of the builders, for 
many such were permitted, were not governed, certainly not often 
at any period, merely by the quality of the edifice they had made 
up their minds to dilapidate, or wholly to destroy. The unpolished 
productions of Saxon date suffered more determined violence than 
the choice transition specimens of the 12th century at the hands 
of a masterly genius half-a-century later ; sometimes indeed before 
the strong expressions of transition character had lost their place 
in the design of the usurping style. A more plain and interesting 
proof cannot be adduced than the arcades at Deerhurst. 

The writer is by no means confident that the first of these 
works, that is, the alteration of the 12th century, was fully 
carried out. It is too much to conjecture that if this had been 
the case, the church would have been again thrown into ruins 
simply for the sake of a more highly polished example of the 
pointed style. The truth may be that owing to some unknown 
impediment to the progress of the undertaking, the present arches 
and slender pillars are the first perfect successors of the solid 
Saxon walls .But the marvel is that, when so great a desire was 
evinced to do honour to this church, at a period too when the 
cost of enterprises of the kind was no hindrance to the under- 
taking, that it was conditional upon the maintenance of the upper 
wall and the steep roof. This is the fact ; and the united pillars 
of the 12th and 13th centuries will uphold in safety the encum- 
bered Saxon walls as long as they are permitted to do so by the 
evil disposed among mankind in modern days. 



26 



Transactions at DEErvHtTEsT. 



In an engineering point of view the labour, in this instance, 
was greater than the frugality of the scheme. It was not a want 
of science in ancient times which led to the performance of work 
of this description, and was the reason that whole numbers of 
buildings were frequently exterminated. At Deerhurst the labour 
was encountered because perhaps the exalted name of Edward the 
Confessor had not lost its charm and its influence upon the church 
builders at the close of the 12th century, and was not overlooked 
by them in their desirs to render his church more beautiful to 
behold, and more beneficial to the neighbourhood. It was not 
for mischief's sake that structural alterations were at any time 
undertaken. Damage from various causes pressed forward many 
of these changes ; at Deerhurst enlargement became a necessity, 
and to this benefit was superadded an example of the beauty 
which ecclesiastical architecture had acquired during about a 
century and three quarters from the refoundation of the monas- 
tery. 

The under-building process has added something to the rough- 
ness of the surface of the Saxon wall, and it is worthy of remark 
that no trial was made, when its elevation was heightened, to 
smooth it with mortar. ^ The height of these side walls to the 
eaves is still accurately determined, and will remain so, since the 
surmounting wall was not brought close inside to the inside edge 
of the ancient one.^ Such was the soundness of the Saxon walls 

1 The writer here introduces us to a point of great interest, viz : the 
original height of the walls of the nave. For several reasons I am unable to 
concur in his view, as I believe their height to have been the same as that of 
the lofty walls of the choir. Of these several reasons, the most conclusive is 
based on the apparent sameness of the masonry as traceable (amid much 
subsequent alteration) in all portions of the clerestory walls, save in that 
considerable portion of the north wall of the choir, which was wholly rebuilt 
in 1861. If my opinion be correct, then the "course of stone " of the Text 
must have been a string-course, springing from the point where the walls touch 
the tower, and terminating at the "choir aisles," or "adjuncts" — forming 
possibly a sill for small clerestory windows. Traces of herring-bone are to 
be found in all portions of the clerestory surface, while not a particle is to be 
seen in the walls of the (added) aisles, supposed by the writer to be less 
modern than the clerestory of the nave. — G.B. 

2 This appearance seems, rather, due to the battening of the wall, or ita 
retreating at the supposed point of junction. The plaster conceals the real 
nature of the appearance. —G.B, 



i 



Beeehurst Priory. 



27 



at the beginning of the 15th century, that they were not pared 
down as a preparation for the addition. They are still terminated 
on the outside with a deep and boldly projecting course of stone 
overlapped by the roof which sprang from this level. ^ Consider- 
able portions of this weather course (wl^jich answered its purpose 
of effectually excluding the rain water from the wooden rafters) 
with various degree of protuberance, remain on either side through- 
out their length. No relics have been preserved intelligent as to 
the number and order of the original windows. In affinity with 
them were several triangular apertures, resembling the one in the 
tower, but as they are alone, and not distinct, their value in the 
design is past discovery. 

The several periods at which the changes were effected in the 
parochial portion of the establishment were those in which this 
venerable monastery had gathered within its walls and around its 
domain a population which otherwise would have had no exis- 
tence in the same position on the banks of the Severn. The 
enlargement by aisles denotes increase of settled inhabitants; 
the rebuilding of the monastic dwellings may be viewed as 
evidence of the affluent and more refined condition of the religious. 

One object of the modernisers of this church, dating so far 
back as the 14th century, was to recast its ancient shape, thereby 
to obliterate its Saxon contour, the remarkable character of which 
consisted in the dissimilarity between the choir as the monastic 
portion of the edifice, and the nave as the parochial. The walls 
of the former were massive and lofty, not less than 40 ft., those 
of the latter were not more than half that height. Each member 
had a steep roof. The tower at the west end carried its belfry, 
a single stage, clear above the ridge which pressed against it. 

The general exterior outline, the result of these combinations 
of measures, may be easily imagined. These, however, the church 
retained, with its other Saxon features, till the close of the 12th 
century, when a great disturbance of the whole range of architec- 
ture took place ; and from this period may be dated that succession 
of changes which, with different degrees of importance, were carried 
forward to the 15th century. 

^ This course of stone is carried six feet beyond the point where such rOof 
would have ended. — G.B. 



^8 



Transactiojts at Deerhhrst. 



The scope of the first alteration was comprehensive, and vastly 
injurious to the Saxon expression of the eastern member of the 
building. The main object of the studied design was to unite the 
nave and the choir, — to bring more closely together the conventual 
community, and the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. The time 
had passed when the precautions of the Saxons in the construction 
of their religious houses were indispensable, and the massive wall 
of partition in front of the choir and its aisles, was fearlessly 
thrown down, as forming an essential part of the scheme which 
was intended to augment the magnificence and beauty of the 
architecture in the western division of the edifice.^ It is worthy 
of notice that at this time, whatever may have been in the mind 
of the builder, the nave retained its original height, with its roof 
untouched. Of this there can be no reasonable doubt, judging 
from the nature of the alteration to be made in its walls as a 
preparation for the insertion of arches. Its steep roof fell very 
far short of the altitude of the choir, which for a time retained its 
lofty gable covering. 

The marked distinction between the nave and the choir was 
due to the conventual character of the foundation ; but the 
dissonance in the elevations, no longer appreciated, shocked the 
refined taste of the architect who first innovated upon the 
primitive design. His plan was not essentially destructive, so 
much otherwise that the building did suff'er within the boundary, 
and it remains attractive on account of the remarkable quality and 
composition of its parts, as pure in the elevations as they were at 
first, save the injuries which have been inflicted by unholy hands. 
Herein is viewed the grandest relic of Saxon work in existence. In 
conjunction with this dignified pile, whose walls have never been 
completely severed from the nave and tower, appear some of the 
most finished examples of the architecture of successive periods, 

1 It is not very apparent how this wall could be thrown down, while no 
clerestory was added to the nave. For there would have been left a large 
opening into the choir over the low roof of the nave, as described by the 
writer 

We are told that the clerestory was not constructed till about the 
year 1400.— G.B. 



Deerhurst Priory. 



29 



exquisite in point of detail, and applied with skill and elegance, 
but the earliest among the number as to date, is at a considerable 
distance from the parent edifice. 

The inceptor of these great changes did not calculate upon the 
extent of the work at Deerhurst, to which he had given motion ; 
and for the same reason that he refrained from altering the upper 
part of the nave, his successor left it as he found it. He too might 
have intended the addition of a clerestory, but by the time he had 
finished his admirable contribution to the arcades, his term of 
employment had expired, and he did nothing to elevate the walls 
over. The work in no instance appears to have remained long in 
the same hands ; the builders were skilful practitioners ; their 
compositions are attractive, and nicely exhibit the progress of 
abilities both in invention and workmanship. 

It is curious to observe how one builder was pressed upon by 
another in these professional engagements. The first was quickly 
supplanted by the second in the early years of the 13th century, 
and he was followed in the latter part of the same century to be 
succeeded in the following century by another gifted with a new 
quality of architecture ; but whether room was made for these 
additions, or whether each took up the work at the place where 
it was left off, is uncertain. In reference to this particular, notice 
should be taken that a portion of the wall of the south aisle was 
carried up nearly to its height by the first of these innovators ; 
but nothing appears in the outward boundaries to disprove that 
the last of the builders referred to completed the enclosure of the 
aisles. None of the Edwardian windows make a show of having 
been foisted into the places of earlier ones. 

The sides of the nave were completely hidden by the roof of 
the aisles ; nothing more than its steep roof being seen above ; 
and this was its state until about the year 1400, when the Saxon 
walls were crowned by the clerestory. This addition, long con- 
templated, at length filled up the gap between the choir and the 
tower. The church has received many favours from workmen, 
and some affronts, but it is a fortunate foundation to have passed 



30 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



through the capricious disposition of so many ages with so few 
defacements, and with strength left to outlast as many more 
generations ; and, it may be added, with beauty and interest 
sufficient to gratify the latest admirer of ecclesiastical antiquity. 
Yery few churches have been more practised upon than this. 
Very few which may be said to have almost courted a variety 
of changes as soon as the period of violent commotion had passed 
away, and architecture had acquired an organisation in which 
handsomeness of outline and proportion were the meet partakers 
of the beauty of ornament. The community had, doubtless, 
resigned many of their Saxon habits, and settled themselves 
in others more agreeable to civilisation and established order. 
They could endure the exposure of their choir, which the foot 
of no Norman builder, intent upon alteration, had approached 
since the reign of the royal founder. It was thrown open to 
the view of the church ; but here the community paused. The 
mighty structure, plain and expressive, suited the simplicity of 
the early rites. Its gloomy grandeur — for Saxon churches were 
never intended to be luminous — checked the free introduction 
of superfluous embellishment. Alteration for its own sake, 
changes of costume in architecture for mere appearance, were 
conditions to which the community never yielded. The Saxon 
feeling lingered with the brethren, who felt no longings for the 
rich attire of the nave, now parted from the sanctuary by a 
timber screen of open work, with a rood-loft in the centre. 
The clear length of the choir is distinctly marked on the sides ; 
and the double principals in the roof here, as in a multitude 
of other churches, denote the position of the stone wall,^ pierced 
only by the archwaj^ 

The conventual choir, the first division of the second member 
of the church, is flanked by aisles. This distinction was assigned 
to its rank in ecclesiastical edifices by the Saxons, and it is 
perhaps of rare occurrence, only because the more dignified 

^ No, 3 feet more to the E. (as was shown when the plaster was off, by 
marks on both walls, from pavement to roof. ) The writer was misled by the 
double principals in the roof — an arrangement altered, and formed as at 
present, iu 1861. (Plate I, D.j—G.B. 



i 



Deerhitrst Priory. 



31 



foundations of this period have suffered extreme violence in 
the enthusiasm for alteration which attended the progress of 
architecture. Deerhurst is nevertheless the primordial authority 
for this arrangement. The south aisle was the medium of union 
between the church and the house; a plain passage originally, 
but subject in process of time to change in common with new 
ceremonies, or new modes of treating them, which occasioned 
alterations, one after another, at the place of junction, productive 
of intricacies of curious occurrence. The choir was not acces- 
sible from within the conventual range except by means of the 
aisles,^ which are the most venerable authorities for the like 
features in later architecture now in existence. 

The commanding character of this member of the building, 
of which height was designed to be its specific feature, has 
been damaged by accretions, which have gathered up to a rival 
height by forced proportions ; but their parapet line is disturbed 
and anomalous, and cannot be otherwise without the loss of that 
distinction of parts which is at once intelligent and handsome. ^ 
The arcades of the nave are dwarfed by close proximity to the 
towering choir, whose serious air is not, interiorly, disturbed by 
the elegancies which have so closely attached themselves to it. 
Its frown proclaims that it once stood alone, in the simplicity 
and vastness of its proportions, compared with the accessory 
objects around it. Its every expression is evidence of a date 
as remote as can be claimed for the commencement of Christian 
architecture. This massive and uncommon pile of mason work 
is characterised by as few features as could be employed for its 
duties. Nothing was given to it for ornament. Its lofty wall 
is in a single height. Tiers of apertures were not wanted, and 
therefore not thought of. The paucity of architecture arose from 
the simplicity of customs, not from the poverty of means, nor 
of inventive genius ; and so little value was placed in the light 
of day that it never had any power in the interior. Not a 

^ Yes, the innermost pair of doors was outside the aisles. — G.B. 

2 The evidently ancient masonry of the choir is, on the south side of the 
church, seen to be carried into the clerestory of the nave several feet west 
of the line, at which (according to the author's theory as to the lowness of 
the original walls of the nave,) it ought to cease.— G.B. 



32 



TRANSACTIO?fS AT DeEEHURST. 



single luminous ray ever shed its lustre around the stall seats 
of the clerical brethren. Although not an early example as to 
the quality of its architecture, yet this church partakes in some 
respects of the primitive manner of the Saxon workmanship, and 
incorporates here and there its details, with a faithful recollection 
of the substance of the material. 

The structure of the choir has lost somewhat of its genuine- 
ness by lapse of time, or the intrusion of meddlesome officials. 
But bad taste in ^the sportiveness of wealth has not fastened 
upon its walls any of the elegancies which adorn the nave. 
There were no recesses here originally, and none appear to have 
been required in the changes of centuries. Saxon sculpture was 
not generally enshielded ; like the example in the porch of this 
church, the chosen subject was wrought in low relief on the 
flat surface on a slab of stone, the frame of the design consisting 
of an arch mounted upon pillars. 

As the choir was left by the Saxons, so it still subsists, 
deprived only of a share of its solemnity by the removal of the 
front wall, and of its dignity and appropriate appearance by 
the muring up of the eastern arch. There are two doorways^ 
wide apart, on each side for communication with the aisles. All 
are plain and cut straight through the wall. Those to the south, 
and one to the north, have lintels or level tops ; the other, or 
upper one, has a straight lined arch, and probably led to the 
sacristy. 

In the centre of each side-wall of the choir, a few feet above 
the range of the doorways, is an open arch, the one to the 
south taller than that opposite, cut straight through the wall, 
with a slightly projecting border at the sill ; plain jambs, with 
heavy impost members, moulded, the arch in each instance 
consisting of a single ring of smooth stone, broad and rect- 
angular, not jointed in the Saxon, but in the common way, 
and surrounded by a label, once square, but now in imperfect 

1 The western pair of these doorways did not communicate with the 
aisles (or transepts), but led from the choir, probably into the open air, the 
remains of the west walls of the transepts having been found to the east of 
these doors, — G,B, 



Deeehurst Pkiory. 



S3 



preservation. That these arches were intended to aid in dis- 
pelling the intense gloom of the choir cannot be doubted, but 
to what degree they could originally borrow light for the 
purpose of transfusing it is not apparent. The walls, in their 
height and breadth over the arches just mentioned, are perfectly 
plain. The arch of the sanctuary 12ft.'3in. wide between the 
demi-columns in soffit, having singularly formed capitals of truly 
Saxon character. The plinth is 2 Sin. high above the original 
level of the floor, and has a plain moulding. The arch consists 
of a broad flat-faced member, and with the pillars is jointed in 
the common manner ; it has a label square, and prominent, 
springing from sculptured heads of monsters of extravagant size. 

Several feet above this arch, fixed in the wall, and abutting 
against the side walls, are impost members about 20in. in 
length, as if designed for the springers of arches; they difier 
in this as in every other instance, and the mouldings, which 
return, are not alike. Similar blocks appear in the west wall 
of the nave, but no account can be given of their use if they 
ever had any. At the summit of this eastern wall, in the centre 
between two blank panels with straight lined arches, a modern 
window has taken the place of the original one, which was less 
wide, and seated upon a heavy sill stone on the outside. ^ Nothing 
more of these several objects is intelligible. 

This mighty building did not attain its altitude unassociated : 
it was flanked by aisles, but of such a character as that in their 
service to the interior they gathered more than half way up 
towards the summit of the exterior. These adjuncts were swept 
away to about the level of the walls of the nave, compensation 
being made for the daylight which had so long penetrated the 
Saxon apertures. The north aisle, quietly situated, seems to have 
been exclusively devoted to duties pertaining to the choir. It 
was however tall, and may fairly be supposed to have supplied 
the means of casting a gleam of light into the choir through the 

^ There could not have been any external window in this position before 
the disappearance of the Sanctuary. — G.B. 

Vol. XI. P 



34 



Transactioxs at Deerhurst. 



open arch in the side wall. But this primitive method of doing 
for the choir what it might easily have done for itself, and 
more effectually, was abolished in the last half of the 14th 
century, and a body of light admitted by spacious and elegant 
windows, an alteration which not merely deprived this feature 
of the building of its original character of altitude, but which 
occasioned the Saxon masonry to be, for the most part, expunged 
from the remaining surface. 

The original square-framed door of stone in the east wall 
once opened to the sacristy, which was annexed to the sanctuary, 
but has been walled up ever since dilapidation or destruction 
overtook the buildings beyond the eastern line of the choir. 
The characteristic make of this door is not to be overlooked ; 
its width is 24^in. in the clear. On either side of it is a 
square recess, and one in the north wall. Of the double entrances 
to this room, the upper one, 39in. in width, has a straight lined 
arch, flush with the wall, and springing from impost members, 
which appear as well in reveal as on the face of every jamb. 

The south aisle, by its intimate communication with the 
conventual apartments, could not fail to become a vastly interest- 
ing member of the design. Their united and reciprocal services 
were of importance from the beginning. As generations rolled 
on, improvements in the order of conventual houses were called 
for by the inmates. These were sometimes inordinate, sometimes 
considerable and systematic, but not sweeping ; economy was not 
forgotten on any of these occasions. The 15th century had not 
sufficiently far advanced before the sunshine of prosperity at 
Deerhurst had begun to fade, and to check the flow of munifi- 
cence which had given distinction to this institution. The 
periodical changes which have been made at the conjunction 
spoken of, between the reign of Edward the Confessor and that 
of Edward II., will require careful examination and patient 
research, in order to derive from a cluster of dismembered and 
interlaced walls, intelligent particulars of information. If time 
could be called upon to give an account of the ravages he had 
made in these buildings, and the relation could lead to an 
imaginary restoration of walls, and arches, and a variety of 



1396871 

Deerhuest Priory. 



35 



curious apartments, which, in former ages, had occupied the 
ground at this meeting point of the church, the dwelling, and 
the cloister, each would be distinguished by the peculiar 
character suitable to its age and destination, and to the changed 
circumstances which brought them together, and after a time 
dissevered them. The mind's eye would be interested, and the 
representation would explain the present confusion of relics by 
a group of buildings perfect in organisation and in architecture. 

AH that part of the building eastward of the choir and its 
aisles, is supposed to have been cast into ruins subsequently to 
the Reformation. 1 The storms which fell upon the fabrics of 
churches after the great Reformatory event, proved in many 
instances more disastrous to ecclesiastical architecture than the 
sentence of the Suppressionists. But, whatever may be the date, 
or the circumstances, of the first onslaught, the example of 
sacrilege and of wanton mischief was followed with fatal 
industry, and a double share of malignity descended upon 
venerable churches in the days of Puritanical power. The con- 
sequences of this influence at Deerhurst, as regards the conventual 
church, were the total destruction of the sanctuary, and the 
overthrow of its aisles. A single shred of wall which joined 
this member to the choir on the south side is all that has 
escaped profane hands, and this simply because it has helped to 
enclose some mean appendage of a farm. {Plate I. D.) While this 
fragment supplies a useful gleam of intelligence, it also allows so 
much room for conjecture, that this once interesting member 
of the plan must pass with but few words until excavations 
bring to light such portions of the foundation, supposing any to 
exist, as were not uprooted for the sake of the materials. The 
figure of the Saxon sanctuary might probably be brought to 
view ; it would be a valuable addition to the particulars relating 
to Saxon design. The existing fragment of evidence, slender 
as it is, tends to the belief that this portion of the original 

^ The East window is an ante-Reformation one. Also it had its pre- 
decessor (supra). Now these windows must have been inserted subsequently 
to the ruin of the Sanctuary. This ruin therefore must have preceded the 
Reformation. — G.B. 

D 2 



36 Transactions at Deerhukst. 

church had been supplanted at an early period in a shape unlike 
any that can be supposed to have been figured by the Saxon 
builders. Upon this feature the writer speaks without the 
authority of example. The soil may cover substantial evidence 
of the proportions of the sanctuary, and open to observation its 
straight, or its apsidal termination. ^ 

The length of the existing fragment referred to at its base is 
9 ft. 11 ins. It thence rises, nearly in its full width, to the 
greater part of its former elevation, and breaks back irregu- 
larly to its rough termination against the wall of the choir, with 
which it is closely combined, up to the extreme height, a little 
above the level of the crown of the entrance arch. The junction 
of this wall with that of the choir is formed by a pilaster 7 ins. 
square, and at the distance of 7 ft. 5 ins., the breadth of the first 
bay, another pilaster planted on an angle, as the springer of a 
pentagonal apse, of the first bay of which a length of only 16in. 
remains. These slender divisional forms of wrought stone ascended 
to the eaves without change of shape, and neither these nor the 
wall throughout their height appear to have had any distinction 
by cornice or slope. 

Upon these dimensions and upright fragments as a basis, 
the complete figure shown in the ground plan {Plate I.) is 
produced, according, precisely, with the width of the building, 
of which there can be no doubt. The pilasters present a very 
ancient appearance, and the union between the two walls was 
so compact and enduring, that at the north angle the operation 
of severance did so much injury to the east wall as to render 
its substantial restoration necessary. A single light window, 
lancet shaped, appears at the summit of the bay ; the length 

^ Upon this subject the venerable author (ret. 93) writes, Feb. 1886, 
*'It is likely that the original Apse at Deerhurst was semi-circular, as in 
primitive churches, and that the polygonal apse of the tenth century 
resembled that at Wing Church, Bucks. The pilasters at the angles were 
united by a semi-circular arcade." — J. C. Buckler. 

But even if the venerable author intended to speak of the "polygon-el 
apse of the 11th century," this conception would seem to be in contradiction 
to the expressions of the Text, in which evidently the change to a polygonal 
apse is given to a time subsequent to the Saxon period, — G.B, 



Deek HURST Priory. 



37 



is uncertain, but the arch is complete. All but this has been 
carefully blocked up nearly to the springer ; the uppermost 
block is a ponderous cube of stone, on the surface of which is 
a rudely carved head of the Saxon type. It must be owned 
that the plan of the apse is decidedly against a Saxon date ; if 
it were not rebuilt from the foundatioii, it was so extensively 
remodelled as to assume an altogether new character of design. 
The remark should be made in this place that, owing to the 
quality of the mason work, the surviving relics of devastation 
are not preserved on the pardoned walls of this church, as in 
others composed of different materials. These sparings are 
frequently very instructive ; they determine the height of walls, 
the breadths of buildings, the slopes of roofs, the positions of 
cornices, and other matters of detail which disappear in coursed 
stonework of the descriptions employed at Deerhurst. The 
repair of violent blemishes are so easily and accurately made 
as to exterminate points of evidence of great value, and this is 
the case in the different aspects of the present uncommonly 
interesting subject. 

It might be expected in a conventual church, even of this 
early date, that the organisation would differ materially from 
the parochial plan, in which the two component members, the 
nave and the chancel, were distinctive in their junction, and also 
as to their proportions and character, the chancel consisting of 
two parts, the choir and the sanctuary, but without a wall of 
separation. But at Deerhurst the choir was enclosed by four 
walls, the eastern, like the western, being pierced by an archway. 
Thus the sanctuary became a distinct structural member, and of 
this there is no authority of higher date than the Saxon arrange- 
ment. The sanctuary was neither so broad, so elevated, nor so 
extensive as the choir ; and its primitive aspect in conjunction 
with the solemn mien of that member would have proved a 
valuable authority in the present remarks concerning the various 
attainments of the Saxons in ecclesiastical architecture. 

It is important to notice that these early christian practitioners 
supplied the authority for side aisles, which, however, had no 



TkansacMons at DeerhursT. 



other relation to the choir on the floor level than was granted by 
doorways. The chief communication with the sacristy was on 
the north side of the sanctuary to which there was no access on 
the south side. 

Marked judgement and intelligence were brought into action 
upon this early example of conventual organisation. In its first 
condition this church exhibited great . regularity, great exterior 
simplicity and strength by the fewness of the apertures, and their 
elevated positions in the walls. But in all this there was nothing 
assumed as if to resist armed attacks of soldier robbers. The 
Norman builders retained this defensive character in their designs, 
but with less reason than the Saxons could at one time have 
urged ; the truth is that practice secured favour for this order of 
design, and it was not abandoned before the early years of the 
13th century. 

Considerable attention was paid to symmetry in the com- 
position of the Saxon designs. The rule was observed with 
exactness in this church, which is the most distinguished foun- 
dation spared by the ravages of time. Seriousness of general 
aspect, and interior solemnity, are its primordial expressions. 
Simplicity of construction, and the cautious admittance of day- 
light, gave to the Saxon churches a quality so distant from 
encouraging or animating in a religious point of view, as to coun- 
tenance the belief that security from powerful aggression was not 
altogether absent from the mind of the builder. It may be 
doubted whether Deerhurst was planned wholly free from con- 
siderations of this nature. This much, however, is certain, that 
the Saxon influence was at an end when it submitted to structural 
changes, which, if originally suggested for increase of space, was 
eventually carried forward for the addition of beauty to the build- 
ing. 

The first blow under the direction of an English master 
of the works, broke in upon the deep seclusion of the choir, but 
so determined was its expression of gloominess that it was only 
in part dispelled by the removal of the front wall. While con- 
sidering the character of Saxon architecture in reference to its 



Beerhurst Pkiory. 



39 



hardy quality, the observation may be made that more than was 
ever performed by the Saxon churchmen for their safety from 
without was accomplished afterwards by the early Normans, who 
fortified some of their church towers in the north of England. A 
conspicuous example was formerly to be seen at Rochester, where 
the transept tower, framed with ponderous walls, was surmounted 
by a parapet advanced boldly upon machicolations, and designed 
for resistance as distinctly as in any military structure. 

This church enlarges the knowledge of Saxon ecclesiastical 
history. Viewed generally it may be said to have no affinity with 
the examples which have been brought under notice, such as 
Dunham and St. Peter at Gowts. These and other instances 
exhibit characters too positive in mason work to leave any doubt 
as to the guiding influence in the earlier practice. The important 
dissimiliarity in the constructive processes between the example 
under notice and those of preceding date, will be readily observed, 
and may be accounted for by the date of the refoundation of the 
convent under the patronage of King Edward the Confessor. It 
at this time revived decisively from the ruins into which it had 
been repeatedly harried by the Danes. Its long protracted 
miseries had come to an end, and the church built under the 
auspices of the pious monarch was destined to survive in sub- 
stantial condition, a longer period than had passed since the days 
of the Saxon paganism. ^ The appreciative sense in architecture 
had at length shown itself with great force, and with prevailing 
effect. The builders up to this time had practiced their art with- 
out inducement to modify the set forms by which it was so long 
and so forcibly stamped. 

The Confessor was familiarly acquainted with the more advanced 
architecture of Normandy, and at home made known the improved 
notions he had acquired in his journey ings abroad. Deerhurst 
presents an example of the degree of polish effected at this date. 
The practical builder in its re-edification laid no hold upon the 
peculiar qualities of the preceding artisanship. They were dis- 

^ No evidence can be produced for these statements. We know not that 
Edward even touched the Church, — G.B, 



40 



Transactions at JDeerhurst. 



carded at once ; scarcely a trace was retained to prove the 
relationship. The workmen in no instance fell into eccentricities 
as if by accident ; they deserted such worn-out peculiarities as 
the angle work of the walls, and every kind of distinction in the 
disposition of the block mason work pertaining to appearance 
irrespective of strength. 

The monarch's information was more refined than that which 
directed the national practice. The scientific among his subjects 
had to learn the new method of workmanship, although attached 
to ancient custom, and this they could do without reproach, or 
without disaffection to art. None of the distinguishing details of 
the type designs were reproduced at Deerhurst in their strong 
characteristical shapes. The king's builder softened away the 
chief asperities of the popular style ; adopted features more simple, 
more regular, and better wrought, but induced no improvement 
in the general quality of the workmanship. Nor was the interior 
a whit more luminous, or more expressive of safety, nor the frame 
of the structure less powerful than in the customary edifices. 
But these merits are far surpassed by others relating to the 
organisation of the plan, in the composition of which the builders 
have proved their acquirement of the knowledge of the order 
most proper for the several members of the building, and of 
their relative proportions and positions of the several parts suit- 
able for a conventual establishment. It is only just to say that 
the Saxons left but few essential members to be invented by 
their successors at any period. Their men of science intuitively 
discovered the necessities of the scheme ; they penetrated the 
necessities of the case at once, and the general figure of their 
ground plan formed the basis of the mighty organisations which, 
in after times, augmented the renown of conventual houses. 

Whether Deerhurst claims to be the primitive realisation of 
designs which included lateral aisles, of which the parent figure 
was an outside passage, must remain unknown ; no other instance 
of superior age, or of equal positiveness, has been discovered. 
This feature, which was destined to assume magnificent pro- 
portions as a consistent member of ecclesiastical edifices, lost 



I)EEE,HUllST PRIORV. 



41 



the appearance of its primary object in consideration of its 
secondary purpose of supplying a ray of light to the presbytery 
or choir. As a passage in this introductory example, it was 
forced into its position by the organisation of the general plan 
of the convent, without the thought that this simple union 
would become, in the hands of future builders of enterprise, an 
integral portion of the assemblage. 

So intelligent were the Saxon churchmen, that almost every- 
thing useful in their vocation as builders was thought of, but 
not many of their inventions were carried out with assiduity 
proportionate to the value of the hint conveyed. Each aisle of 
this valuable Saxon authority is divided in length by a stout 
wall, one half belonging to the choir, the other attached to the 
sanctuary, this alone being sided by the chambers of the convent 
in two stories. Their outer walls surpassed the height of those 
of the nave, the altitude within being so ample as, in a later 
[ age, to determine this measure as suitable to the aisles of the 
nave, which were closely annexed to their Saxon prototype. 

The prolonged existence of the conventual buildings has 
given an equal term of duration to the lineaments of the south 
aisle, whence was the only means of private access to the 
presbytery. 1 But this passage was also a kind of lantern, so 
constituted by being carried up from the floor to the middle 
height of the choir wall, and open to the roof, having windows 
in front, the object being that a ray of light should penetrate 
a straight cut open arch opposite (in shape resembling a door- 
way), to illumine the region of the stall seats. ^ Long before the 
date of the present habitation, the eastern half of the passage 
had been diverted from its original purpose of serving the 

^ See ante Note 1, p. 32. 

2 The statement as to the south aisle of the choir being anciently 
undivided in height, or open to the roof, must be considered doubtful. In 
the wall now terminating the south aisle of the church eastward (which wall, 
although now pierced was at first undoubtedly solid and continuous), there 
are the remains of an ancient doorway, close to the existing arch, over its 
north portion. This doorway, which could not have co-existed with the arch, 
but claims an earlior origin, seems to involve the necessity of a floor, or 
gallery. — G.B. 



42 



Transactions at I)EERHrEsT. 



church, and at length became so serviceable an appendage of 
the house as to be firmly walled in, and to belong to it exclu- 
sively, to the injury of the general organisation, which gave 
way to revised ceremonies within the convent. The innovation 
in the eastern length so greatly diminished the value of the 
western, as to exclude the clerical part of the community from 
the ancient way through the body of their residence to the 
church, and to familiarize them with a passage through the 
cloister. The firm and even outline of wall [Plate I. G.), which 
had been considerately placed between the church and the 
habitation, appears to have been first broken through when the 
sanctuary was rebuilt, before the transition style of architecture 
of the 12th century had been refined by the elegancies which 
belong to the designs produced at the very beginning of the 
13th century. The disorders and the benefits which resulted 
from the introduction of novelties in the details of architecture 
extended to the habitable buildings, which were thenceforward 
assailed at intervals, until every Saxon stone had been removed, 
to make way for successors, which shared the same fate for the 
same reason, namely, that the architecture existing at the time 
had become unfashionable. 

Tliese proceedings in innovation, progressive and keeping 
pace with the encouragement of architecture, moved rapidly after 
a time within the walls of this convent. Innovation at the 
hands of friends was slow in obtaining a footing among the 
earlier religious communities after the devastating visits of 
bitter enemies. Not less than a century and a half passed 
before a ready acquiescence was given to patrons Avell qualified 
to replace, with a partial and judicious hand, the more injured 
memorials of troublous times, by works expressive of peace, 
of undisturbed industry, and of advancing civilization. Distance 
of date has stamped a value upon earlier buildings, felt perhaps 
only by a few in tliese days ; and as time proceeds will be felt 
less by those who will find so much less to afford them interest 
and information as antiquaries. When too late the discovery 
will be made that the ancient monuments of architecture are 
the safest evidences in the study of a precious part of English 



i 



I)£ERttuRST Priory. 



43 



history. Deerhurst church is an example of great value. It 
has lost by the nature of the intermingled improvements spoken 
of, but retains much of its foundation interest. 

The south aisle of the choir has never been altered ; but the 
superstructure combined with it, for the^sole purpose of giving 
light to the interior, was removed at the time of the sweeping 
changes undertaken in it, and also in the north aisle, as regards 
their appropriation in the 13th and 14th centuries, and, as it 
would seem, solely for the purpose of producing an uniform line 
of parapet throughout the length of the church. ^ These adjuncts 
of the choir were remarkable for their altitude, even considering 
the double purpose they answered. The south aisle is 20ft. 4in. 
in length by 12ft. 6in., the area open and unobstructed as here- 
tofore, and the walls venerable in appearance. But the builder 
found a necessity for a cross wall above the range of the aisle, 
or passage, and therefore at the distance of 7ft. 4in. from the 
western end, the boundary was raised upon an arch springing 
flush with the walls, from impost members embedded therein. ^ 
(Plate II. d). Upon the broken down front wall of this 
upper building, without which the passage would have been in 
deeper darkness than the choir, a dormer window, characteristic 
of the latter of the above two dates, took the place of the one 
or two original apertures, and still answers in great measure 
the double purpose of the original design. The truth is, that 
the Saxon builder could not do without a ray of light across 
the lower part of the lofty choir, and provisions of the kind 
were beyond the limits of his practice ; they were new demands 
upon his genius ; the design of this appendage was a first 
thought, and perhaps a timorous expedient to shelter the choir. 
But the contrivance sufiiced not only for the age, but for a 
long time afterwards, and the design in its altered state exists 

^ As regards the south aisle, there was a gable over it, facing south, till 
1861. Thus there was till then no uniform line of parapet. — G.B. 

^ This cross wall appears to have been actually the western boundary 
of the aisle — as was shown by foundations and by absence of foundations. See 
previous Notes. 

The south aisle must be reduced in length to 11 feet, -—G.B. 



Transactions at Deerhitrst. 



to this day ; the dormer window is to be seen straight through 
the arch, for which it was provided in days economical of sun- 
light. 

The time had not arrived in the 14th century for that kind 
of barter in architecture which too often proved fatal to the 
older example. The conditions had not been fairly balanced 
between the two ; and the worth of what was taken was not 
always in proportion to the quality of that which was yielded. 
It too soon followed that buildings, however magnificent, were 
sorely treated to make way for others upon enlarged plans, with 
more cheerful elevations and more attractive ornaments. Ke- 
edification to a considerable extent, and with perhaps a stronger 
necessity than could often be alleged, had been made among the 
Saxon buildings of this convent. It is unknown when they were 
first tampered with, or at what period they were altogether over- 
thrown. One would have thought that the structure of this 
church presented too severe an aspect to encourage the hand of 
mischief ; but mischief is insatiable, and seeks gratification at 
the cost of labour which yields no trophy to the perpetrator. 
The final sufierings of this building were excessive, and are of 
comparatively modern date. The south aisle, in which are 
brought together a greater number of the features of design than 
in any other component member of the church, has been lament- 
ably defaced. It never contained any of the details of orna- 
mental architecture to arrest the notice, and to shock the tender 
feelings of the Puritans. The plain frame of every aperture in 
wrought stone work has been mutilated under the devastating 
influence of that sect. At the same period a clear sweep was 
made of everything removable in the choir and aisles of the 
conventual part of the church. The Reformers, always a mer- 
ciless generation, could sometimes, from a state of satiety, stop 
short in their career of havoc ; but it was before their arrival 
that the approach to the rood-loft was injured and clumsily 
repaired.^ Its position is at the south-west angle of the choir, 

^ This approach was exactly in the line of the ancient wall of division, 
and so could not have been formed before the removal of that wall. — Q,B. 

The writer always places the division 3 feet to the west of its actual 
position, — G.B. 



Deebhurst Priory. 



45 



at a sufficient distance from the angle in the aisle to admit 
the ascent by stone steps, steep and narrow, fixed in the pier, 
and carried to the height of 6ft. lOin. above the pavement; 
besides which four additional steps were contrived within the 
thickness of the wall. These alone remain. The frame of this 
narrow piercing has been injured equally by mischief and by 
repair on the outside ; but next the choir, where was fixed the 
door, it has always been plain ; it appears to be of a date 
considerably less ancient than the structure. 

The destruction of the solid front wall of the choir led to the 
introduction of features of which the Saxons had no knowledge. 
Their screens, like those of the early Normans, were screens of 
stone, but when this church submitted to organic changes, it 
received in this position, a new and elegant structure, light in all 
its parts, and partially pierced up to the roof of the rood-loft, which 
consisted of a gallery stretched across the breadth of the choir, 
and open or enclosed above according to the nature of the design. 
In the composition and sumptuousness of a partition of this kind, 
the workmanship in oak frequently excelled the beauty of the most 
finished artisanship in stone. Almost all interior partitions, when 
applied by skilful hands guided by nice taste, preserved boundaries 
competent strength, and conferred ornament in positions and with- 
in rich quantities sufficient to reconcile the new school of builders 
to the remaining severity of the Saxon pile. 

The two entrances to the choir from the south aisle, ^ and one 
from the north aisle, are covered with lintels, and have broad 
double borders with flat surfaces encompassing the apertures, the 
outer one in relief from the wail, the inner one recessed, jointed 
in the common manner, and without plinth or impost members. 
The upper entrance on the north side has a straight-lined arch 
formed of blocks 7 ins. thick, plain, and flush with the wall, with 
impost members in soffit, and returned inside and out. 

The claustral entrance to the aisle beneath the dormer window 
is tall and narrow, the aperture spreading slightly from the springer 
to the base as one of the characters of this early architecture, but 

1 See ante I^ote 1, p. 32. — G.B, 



46 



Traksactions at Deeehurst. 



one not of more frequent occurrence than the gradual contraction 
of openings from the arch to the side. This entrance terminates 
with a lintel on the inside, and is an example of the method first 
adopted to obtain the advantage of a splay through the thickness 
of the wall. Other instances occur in the side windows of the 
upper stage of the Saxon portion of the tower. 

The arch which spans the south aisle, high up in its sides, is 
28 ins. in thickness, and surmounted by a considerable portion 
of a once lofty wall ;^ it consists of a single ring of strong mason 
work,2 perfectly plain, and jointed in the common manner, and has 
a block label corresponding with others in the church. The shape 
of the arch is irregular, but not in the manner of the one at the 
west end of the nave, this being thrown out of the centre, whereas 
the other has a slight tendency to a point. In the wall over it, 
facing west, is a Saxon loop, which on the inside spreads to a 
spacious square aperture from a level lintel, having a steep sill 
sloping through the thickness of the wall from the edge of the loop 
to the margin on the inside, on which it is footed over the crown 
of the aisle arch. Between the loop and near the choir wall, 
facing west, is a piece of mason work resembling the jamb of an 
aperture, embedded in the wall, and near it several unconnected 
fragments of freestone; but beyond the evidence these relics faintly 
furnish that the superstructure of the aisle on this side may once 
have possessed an ornamental design as well as a useful interior 
purpose in conjunction with the convent, nothing can be said in 
reference to things so much mutilated. The distance of 7ft, 4ins. 
between this elevated wall and the outer wall of the aisle makes 
conjecture difficult as to the appropriation of the space so as to 
render the loop useful, its form and direction leaving no doubt 
that in ancient days it was a watch place at certain times. The 

1 This wall was originally iinpierced. The arch, although of ancient 
appearance, must, I think, have been constructed in the r2th century. There 
are several points of detail which serve to distinguish it from all the Saxon 
arches — one being the employment (though sparing) of green sandstone, 
which is nowhere found in the Saxon work, but was used abundantly in the 
work of the 12th century. Again, from its clumsy constiuction the arch has 
all the appearance of being an after thought.— G.B. 

2 Very few of the courses are composed of single stones, — G.B, 



Deeehurst Priory. 



47 



two walls thus near together rose up in solid altitude against the 
side of the choir, and were abruptly finished off with a penthouse 
roof, a shape which was retained as the common enclosure of the 
aisles of churches when fully developed. ^ But by what contri- 
vance of stone or timber the inquisitive loop was reached, 
whether from within or from the cloister, are particulars which 
the too busy hands of despoil ers have completely eradicated. The 
remark should be made that the loop was shaped for direct obser- 
vation upon the entrance to the aisle, and also that it commanded 
a view of the side door from the cloister. ^ The aisle arch for daily 
intercommunication between the church and the convent is 7 ft. 
in the clear width, and was an unenclosed division from the first 
foundation of the House to the 13th century. But plain walls 
are not always instructive as to precise dates. The severance 
of the aisle, however, is distinctly proved to have preceded the 
erection of the existing wing of the convent by the incorporation 
of its walls with those which were built within the domestic part 
of the passage for chambers whose duties were of more value than 
a distinguished way to and from the church. 

The original and present states of the aisle will be seen by 
reference to the ground-plans. The margin of the blocked-up 
arch in the present vestry bears affinity to those of the choir 
entrances, but it has been savagely mutilated, (Plate IV. b.) 
and its services are indistinct. Within it is a massive semi- 
circular member in soffit, rising from the plinth, and carried 
overhead without the intervention of an impost, or any kind of 
distinction at the springing line, in exception to the arches in 
every other part of the Saxon structure. The injuries of this arch 
are fully laid open to view on one side, but on the other have been 

1 There was a gable roof over the (ancient) south aisle till 1861. — G.B. 

2 I am unable to concur in the writer's view as to the two walls and the 
space (7ft. 4in.) between them. My own belief is that the westernmost wall 
spoken of had no existence, and that the other was the real boundary of the 
aisle. Thus the " loop " is satisfactorily explained. It simply looked on the 
open air.— G.B. 

A proof in addition to former arguments, is that both on the north and 
south sides, the Saxon work of the adjuncts is seen to cease at the point 
indicated by me, falling short by several feet of that indicated by the 
author. — G,B, 



48 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



so carefully smothered up, that the existence of the arch was 
unknown in the new apartment. 

The whole breadth of the aisle was not wanted for these 
chambers which were considerately annexed to the side of the 
sanctuary. A wall was therefore built at right angles, and at the 
same time with that in the arch, 5 ft. within the south wall of the 
Saxon passage; the measures of this new chamber being lOJ ft. 
in length, and 8^ ft. in width {^Plate II. f.) 

The cost of this alteration on the score of convenience, was no 
doubt endurable : it only changed the course of communication 
between the house and the church, the cloister being the medium. 
One purpose of this alteration was the reverential observation at 
certain times of the sacred ceremonies performed at the altar; 
another was for private meditation ; and another for the duty of 
watching shrines, or precious relics which were possessed by 
churches of repute. 

There can be no doubt that these side chambers were formed 
some years after the re-edification of the sanctuary, the window of 
which was in great part walled up for the sake of the adjunct, the 
altitude of which is ascertained by the more ancient part of the 
wall opposite, which was found to be of sufficient height for the 
conventual rano^e of buildinoj. The basement had neither window 
nor door, except towards the east. The interior acquired a little 
additional width at the expense of the sanctuary wall, which was 
pared away to the depth of several inches, the buttresses also 
yielding to the pressure of the occasion. 

The floor of the upper room was sustained by massive timbers 
which have made deep impressions in the walls. The services of 
the upper chamber required that the wall of the sanctuar}^ should 
be pierced ; it has two small apertures ; the lower one a loop, 
formed to direct the vision straight across the interior of the 
sanctuary ; the other, a little higher up, has been mutilated ; the 
shape was oblong, with one deep splay directed towards the east. 
The wall on the opposite side of the chamber has a small loop, 
9^ ft. above the ground. It opened with a wide splay to an adjoin- 



Dekrhurst Priory. 



49 



ing apartment, but was rendered useless in the grand renovation 
of the 14th century. 

When c ^ce the spirit of improvement had gained a footing at 
Deerhurst, it proceeded until all the Saxon buildings of the con- 
vent had disappeared. Its movements were at first cautious. The 
early and successive processes of alteration and addition did but 
little to assuage the inconvenience and insufficiency of the Saxon 
House. Piecemeal alterations had increased its irregularities. It 
appeared in the styles of different ages, quaint and unmethodical, 
and may easily be supposed, on the arrival of the 14th century 
(that period illustrious for its architecture), to have partaken by 
the will of its owners, of the general fervour for improvement. 
Accordingly a systematic plan for the complete reorganisation of 
the monastery was perfected. It formed in those days a quad- 
rangular pile, but of this order of building only the western limb, 
attached to the church, has been spared. No respect was paid to 
the ancient remains, however useful, when any portion of them 
stood in the way of the scheme for re-edification. The builder 
dashed through the Saxon wall of the aisle that he might take 
firm hold of the inserted wall beyond it, {Plate II. h) thus making 
this intrusive line the northern boundary of his own plan. But in 
truth he made havoc of the Saxon architecture in every aspect of 
the church, resolved to brighten up its design with lustrous or- 
naments in agreement with the new work in the convent. 

There is no mystery in the passage or aisle on the north side 
of the choir and sanctuary ; its duties were few and plain ; but 
to the appendage on the south side belonged different services 
from the beginning. These were modified or superseded as time 
advanced. Simplicity in the plan denoted the same character in 
the ceremonies and modes of life. What is here observed of the 
Saxon plan is strikingly characteristic of that adopted by the 
early Norman, and also by the Anglo-Norman builders, among 
which latter class the Cistercians are most strongly distinguished 
by the grand simplicity of the rectangular arrangement of their 
claustral piles. As light made its way all parties concerned in 
the establishment of religious communities were more busy than 
Vol. XI. E. . 



50 



Tkansactions at Dkerhurst. 



in the days of plain understanding. The fretted designs make 
known the agitations of men's minds. The changes which took 
place in the economy of church and house matters were expressed 
in the complications and ornamentations of the buildings. 

Referring to the general ground-plan of Deerhurst Priory, it 
will be observed that the solid separation of the eastern half of 
the length of the south aisle from tlie church, and its appropriation 
by the convent, marked it as a place of great privacy for the 
future. In this condition there has never been any access to it 
except from chambers at a distance towards the east. This was 
the case when the alteration was first made, and so it remained 
after the last amendment of the ecclesiastical pile. But of the 
extent of this important work no trace can be discovered above 
ground. The area of the precinct, and the direction of the 
approach to it, are totally eradicated. 

Such is the condition to which this interesting site has been 
reduced within a short space of time ! No one who knew it in 
former years would know it now to be the same place they had 
formerly viewed, presenting as it then did, a system of venerable 
buildings within whose walls was included all the space that a 
professional farmer needed for his different agricultural operations; 
and more, for owing to wasteful dispositions much room above and 
on the ground was left unoccupied. The chief fault of the place 
to its present owner was its antiquity ; its final conversion has 
not obliterated all the defects of this mischance. But the blame 
justly belongs to the owner, not to the building, which is capable 
of a good arrangement ; but too much for mean purposes has been 
imposed upon its space, and the value of the Hall is lost to the 
interior. 

It rarely happens that the church, attached to the dwelling, 
in foundations of this kind, can shroud its injuries. It was viewed 
from the conventual quadrangle in its comely proportions ; its 
shattered walls are now conspicuous from the same area, called a 
Farm-yard, and reproach the perpetrators of wanton mischief 
upon that grand member of the edifice which pertained especially 
to the domestic buildings. 



DEERHrRST Priory. 



51 



The character of the architecture of this Priory Church is well 
worthy of careful examination. Of its Saxon origin there can be 
no doubt, imperfect as its affinity is with preceding examples by 
the same race of builders. In every remaining feature of this 
remarkable structure, may be observed marks which attach this 
church to the period of King Edward the -Confessor, who was the 
last founder of the Priory which had occupied this place from an 
early Saxon date.i The softened nature of this example, compared 
with the characteristics of the older style, or quality of work- 
manship, evinces the authenticity of its age, and the accuracy 
of the historical record. 

The treatment of architecture, as here seen, does not occur so 
significantly elsewhere. There was no incentive before this period 
of time to disturb the established order of things. The science 
was not so much in vogue as to admit organic changes until the 
energies and accomplishments of the Confessor improved the state 
of the arts in this lofty department, and by examples which 
influenced the national taste. It is plainly observable in this 
church that there are features which bear testimony to the fact 
that the crude kinds of jointing and of ornament had not alto- 
gether lost their hold upon the builder's mind. He had received 
fresh lessons in his studies, and this was an early essay of his 
improved taste. The practitioner had many prepossessions to give 
up as well as many new notions to be brought into practice. 
No part of the design was to be any longer under the control of 
the quarry-man. The artisan was henceforth required to bestow 
labour upon the material which had no other ornament to give 
it a good appearance than a smooth surface. 

The Saxon manner of producing architectural detail was not, 
as observed, altogether abrogated in the more exalted reign of the 
Confessor ; but its national expression, in the full amount of its 
particularities, could not any longer be maintained against the 
force of continental polish. Surely nothing like the property of 
the Saxon work was ever before seen in the world. It must be 
viewed as the original of Christian architecture in England ; and 

1 See ante Note 2, p. 15.— G.B. ; 
E 2 



52 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



it would be curious indeed if research abroad could bring into 
comparison with it a primitive style which had possession of a 
whole people, and for a long period reigned alone, with equal 
claims to historical accuracy. 

Among the earlier workmen of this race the executive part of 
their employment upon the raw material is scarcely perceptible in 
some of the churches. At Deerhurst the rule was reversed ; the 
quarries sent forth blocks in gauged quantities, and jointed with 
but rare deviations from the authorities of E-oman science with 
which the Saxons were surrounded. With respect to their talent 
as sculptors, the subjects which, by the singular character of their 
grotesqueness, are indisputably their own, a great advance in 
point of merit of handling may be observed, as in the springer 
corbels of the arches. 

The examples of the manner in which the builders framed 
many of the apertures within the compass of this church, are 
valuable, as showing an improvement upon the rude model of 
their forefathers, and which in further process of time, from a 
cumbrous, assumed a light and graceful figure of ornament. The 
first thought w as found to be so capable of elegant modification 
and application, that it never wholly quitted architecture as the 
outer border of openings. It was transmitted to later periods by 
the Anglo-Normans, who employed this circumscription, not- 
withstanding the rich pillars and carvings of the jambs. This 
surface embellishment was included by the label in the front of 
Lincoln Minster. 

In the genuine Norman entrance to Haddiscoe church, Norfolk, 
the frame is a flat band, but the application of the feature, as well 
as its ornaments, was at the will of the designer. The member, 
as a Saxon invention, is, however, of more particular interest at 
the present moment. Its author seems to have given it breadth, 
because he had not learnt to recess the jambs of openings by the 
retiring order of their parts. The side doors of the choir at 
Deerhurst are remarkable examples of framework. 

In various matters of detail, the Saxon mode of workmanship 
was maintained by the builders of Deerhurst church. But it 



Deekhurst Priory. 



53 



was in the treatment of the leading features of the design that 
the chief improvements were effected at this period. Among 
other striking characteristics in earlier Saxon architecture, the 
angle masonwork is prominent. Compared therewith, a building 
in the style of Deerhurst, notwithstanding the authority for its 
true date, seems to have no agreement ; the relationship is not 
distinct enough to be at once acknowledged. ^ This church is 
nevertheless one of vast interest in the chronology of Saxon 
artisanship. The original walls were not composed of concrete 
of equal quality throughout their substance ; they were faced 
with irregular range work, rough at first hand, and grown more 
rugged by age, being defended on the outer angles with square 
blocks of different scantlings, arranged in bond-courses, but with- 
out uniformity. This kind of angle work was known to the earlier 
Saxon builders, and sometimes employed by them, but they gave 
preference to the unwrought material quarried in strips, and dis- 
posed with such system as to constitute an essential character of 
the architecture. Great attention had been paid by the Saxons 
to the art of joinery in mason work, but when Deerhurst Priory 
rose upon its foundations, this part of the work was made less 
attractive, but it was more scientific. 

By close observation of the arches in the composition of this 
design, significant departures from the true radius in the joinings 
will be detected. This transition character is so slight as to pass 
unnoticed ; it is not remembered in subjects of this kind, that 
ancient customs and practices are deep rooted, and not to be 
abrogated but by repeated efforts. 

The Saxon entrance from the cloister {Plate IV.) presents the 
best example now remaining in the church of the mingled articul- 
ation of the blocks in the practice of the transition The labels of the 
arches throughout are of the Saxon rectangular section. These, 
with the sculptures at their springers, heads of fabulous animals, 
are of Saxon origin. The straight-lined arches are of the same 
date, and appear to be reserved relics from an older church. 
They have no afiinity with the rest of the design. The couplet 
window in the tower is the more interesting, as its pillars are 



54 



Transactions a* DKEtiHtJRsT. 



of Roman origin ; but their bases and imposts and arches are 
Saxon associates. 

The structural members of the tower all agree in their late 
Saxon origin. The grand walls of the choir have received an 
early Saxon straight-lined arch as a relic from the ruins of the 
former church, and serving as an approach to the sacristy. 

The figure delineated on [Plate IV.) afibrds a fair sample of the 
workmanship which has been mentioned. The construction of 
the arches cannot be referred to the workmanship of the older 
design. Some of the primitive specimens show considerable 
regularity in the radiating lines, but there was almost always a 
propensity in the builder to return to capricious violations of 
scientific rules. 

The semi-pillar in reveal has only two examples in this 
church, namely, in the sanctuary arch, and in the aisle arch on 
the south side of the choir. In this last instance the like 
member is carried into the sofiit of the arch without a capital, 
which distinguishes the greater arch. The substitute for this 
feature was the impost, without which no undefaced arch of the 
main design appears, channelled with mouldings. The several 
arches in the choir are thus garnished. Such as these are all the 
impost members, but with this difference, that some of them are 
less, and others more, carefully wrought with mouldings. 

The Saxons adhered most commonly to rectangular piercings 
which prevailed in the Norman and Anglo-Norman buildings, and 
are frequently met with in early examples of the pointed arch 
before its familiarity with mouldings. The western aisle at 
Deerhurst is a choice specimen of the 12th century. 

Mention has been made of the Saxon wall work. It appears 
to have been of a mixed quality from the beginning, the tower 
showing in front a material which is not seen in quantity in any 
other part of the church. This portion has been noticed in a 
former page, but the interior lining of the tower walls appears in 
thin layers and rough fragments, put together with indifferent 
attention to order, but with a degree of solidity and strength 



BEERttTTUST PRIOUY. 



55 



which was not afterwards exceeded, when greater pains were 
taken in selecting and arranging the like thin material. The 
disturbance of this kind of mason work at different periods, 'for 
changes in the architecture, left but few signs of alteration, 
wherever ordinary care was taken to repeat the manner of the 
workmanship, But where resort was had to the material at 
hand, whatever its quality, it was employed in connection with 
the newly-inserted features. The quality of the facing work 
which prevails belongs in great part to the later years of the 
14th, and the early years of the 15th centuries. An alteration 
in the north aisle closely followed upon the second improvement 
in the design of the nave, and in this early instance, block 
masonry was used. 

This subject in relation to Deerhurst is one deserving of more 
close examination than any other example that can be named 
among the Saxons remains, the rather as this race of builders was 
not given to speculate in modes of construction, apart from the 
wrought or more finished features of the design. The Saxons 
were skilful in ashlar mason work, but so fixed was their reliance 
upon the durability of the concrete composition, that they made 
no show of it on the outer surface of their church walls. 

The recurrence in former times to the insertion of broad and 
lofty windows in walls hitherto windowless. proved fatal to the 
Saxon aspect of the walls ; but without attempting to define in 
these surface disturbances the quantity of mischief done from 
time to time as the original architecture was expelled, the general 
remark may be made that the stone at Deerhurst is slicy, thin, 
even, and laid with great exactness. It is a quality of range 
work, which bears a strong resemblance to that of the Abbey 
church of Yalle Crucis, and is of the same nature as the carr- 
stone facings of the churches on the western coast of Norfolk, of 
which a superior example is presented in the tower of Sand- 
ringham church. 

Wall work of this kind was produced by sorted or pro- 
miscuous material, untouched by the chisel. The upper part of 
the tower of Deerhurst is faced with great regularity, and admits 



56 Transactions at 1)£erhurst. 

of narrow joints, which seem never to have been closely pointed. 
Herring-bone masonry was in the mind of the builder, but his 
hand was not greatly engaged upon this pattern. It now shows 
existence in small fragments in the tower, in the wall of the 
sanctuary, and in many inconsiderable places on the north and 
south sides, both in the aisles and in the sanctuary. In some 
instances the promiscuous stonework, laid in courses as level as 
could be, have imperfect herring-bone lengths formed to preserve 
the levels of courses ; but there is no example of the patient 
continuance of this fashion in any aspect of the building, no broad 
surface, with course over course, as a characteristic part of the 
construction. It is whimsically introduced in many positions. 
Speaking generally of the mason-work of the exterior of this 
church, it may be said to produce a singular variety of artisan- 
ship. In various parts of later date the workmen indulged in 
imitations of the mixed herring-bone and crooked range-work. ^ In 
places where the stone had been molested, the same pattern, or 
something intended for it, has been inserted, but this manner 
of repair was wanton, not having been done to mark the cavities 
for scaffolding. 

But after repeated alterations and lacerations, mischievous 
enough to bring down the walls of many churches of later date, 
the strength of the building, and the absence of flaws in the 
walls is surprising. Its injuries, owing to the voracity of time, 
have not, after many long centuries, taken visible effect upon its 
stability ; those brought upon it by mischief have diminished 
the amount of information which otherwise would have embel- 
lished its history. 

Such, then, was the state of ecclesiastical architecture in 

England in the reign of Edward the Confessor. This building 

may fairly be said to represent whatever improvement had 

been made in the science of that period. The practice of 

architecture among the Saxons had been within narrow bounds. 

Its specimens might easily have been numbered ; they were 

many for the age, and the intelligence they convey has been 

1 This, I think, is found only in the clerestory of the nave, which, in my 
opinion, is Saxon work mixed up with more modern.— G.B. 



Deerhukst Priory. 57 

made known without a great diversity of examples. Zeal in the 
pursuit of architecture was not yet beyond the control of fear. 
National matters remained in too unsettled a state to favour a 
rapid advance in the department of the arts. The substantial 
churches which were standing in numbers, and in all their 
original strength, when the sovereignity 'of the Confessor com- 
menced, were left undisturbed by the builders, whose energy and 
taste were now invigorated by an infusion of refinement imported 
from Normandy. Notwithstanding this influence, the national 
predilection had, in some degree, to be considered and respected, 
and a large part of the genuine Saxon style was maintained, at 
the same time that much which characterised it as the real 
production of that people, was either softened under fresh 
guidance, or superseded by improved qualities of workmanship. 
The notions of the original builders as to the general treatment 
of the designs for churches were fixed, deliberately adhered to, 
and subject to no expansion before a revised scheme for solid 
structures of the conventual pattern was set on foot. But 
Deerhurst is in evidence that the degree of advancement in the 
genius of composition was limited to the conventual members of 
the plan. The parochial portion remained as it appeared afore- 
time, a nave with a western tower. 

Of the two imperative distinctions of the choir, one is pro- 
duced by altitude of wall, on a measure far beyond rivalry with 
any other building of Saxon date. In the other instance the 
builder extended the antique plan by attaching passages or aisles 
to the sides of the choir for greater freedom of intercommunica- 
tion than had been the wont. Thus animated in his employment 
by the countenance of Royalty, the builder made an addition to 
the design, which in the course of time enlarged the convenience 
of the interior, and contributed essentially to the magnificence of 
the whole edifice. 

The sculpture over the interior arch of the porch possesses 
considerable merit, but it has been sorely injured. The whole 
design was wrought upon a flat slab of stone, the relief being 
produced by sinkings, with greater or less depth, according to the 



58 Transactions at DEEnatjnsT. 

required expression of the several parts. This Saxon method of 
executing sculpture prevailed in all its stiffness until a general 
improvement in the arts brought a better method of handling 
into practice. Lovely productions are to be found associated 
with the architecture of the 13th century, in stronger relief than 
formerly, and within arches which no longer merely indicate 
recess, but are really protecting canopies. In the example at 
Deerhurst, as in all Saxon sculpture of the kind, the attitude of 
the figure is stiff, and the head erect (Plate IV.) * * * 

The baluster column is not represented in the architecture of 
this church. The only couplet window therein has a solid rectan- 
gular pier, equal in depth to the substance of the wall. Perhaps 
the earliest method of separating the members is with a single 
column planted in the centre of the thickness of the wall. In the 
belfry at Earl's Barton, the baluster pillars stand somewhat in 
advance of the face of the wall, the depth of the aperture being 
reached by additional upright and squared blocks of stone. But 
the inventive designer in this remarkable structure adopted 
another method of carrying the impost slab for the support of 
the arches through the wall. This occurs on a lower stage. A 
banded baluster pillar was fixed on the outside edge of the wall, 
and another on the inside edge, leaving the intervening space open. 
But the time had gone by for resort to such ingenious contrivances 
as these. Architecture was practised at Deerhurst under different, 
and more clearly defined laws. All that pertains to the design of 
the Earl's Barton tower of an ornamental character was swept 
from the thoughts of the builder of the Priory Church, and a more 
sober and more scientific style substituted ; of which style it may 
reasonably be supposed he was not the sole practitioner. 

In speaking of the two component members, of which the 
primitive churches consist, the writer has observed that the nave 
was complete in itself, having its four walls, with roof and gables 
in larger breadth and height than those of the chancel annexed 
thereto. In instances of this class the chancel may be said to 
have been attached to the church, but at Deerhurst the reverse 
occurred, and the church was adjoined to the chancel, or rather 



Deerhurst Priory. 



59 



to the choir, this being the primary object of the foundation. 
Larger religious bodies than were ever seated at Deerhurst, 
submitted, from choice or necessity, to this kind of union ; but it 
did not always answer in ancient times. At Deerhurst there was 
no occasion to quarrel ; the few and poor people who lived under 
the convent walls were employed, supported, protected, and 
satisfied. At Wymondham, the stupendous dimensions of the 
nave reduced the choir to mediocrity, but at Deerhurst the dis- 
tinction was the reverse, and very decided, originally, both in 
breadth and height ; in the latter respect the disparity was so 
considerable that the apex of the roof of the nave fell below 
the level of the eaves of the choir. The case of this feature 
of the organisation has perhaps no corresponding distinction in 
any other church, This character of design was an essay based 
on new principles, which had taken possession of the Saxon mind. 
In plan and in architecture the contriver exercised invention, and 
produced an arrangement which contained remote allusions to 
forms and proportions, the full development of which was reserved 
for a later period in the history of architecture. 

The deliberate inaccuracy of Saxon artisanship in architec- 
ture is too common and conspicuous to escape observation, as well 
nigh constituting one of the notable characters of the design. 
Mere accident will not account for the greater number of these 
irregularities ; date of building has nothing to do with them. This 
conventual church, under Royal patronage at a late period of 
Saxon history, is not less remarkable for the imperfections of the 
workmanship in freestone than those vastly interesting relics of 
whose knowledge nothing is known. At Deerhurst this coarse 
quality of masonry mingles with the good workmanship so con- 
spicuous in the construction of the arches and pillars. 

The custom of re-employing the materials of an older building 
does not account for these negligent performances in the prepar- 
ation of materials. No amendment in the handling was effected 
in the latest known example of architecture extant; and it is 
not too much to say that greater exactness with regard to hori- 
zontal and parallel lines appears in the churches which claim the 



eo 



Transactions at Beerhurst. 



more remote antiquity. This race of builders seem to have had 
an unconquerable antipathy to change the naturally irregular shape 
of the slabs and blocks ; as found, so that they were ready for 
use ; they were grooved and channelled regardless of their in- 
equality in breadth. The imposts of arches are seldom alike in 
any respect. The mouldings are not frequently parallel either 
with themselves or with the margin of the blocks, and to add to 
the crookedness of things in general, the impos;fc is oftentimes 
fixed sloping, and unlevel on the cord line. The concave mould- 
ing is almost universal, but the convex section has not a specimen 
remaining in this design ; rectangular members in courses are the 
substitutes for mouldings in this architecture. The Saxon buil- 
ders had constant recourse to them ; they are grouped, and are 
cut back in regular succession, and for diversity are frequently 
separated by a hollow, a section which was used alone in connection 
with the straight lined arch on the north of the choir. 

The eastern arches of the choir and south aisle are accurately 
formed, but several of the others are so oddly shapen as not to 
excite wonder at the defects in their supports. But they do 
excite curiosity as to the instrumental part of the employment by 
which they were produced. 

The feeling of security and seclusion was ever present with 
the church builders, and bold as at times their notions might 
be, yet the introduction of aisle arches would have been too daring 
an experiment to be realized. 

Not one of the original windows remains in any part of the 
church ; these apertures were certainly not numerous originally : 
the primitive pattern may have been superseded in this instance 
by another of superior frame * * ^ The ground on the 
Severn side of the priory was in early times the most private part 
of the domain, and was not traversed by a path to any quarter of 
the precinct, which was approached on the land side. The place 
retains much of its ancient loneliness. The whole aspect of the 
ground on the south and east sides of the remains has been 
changed by re-appropriation. * " ^ * 



i 



Deerhttrst Priory. 



61 



Saxon architectecture does not admit of subtle distinctions as 
style. It exhibits differences of character, but these remain 
indecisive before the reign of the Confessor. The mode of hand- 
ling the angle mason-work previously forms one of these doubtful 
signs of change, and the straight-lined arch is an equally uncertain 
characteristic of age. •* 

Deerhurst presents a striking contrast to the towers of Earl's 
Barton, Barton-on-Humber, Dunham, and other churches. The 
triple arrangement of the plan, and the lofty elevation of the walls 
are proportions quite new to ecclesiastical architecture ; and the 
features, except those interpolated from the older church, are of a 
more regular and scientific composition. The side arches of the 
conventual choir, as here figured, are of a make, if not new to 
Saxon builders, certainly not familiar to them before the first half 
of the 11th century. 

It rarely happened that the despoilers of churches in the 1 6th 
and 17th centuries found so little to deface as in the Saxon foun- 
dation. The venerable structure, as at first fashioned, presented 
no offensive characters to excite the fury of the Suppressionists, or 
the malice of the Puritans, but the sanctuary, as the repository of 
the Altar, and of other things sacred, as well as the place of the 
most solemn religious services, was denounced, and was wholly 
swept away. Such indeed was the general fate of the eastern half 
of the great conventual churches, on which had been bestowed the 
most polished architecture and the most wealthy appendages of 
ornamental art. It is hard to say to which class of bad men the 
greater amount of mischief is to be ascribed ; they swept away 
the stalls of the clergy, the Hood-loft and the screens. The solemn 
Saxon recess might have escaped if left in its primitive condition, 
but it having been prepared for the more sumptuous exhibition of 
religious ceremonies it was hurled to the ground. 

With regard to the Pronaos, or Penitent's Porch, this is not 
surpassed by any pattern of the same early period. That at 
Barton-on Humber was on a larger scale, and the porch formed 
an appendage to the tower, but at Deerhurst the porch is within 
the tower, and is so much a structural member of it that its wall 



62 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



of partition is carried up as high as the original building remains, 
thus giving an oblong proportion to the tower from its very foun- 
dation. ^ At Barton the floor over the inner porch, within the body 
of the tower, remains, and the door which once led to the raised 
gallery at the west end of the nave is in the centre of the cham- 
ber, but at Deerhurst it is close to the angle, on the women's or 
north side of the church. ^ * * ^ Anciently the grander 
the church, the greater the magnificence of the Pranaos, its 
westernmost member. The Pronaos seems to have exercised the 
genius of the most gifoed architects of antiquity, and as it formed 
the front elevation, it was amplified and made more broad, lofty, 
and ornamental than any other member. Examples : Durham, 
Peterborough, Fountains, &c. 

The chamber over the second floor above the porches, and 
within the town of Deerhurst, was intended for occasional occu- 
pation and the corresponding chambers in the middle stage of the 
towers at Barton-on-Humber and Earl's Barton might also have been 
for purposes connected with the services of the Pronaos. These and 
other examples have been left perfectly plain, with rough walls and 
rudely wrought windows which admit more air than daylight to the 
interior. At Deerhurst, on the contrary, the whole interior of the 
corresponding room has been more carefully finished, but then it 
is to be observed that it is distinguished by the curious couplet 
window which commands a full view of the interior of the church. 
There can, therefore, be no doubt as to the superior appropriation 
of this chamber. The north and south windows are square framed, 
slightly splayed, and lined with finished mason-work, and by the 
side of each, in connection with the jamb, is an arched recess, 
substitutes in former days for cupboards. The approach by wooden 
steps to this elevated room was continuous from the outer porch. 
The stone staircase on the south side was intended as a substitute 
for the other, but the work was hindered before it reached to the 
height of the floor over ; this object has been attained by rough 
means, and it is used as a landing for the stages over ^ * * 

The quality of Saxon design is so marked, so solitary, and 
so positive that its innate distinctions cannot be overlooked, 
J See ante Note 2, p. 22.— G.B. 



Deerhurst Priory. 



63 



or undervalued, by the true antiquary without reproach. There 
can be no doubt of the genuiness of the Saxon architecture as a 
distinct style, thougli the full attainments of that people as buil- 
ders cannot now be known ; their greater works have in many 
instances been replaced by others still grander. Some few frag- 
ments of this superior class may have escaped, but it cannot be 
doubted that the chief existing authorities are to be met with 
among the ordinary parish churches. 

The relic of the Saxon monastery at Westminster appears in a 
feature which was never afterwards omitted from foundations of 
magnitude ; that is the Ambulatory, or arched basement of the 
buildings encompassing the Cloister court, of which so much was 
afterwards made in the Cistercian houses. Indeed the Saxons 
seem to have thought of- well nigh everything essential to the 
monastic mode of life. * ^ * * The most curious 
and considerable among these historical remains is an arched 
and plainly vaulted basement of a member of the Saxon house, 
connected with the present cloister, and contrasting with it in a 
remarkable manner ; the antique design, the carved capitals, and 
the rough masonry of the 11th century appearing in view after 
the vision has been captivated with the highly-finished architec- 
ture of the most superb claustral avenue in England. More 
than half-a-century has passed since the writer studied these 
remains, but the distinctness of their character from that of the 
later work, is still fresh in his memory. The juxtaposition in 
this instance produces an absolute confirmation of the Saxon claim 
to a defined style, -h- k- -x- r^j^^ Saxon builders improved 
their architecture without casting aside every definite character 
which had made the style their own ; evidence of the melioration 
in matters of detail meet the practised eye at Deerhurst. * * * -^^ 
Among remains of Saxon architecture no specimens are known 
of ashlar work, of cushioned capitals with the astragal, zig-zag, 
billet, rosettes, beakheads or wreathed pillars, or even the plain 
ball ornament. In one instance, at Dunham, we have the in- 
dented pattern. ^ ^ * 

Saxon work can never be mistaken by those who have studied 
and compared its examples, and contrasted its likeness with thQ 



64 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



results of Norman talent. ^ ^ "fr 'j'j^g walls, neither inside 
nor out, were ever made smooth with solid coverings of cement 
but as at Deerhurst the coating of cement mortar was so slight 
that it failed to conceal the roughness of the surface. This was 
the common treatment of the walls of Saxon churches. * -^^ •55- -^^ 

Much of the jointing at Deerhurst is close and accurate, though 
generally Saxon freestone work exhibits a peculiarly rough quality 
of artisanship. ^ The choir at Deerhurst is fully 40ft. high, and 
is the loftiest Saxon building known ; but it contains no design ; 
its features being a simple open arch on each side, the sill being 
several feet above the doorways. -^^ * The priory church 
is the production of Anglo-Saxon workmen improved by lessons 
imported from Normandy — lessons which enhanced their know- 
ledge in the science without throwing off' all at once their precon- 
ceived notions as to the importance of their own national style. 
This is an interesting period in the history of ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture. -5^ * The Saxon builders systematically planted 
the altar in their churches towards the east, an aspect which it 
thenceforward retained. This custom was not strictly observed in 
any other country. * * ^ 

The original Baptismal Font has not altogether disappeared, 
but it has been forced into a shape and a position so unworthy of 
its age, and so unfit for the services to which it had been reverently 
devoted through the greater part of the six centuries, that it has 
been cast aside, and neglected beyond the reach of memory. Its 
make has been so much changed by deliberate mischief, and its 
condition by casual injuries and disregard, that the ancient 
purpose of this ill-shapen block of stone rarely receives a passing 
glance from strangers, and is quite unmeaning to the denizens 
of the conventual soil. In its better days it was an object of 
interest and of ornament. Its circumference may be supposed to 
have been covered with carved work, the remains of which 
present scroll patterns in slight relief ; the height is 32 inches. 
At a late period, probably many years since the suppression of 
the religious houses, the thought entered into the mind of some 
reformer, more zealous than his neighbours, to change the 



4 



Deerhurst Priory. 



65 



characteristic appearance of the venerable font, and to reduce it 
to a fashion as little in unison with the rite to which it was 
still to be devoted as ingenuity could devise. He turned 
it upside down, and thus having the solid part to deal with, 
perverse ingenuity prompted him to pare away the diameter 1 Sin. 
above its footing, rudely sloping off the bulk to an octagonal 
figure at the rim, large enough to admit a reservatory for water 
12ins. square. Such for a time was the substitute for a font of 
suitable size and capacity, but not large enough for immersion. 
This memorial of barbarism now occupies a dark corner of the 
west-end of the interior, and escapes common observation. The 
impression is irresistible, that when the Presbyterian fanatics laid 
violent hands on the choir and sanctuary, and spared the 
structure only where it was economy to do so, w^hen they robbed 
the whole interior of its ancient and becoming character, they 
took the font in hand, that it might partake of the tender treat- 
ment that was bestowed with so much energy throughout the 
conventual edifice. ^ 

The eminence of the ancient church builders as engineers is 
proverbial. * * * The skill and science exerted in the 

first construction of a cathedral, or abbey church, were frequently 
surpassed in the execution of enlargements upon the original 
composition. Alterations of this nature, and others combining 
with extent a great increase in the splendour of architecture, 
were sudden, sometimes injurious, but frequently beneficial to 
the edifice in a pictorial point of view. Deerhurst presents an 
example illustrative of this unscrupulous treatment of their 
buildings by the ancients. It is on a small scale : the result is 
elegant and admirable, but the science by which it was produced 
escapes thought, since few in these days lift their eyes to the 

1 The Font described is one which was removed to the Church oE Castle 
Morton about the year 1870. At that time a very ancient Saxon Font, which 
for ages had been standing outside a farmhouse at Deerhurst, was placed in 
the church, together with what appeared to be its stem, which latter member 
was discovered one-mile-and-a-half from the church. It is greatly to be 
regretted that the writer had not the opportunity of seeing and describing 
the Saxon font. His pen AVould have done justice to a work of remarkable 
interest. See description of it post. p. 84. 

Vol. XI. y 



Traxsactioxs at Beehhfrst. 



upper range of the Saxon wall over the arches. No church was 
secure from the innovating incursions of builders. In this instance, 
as in others, there was a reasonable excuse for their interference ; 
enlargement was necessary, and the dates of the alterations 
sanctioned the introduction of refined architecture. The solid 
Saxon walls gave place to an arcade on either side of the nave. 
This first invasion of the primitive structure was commenced 
towards the close of the 12th century, it being then determined 
that the improvement should be partial alteration, and not by the 
destruction of the whole body of the church, a decision which 
testifies to the soundness of the walls at that period, and to the 
quality of the timber roof. The progress of this enterprise 
received a check about the time that all was prepared for turning 
the arches over the piers. These supports are of compound make, 
and altogether substantial, but with a style in advance of Norman 
workmanship, and introducing to that quality of design which 
followed in due course, and was interpolated in these arcades 
between the pillars mentioned, to the great adornment of the 
interior. The builders of antiquity were wonderfully skilful in 
forming their junctions of new with old mason-work. Clustered 
pillars and piers engrappled so forcibly that they rarely yield to 
influence of time. This embodiment of materials was a marked 
part of the builder's care at Deerhurst, and it is curious to 
observe in instances of less severe operations the intricacy with 
which the stone-work was notched, or knit together, without 
regard to the levels of the older courses. 

Builders' work thus combined at Deerhurst gives support to 
the Saxon wall, the remains of which, in the spandrels, and all 
above to the foot of the clerestory, is to this day as firm and 
unyielding as it was seven centuries ago, notwithstanding the 
great additional burden which was imposed upon it at a later 
period. In the execution of the first scheme for bursting through 
the Saxon wall, care was taken to leave sufficient strength of pier 
for the support of the arches, and of the weight over them. 
These piers, or fragments, of t\w. wall, were not less than 4ft. 
in width, and 2ft. -lins. thick, witli an additional pier 24ins. by 



DEERHtTRST PrIORY. 



67 



12ins. on the side next the south aisle. These compound piers 
were completed, and fully prepared to receive the arches of the 
design of the 1 2th century, but here the work paused, and a fresh 
builder, with a still more refined perception of architecture, 
entered upon the scene. His first operation was to diminish the 
solidity of the pier by the diminution of its measure, and to 
attach to the remaining bulk clusters of detached pillars, thus 
preserving the former measure of 4ft., obtaining adequate strength, 
and conferring rare beauty upon the design. * -s*- * 

The remarkable alterations which this church has sustained 
give great latitude to conjecture. There may be some room for 
doubt as to whether, at the time of the enlargement of the nave, 
the front wall of the choir and its aisles were not standing in all 
the perfection of their original build, and that these walls remained 
entire until towards the close of the 14th century, when the 
clerestory Avas added, the resolve at this time being that the same 
proportions as to height and breadth should extend throughout 
the church, to be accomplished by throwing do wn the solid wall of 
separation between the conventual and the congregational mem- 
bers of the building. 

No vestages of veritable Saxon fortresses, nor of any kind of 
fortified building belonging to that people, have been hitherto 
discovered. The Saxon strongholds were not of mason work on 
a great scale, or of a quality calculated to survive the first on- 
slaught. It was in churches alone that the Saxons, at least to 
any extent, built substantially, and for length of ages. As 
warriors, after their settlement in England, they were more 
sinned against than sinning. The Saxon combinations in architec- 
ture appear to have been extremely simple. One style lasted their 
generation, and its character is in no instance doubtful. 

To what extent the walls of these stubborn structures are 
rooted in the earth has not yet been discovered. Their depth in 
the soil, their breadth at the base, the manner of their foot-hold, 
are circumstances in the construction of the buried portion of 
these churches which it would be interesting to ascertain, but 



68 



Tkaxsactioxs at Deerhfrst. 



which have not been brought to light. Whatever may be the 
nature of this part of the work, it has remained concealed for 
many ages, through the almost indestructible strength of concrete 
composition, and upholds its weight with undiminished firmness. 
Saxon architecture was not fashioned in a diversity of materials. 
A little Eoman brick made its appearance here and there with 
modesty ; but flint and rubble stone prevailed with the builders : 
and the composition of the foundation walls may, without hesi- 
tation, be pronounced the same as those above ground. The 
invariable regularity as to substance, with which the walls of these 
churches rise from their hidden basements, must be regarded as an 
instance of the fixed disposition of things on the part of the 
designer ; and it is worthy of remark that the walls are carried 
from the ground to the roof in perfect equality of thickness. 
This feature of the workmanship does not appear to have survived 
the period in which it prevailed, at least not as a principle. * '''' * 

The remark may be repeated that the genius of the Saxon 
design did not admit of any kind of projection beyond the outer 
face of the wall, not even at the plinth, this lowest line of the 
elevation not being raised more than a few inches above the ground. 

* « 'j'j^g writer has not discovered any reliable trace of 
timber work which can with safety be ascribed to the original 
Saxon builders. The tie beam has doubtless descended to us from 
the Saxons ; it was the simplest and safest method of preserving 
the gable rafters in their places ; and the subsequent renewal of the 
roof in this form in the existing churches was in deference to the 
safety and the economy of the primitive invention 

The Saxon builders made no provision for a Rood-loft. This 
was an invention of later date ; and except in the priory of Deer- 
hurst, does not appear to have obtained a place in any of their 
remaining churches. ^ The elevation of the effigy on the cross over 
the entrance to the chancel may date from primitive times, but a 
gallery connected with the screens denotes an augmentation of 
tlie ceremonies at this position, these changes leading to structural 
arrangements which were accomplished with the most costly pro- 
ductions of ornamental architecture. The Saxon wall on the south 

^ See ante Note 1, p. 4i. — (^.B. 



BeERHTTT'vST PrTOFvY. 



69 



side of the choir, close to its junction with the nave, was pierced 
for an entrance to the rood-loft, when it was determined in the 
midst of a confusion of alterations within the priory church, to add 
this feature to many others which the increasing consideration for 
oaken furniture instigated. - 

No trace of any kind of sepulchral memorial has hitherto been 
discovered in any of these churches. The walls in no instance 
contain recesses of sepulchral proportions ; nor for seats on the 
south side of the sanctuary. These characters confirm the marked 
simplicity of the religious ceremonies of the Saxons. Save the 
substantial shell of the building there was no preparation for 
ceremonial observances ; no appointment for priest or congre- 
gation, either for dignity or comfort. Those were early days for 
an arrangement of wooden benches along the sides of the nave. 
The plainness of the edifice suggests the probability that there 
was nothing of the kind at the beginning, and that all who went 
to pray, humbled themselves on the stony floor. 

It seems impossible to enter these venerable churches, raised by 
the first christian population in the land, without strong feelings 
of veneration and respect, feelings more intense than can be 
excited by the prouder works of later ages. In them we observe 
the very beginning of ecclesiastical architecture ; their genuine 
stamp, their distinctness from every other known style of build- 
ing cannot fail to make a forcible impression upon the senses. 
While they attract by their originality, they gratify the inquisitive 
examination, and defend the ardent zeal of the true antiquary. 

i{- *i ^ 

The method of alteration, and the scientific nature of the 
operation which took place in the nave of Deerhurst is unlike any 
other to which a Saxon church has submitted. In the execution 
of the scheme worthy care was taken to supply an efficient sub- 
stitute for the solid body removed, but it is singular to observe 
how, after a short interval, skilful men differed as to the relative 
proportion of strength and bulk. The disentegration of the mason 
work from the footing to the roof was not an entire sweep. The 
sides of the church were spared for the intercolumniation to the 



70 



TPvAN^SACTTONS at Def.TMIUPvST. 



width of 4 ft., and moulded to form a suitable core to the new 
shape it was to receive under the first direction. But the solid 
quality of this work did not suit the second director of the 
improvement, and he reduced the bulk of the piers, substituting 
clusters of detached columns, extremely light and elegant, still 
keeping to the original measure of breadth. 

The term Style has appeared freely in these pages in reference 
to Saxon architecture by reason of its possessing a distinct and 
self-constituted character. It is as fully applicable to these early 
productions as to any other, and would have been generally 
acknowledged if its examples had received worthy attention. 
These works are not appreciated generally, because they are not 
generally understood. 

The apse and the round tower are amongst the most ancient 
features of architecture, and christian builders adopted both. A 
Saxon apse remains to be discovered. It would be an interesting 
revelation to make at Deerhurst ; it may be that the pentagonal 
apse was based upon the sturdy foundation of the semi-circle of 
the original sanctuary. * * 

The history of the first alteration of the conventual church of 
Deerhurst does not include a more interesting feature than is 
presented in the western aisle. Not only in its distinct form, as 
here seen, is the aisle a novelty in ecclesiastical architecture, but 
its lofty and well formed pointed arches, and shallow impost 
members with sculptures varied and handsome in design, and 
excellent in workmanship, are valuable as authorities produced 
at that period of time when these characteristics accompanied 
the introduction of the pointed arch, forms derived from Norman 
designs, but modified, and some of them rendered elegant by the 
treatment of a hand under the guidance of polished taste. This 
remarkable alteration escapes the observation of many an enquir- 
ing visitor, since it has not in any way interfered with the 
entrance into the church, and is not supposed by strangers to have 
absorbed the inner porch, so completely is this part of the expan- 
sive reorganization disguised by the extension of the aisles of the 
nave to the west front. Tlie fact that the western aisle passes 



i 



DeERHURST PUIOTIY. 



71 



through the tower on the ground level, and thus far severs it 
from the church, is riot easily realised even by prying eyes. 
This is the earliest known instance of an injurious blow to the 
obligations of the Pronaos. But it was unavoidable ; there was 
no other way, without detriment to the^t-nave, of obtaining free 
access from one side of the church to the other in its enlarged 
condition. 

It is clear from the expansion of the plan of the conventual 
buildings in the 14th century, and the system upon which this 
arrangement, so much more generous than the original, was founded, 
that amplitude of building was wanting at that period ; and that 
the improved habits and customs of the inmates would no longer 
allow them to live in thB stifling, cautiously and scantily framed 
houses to which the Saxons had so long been accustomed. Nothing 
is now known of these compendious dwellings by substantial 
remains. In no condition are any of them likely to have survived 
to these days. They are not supposed to have been altogether 
devoid of order, seeing that the churches were planned by men 
with prescience which enabled them to settle, once and for ever, 
the scheme best fitted for the rites of the christian religion. In 
fact the Saxon invention may have remained the type for the 
claustral dispositions of the several buildings, which were after- 
wards amplified in their measures, and were limited only by the 
scale of the endowments. 

If among the characteristics of Saxon architecture were to be 
included such of the apertures as are contracted from the base 
upwards, or from the arch downwards, too much distinction would 
be given to these capricious forms, and too little respect be paid 
to the judgment and taste of the authors of a style which exhibits 
great intelligence and forethought in its general combinations. 

The eccentricities spoken of are not very numerous, or not 
very conspicuous, and vary in a slight divergence from parallelism, 
to an excessive departure from it, not by any rule, or in any 
particular locality, but here and there in the same church, or in 
churches far apart. Accident in subsequent ages cannot be sup- 
posed to have any share in producing these deformities. They 



72 



Transactions at DEERiiuiiST. 



are more likely the wanton or careless acts of the workmen, and 
most commonly appear in the belfry windows, but in no instance 
are all the apertures in the stage distorted. Sometimes the 
deviation from the parallel and the perpendicular is so slight and 
unequal as to look like the result of heedlessness. The excess in 
apertures in which the contraction is at the base occurs in the 
west window of the belfry stage at Beachamwell and the excess 
of expansion at the base is noticeable in the gallery door at the 
west end of the nave at Deerhurst.^ The writer does not intend 
to pursue this subject since he doubts its worth ; it would be 
dealing with a whim in w^hich some of the Saxon builders occasion- 
ally indulged. Several among these blemishes might have been 
fortuitous ; but not so the two examples mentioned ; these were 
deliberately produced, but w4iether by the mistake of having 
commenced the foot of the aperture on too narrow a measure 
in one instance, and on too wide a measure on the sill in the 
other, must remain doubtful. * * * * * * * 

The tower of the first christian church at Earl's Barton was 
the masterpiece of the Saxon builders. 

The Conventual Buildings. 

The transcription of the foregoing remarks was commenced 
with the intention of limiting observation to the Saxon remains, 
but as a Priory the subject is so intensely interesting that the 
writer is induced to turn to memoranda which has been set aside 
as unconnected with the examination of the original architecture 
of the foundation. 

It is mournful to observe what great changes have been made 
in the general appearance of this place within the last 30 years. 
At that time (c. 1840), and very long since, it presented to view 
a widespread assemblege of ancient and curious buildings, stretch- 
ing from east to west and towards the south, with a worthy claim 
to the title of a Priory, a designation which cannot be dissociated 
from a site which contains the outer markings of a conventual 
establishment. Tlie look of the plan is unlike that of an ordinary 

1 ri. TIL A., and H. IV.* fig. 1. 



Deeriittrst Priory. 



73 



village church ; buildings in long lengths, and of venerable aspect, 
cling to the sacred edifice in a manner which could not occur in 
any but a religious house. The extent of the domestic part has 
been considerable in modern days, and although many ages junior 
to the church, derives an interest in conneQtion with it unequalled 
by any other instance.^ 

The church has just been subjected to a large share of mischief. 
The nave was more attractive in its state of dilapidation than it 
is now in its trim attire. It had been furnished with elegantly 
wrought benches at a period when oak work was handled with a 
masterly ability, and suffered cruel treatment as soon as the 
Puritanical intruders took possession of the Saxon convent. This 
race did no mischief to the highly embellished architecture in this 
part of the interior ; and in the choir, which they appropriated, 
there was nothing of the kind to abuse. - 

The Dormer was formed upon the Saxon walls which were 
cut into shape to receive the gable roof, a transformation contain- 
ing the only spark of merit to be observed throughout the range 
of contemporary alterations of the church. 

The banks of the Severn were richly bordered with religious 
establishments of great celebrity and of remote antiquity. Among 
the number, the conventual houses are eminently interesting, and 
in point of age and dignity of foundation very few can rival 
Deerhurst. Its historical associations far surpassed anything it 
could ever have possessed of wealth, of magnitude, and of an 
architectural distinction. The banks in this part of the course of 
the river are in general high above the ordinary level of the water. 
In front of Deerhurst the eastern bank is elevated, and the ground 
therefore has a general ascent up to the convent, a distance of 
about 300 yards, but the precinct was much nearer to the stream. 

The natural advantages of the situation in other respects are 
mild and pleasing. It stood almost alone. The rustic dwellings 
on the domain are few, one hei'e, one there, of ancient date, and 
for the most part of timber. The priory never gathered imme- 
diately around its walls a numerous population. Its tenants and 

^ See plan, Plate VT, - Except perhaps the stalls in the choir. — T.S.P. 



74 



Transaottons at Deetutfk.st, 



dependents found their homes beyond the precinct to the south, 
and there they have remained, leaving to this day the ruins of 
the priory unassociated, and the farmer in the possession of a 
tract of land which keeps at a distance other holdings. 

These circumstances are not common to the sites of religious 
foundations which have been treated ruthlessly. Deerhurst is 
not the least fortunate among the smaller houses of former 
dignity. It retains much of its quietude, although its outer walls 
have been thrown down, or the surroundings left with a scant 
portion of the sheltering woods with which the site was once 
environed. 

The following notes, which have been thrown together, relate 
to the state of the house, which up to a few years since, and before 
it had sustained structural alteration dating from the conversion 
of the ruins of the Reformation into a tenantable place about the 
middle of the 16th century. It had scarcely so soon as this re- 
covered from the blow, which had distracted every part of the 
establishment, from its living imates, to the dead matter of its 
admirable walls, and left little but ruins for those to deal with 
who were courageous enough to seek profit from the wreck of 
church property. 

The first act of violence after suppression, was generally inflicted 
regardless of the future of the conventual buildings, and there is 
no reason to suppose that Deerhurst supplies an exception to the 
savage nature of the onslaughts, which followed the sentence. The 
cl austral portion of the front wing of the Priory, was in point of 
situation and condition most eligible for repair after its malicious 
injury. It was favoured with a gable termination to the south, and 
supplied with ample windows in the domestic form of the 16th 
century. 

It is observable that nothing of solid building beyond this 
modern boundary to tlie south, has remained upon the ground within 
memory, and that nearly all to the north of it, that is, the range of 
building forming in that direction the body of the court of the 
convent, was left complete in its extent, and with uninjured walls 
and roof. It joined at right angles the front wing, and was joined 



DEERTTnP.ST Pp.TORY. 



by a portion of the buildings of the east side, about 36 feet in 
length, not ranging with the north wing which coincided with that 
annexed to the church, in height of wall and roof, and was next 
in importance to it. The chambers were in two stories, and mostly 
small, and all the windows faced south. ^ ^^Ko respect was paid to 
the conventual arrangement in the 16th century. The Hall or 
Refectory was left open nearly to the springer of the roof, and the 
windows were too high up in the wall to escape alteration in the 
19th century. 

Domestic architecture was well understood, and generously 
patronised at the time these ruins were repaired to be again 
occupied, and some regard was shown for the well finished windows 
of the 14th century. The interior organisation was outraged. The 
cloister court was converted into a garden, and mean hovels were 
deposited in the court, and spread upon the ground towards the 
east and south. Modern improvements in these aspects, have so 
completely changed the appearance of this part of the precinct, that 
the ancient approach to the priory has been obliterated ; there can 
be little doubt that it was on the south side. 

Singularly enough no new roadway has been formed to the 
house, from the rugged and narrow way still used by the cottagers, 
which public path was in ancient times immediately under the 
south side of the Precinct. 

The greater portion of the walls of the priory were composed of 
rubble stone of different qualities, with a large or small proportion 
of mortar, but uniformly flush-jointed according to the rule of 
antiquity, now coated with rough-cast in the western aspect. 
There has been no failure in the strength of these composition 
walls ; their enduring property was tested three centuries ago by 
alterations which would have brought down buildings of inferior 
construction, and they have since had to endure piercings which 
nothing but the honest wall-work of antiquity could have survived. 

Free stone has not been sparingly used ; it is a native product, 

excellent in several of its kinds, and, as this Priory attests, 

^ The corbels on the domestic buildings are higher than those on the 
church. Query. — Might there not Lave been a double cloister like Wenloek, 
Salop, leading to the upper chancel transepts. — T.iS.P, 



76 



Traxsa(!Ttoxs at Deerhurst. 



productive of qualities which admit of different processes of work 
manship of almost equal value and durability. The Saxon builders 
uniformly employed the soundest block material, but rarely 
bestowed upon it that degree of labour which produced a smooth 
surface. This church exhibits some good examples of masonry, 
more particularly in the construction of the arches, but at the 
period of its erection, self-faced blocks appear to have been so fre- 
quently used as to become evidence that the builders at Deerhurst 
had diminished the number of the characteristic marks of their 
architecture without altogether abrogating its most expressive 
distinctions. The authors of the final design for the Priory were 
judicious builders, and approved of a material favoured by the 
elements, and therefore of a property worthy to be trusted with 
the charming detail of the architecture of the 1 4th century. Those 
of the original windows which remain are as stout as when left by 
the workman. The hall or refectory contained patterns of elegance, 
the adjoining apartments patterns of neatness, and the more 
ordinary chambers of the court, plain apartments, but with more 
recess of moulding than the others with tracery ; these without 
exception being brought flush with the surface of the wall. 
Depression of building was the purpose of the designer, much as 
he may be supposed to have increased upon the altitude allowed to 
the walls by the design of the original builder. The upper range 
of windows was carried close to the eaves of the roof, but this did 
not suggest the necessity for lintelled windows ; they were the 
choice by the designer, their application enlarged the sphere of his 
invention, the form enriched the compositions of architecture, and 
ultimately produced an effect upon it, when its elegant accom- 
paniments were only to be met with in the examples of bygone 
years. Upon this feature of the present subject, the instructive 
remark ought to be made that the square framed window was 
so connnonly applied to designs, both ecclesiastical and domestic, 
as to have become one of the characteristic signs of those qualities 
of architecture, which comineuced its splendour with the reign of 
King Edward L, and advanced more than 25 years into the 14th 
century. 

But another observation is called for, namely, that the use of 
the lintel, or llat top to apertures, is coeval with ecclesiastical 



Deerhurst Priory. 



architecture in Saxon times. The Norman and Anglo-Norman 
builders appreciated its convenience^ and employed it for its own 
sake, as in the choir at Deerhurst. It was engaged with con- 
summate beauty and taste in the composition of many of the 
grandest designs of the 1 3th century, and numerous are the frames 
of this shape which include groups of mouldings and patterns of 
flowing tracery, spreading throughout the aperture witliout a single 
harsh line to disturb the beauty of the ramifications. 

The remains of the long and level lines of the roof of the 
conventual quadrangle, have never been broken through or much 
disturbed by chimney shafts, of which two of antiquity retain their 
positions, and are not far advanced from the wall ; one is on the 
west side near the junction with the church, corbelled over as 
belonging exclusively to an upper chamber ; the other has its 
foundation in the earth, and, although plain, has a bold appearance 
in the lengthy elevation facing north. This wing is about 80 feet 
in length, and contained numerous apartments, single in the breadth 
of the building ; but the interior arrangement had long since been 
disturbed, and the structure was wholly swept away Ijefore the 
writer had the opportunity to complete his notice of it. 

The aspect of the court is venerable, but sad. Its structures 
have great claims to respect, but their antique elevations are no 
longer what they once were. They contain considerable strength 
of wall, but the architectural features which were slightly varied in 
the several members of the pile, were few and mutilated. Such are 
the scanty notes attached to the writer's sketch plan. The 
opportunity of enlarging information when lost, seldom occurs 
again. But the time of a professional man is not his own ; the 
writer did all he could within a small measure of time, and 
promised himself another opportunity for a closer examination of 
the monastery. A quarter of a century ago, there was a sleepy 
character in the place, nothing had been done on the premises 
from time immemorial. Everything had been left just as the 
present century found it, disjointed, without order, accessible to 
the weather, and inconvenient. Nothing structural in hopeless 
ruins, but age-worn, outspread, and unsuitable as the appurtenances 
of a farm. 



78 



Transactions at Deerhukst. 



But alas ! the agent of that enemy of ancient architecture, 
Innovation^ appeared with sudden impulse, and with the besom of 
destruction swept right and left, and in his ardour has left but 
little of the authority which so recently existed for the enlarge- 
ment of the account of this ancient priory. The north range of 
building formed the boundary of that part of the churchyard 
towards the east. 

A glance at the general ground-plan is convincing that the 
south aisle, after its earliest alteration, ceased to have communi- 
cation with any part of the conventual group upon the entire 
re-edification of the quadrangular pile. Its whole range was 
pushed northwards ; and for all time to come, the encroachment 
upon the church and the ground eastward of it, just as far as at an 
earlier period the south aisle had been restricted by a devotional 
chamber, was made permanent. This strange innovation was 
probably set on foot, if not contemporaneously with the rebuilding 
of the sanctuary, very soon after the completion of that undertaking. 

The theory with respect to the advanced line to the work of 
the lith century, may be that it was forced upon the builder by 
irremovable obstacles on the south side of the convent, in which 
direction stood walls, and gates, and their customary belongings 
stretching to the precinct, all being appointed to retain their 
positions, and their uses, and accordingly brought into play with 
the renewed buildings. The origination of this introductory part 
of the plan of ancient conventual houses, was so thoughtful and 
excellent that it oftentimes survived the repeated amendments 
conferred upon the rest of the plan, and not infrequently remain 
when all beside had disappeared. 

Without overrating the distinction which attaches to the history 
of this convent, the remark may be made that the nobility of its 
foundation is in favour of its having been a house of repute among 
the religious institutions of the Saxons. The periodical changes 
which hav^ been made in its architecture, and the finished taste 
of each example, are so many witnesses to the amplitude of the 
endowments, and of the influx of wealth which continued to 
replenish its ti-cvasury. 



Deerhctrst Priory. 



79 



Saxon architecture was not subject to more positive diversities 
of style than appeared at Deerhurst, in comparison with other 
examples. The builders were not given to meddle with designs 
which answered their destination, and that which was approved 
by them was repeated. Whether this Jiiabitual practice was 
equally maintained in domestic and ecclesiastical buildings is 
unknown. Norman influence made an impression upon the design 
of Deerhurst, but it remains doubtful whether the Saxon houses, 
conventual, manorial, or of the ordinary kind, were constructed of 
timber, or of timber and stone, the former material preponderating, 
as in the structures of the Anglo-Normans, and their successors. 

The Saxon stock of science was almost stationary, and the 
school of ornamental design made no great progress in those days. 
The improvement in this late example of ecclesiastical work is seen 
chiefly in the absence of that kind of masonry which gives 
identity to the older productions. Great originality appears in the 
general design of the conventual half of the church, altitude being 
its characteristic proportion. The moderate measures of the 
different apertures contained in large superficies of wall, show that 
the scale did not lead to features of more than the ordinary size. 
The one noble arch of the choir once opened to the sanctuary, but 
its position did not gain for it anything more than the severely 
plain section which prevails throughout the interior. 

The deficiences in the ground plan of the conventual buildings 
could at one time have been readily supplied, but they are now 
past amendment. The main wing of the building was in part 
destroyed beyond memory, that is, all that was connected with the 
lower or south end of the hall in the same range, consisting of the 
kitchen, and of the several offices thereunto Ijelonging. 

The earlier alterations of this house were petty, pottering, here 
a little, there a little, but altogether mischievous to the substantial 
as well as to the ornamental members. Kecent schemes for 
convenience have been carried out with relentless animosity against 
the antiquity of the place. The length of the surviving fragment 
is sub-divided, but unequally, the northern portion being in two 
floors, but under the same even height of roof as that of the hall 



80 



Tkaxsactions at Deerhurst, 



which was open from the pavement to the extreme summit, and 
occupied by much the greater length of the interior. At the lower 
end of the hall, the rooms in immediate connection with it, and 
associated with the offices, were in two stories, consistently with 
custom, which in domestic architecture was the same in this limb 
of the conventual plan as in the mansions of the nobility. The 
chamber at the upper end was the chief private apartment, 
it has before been noticed ; the present ascent to it is from without. 
It was originally connected with the hall by a flight of massive 
oaken steps, like that in the hall of the mansion at Childrez, one 
of the seats of the ancient family of Fettiplace. 

The basement chamber, now a beer-cellar, has fallen from its 
former dignity, whatever that might have been ; the following 
slight notes were formerly made in reference to it, namely, that it 
has in the centre a very elegant column of stone with a richly 
carved capital, and a moulded base elevated upon a high basement, 
circular, of solid mason-work, and of considerable diameter,^ All 
this work is in perfect preservation, and it is equally ornamental 
and useful, since the main longitudinal and transverse beams of 
the ceiling, and of the floor over, intersect and rest upon this 
pillar, which must be regarded as a relic of the domestic buildings, 
which were either altered or re-erected at the same time that the 
Saxon church was remodelled, that is, towards the close of the 
12th century. This is the probable history of the attractive 
relic : there is nothing else of the same character or age in any 
part of the house. A doubt may arise as to whether it was set 
up in the 14th century, when the structure was raised upon older 
foundations, or more than a century later when the room was 
beautified. The writer believes that it entered into the design at 
the first named date, and that nothing more of the ornamental kind 
was rescued from destruction. This ground chamber was more 
luminous formerly than it is now. The north window remains 
open, but the otliers have been walled up, or destroyed. One of 
these apertures is near the angle close to the church wall, and , 
was placed as if to command a view of that walk of the cloister 
extending along the side of tliccliurch : it is small, nearly square in 

1 Sec Plate VII., Hg. 1. 




7 



NEW 
DAIRY 



YARD 



DAIRY 



1 



PANTRY 



PARLOR 




I 



71 r\ 



Wvndxm irvCellcur 




Plcuiv of WvnJjOW.Fi^. 3. 



CeiUn^ ribs 




^^^^^ W^^')-^^ 



PARLOR 



KITCHEN 



PAMTRY 



^^^^ 



' 



CLOISTER 

65-6 __ _ _ , 

^ .MrmMjn. PWmt. PlM.Fvg.2. \ 
Z. Stairs Frorw Solcur. Se& PlI.aztcLPlJI. \. 
U.Po^Urw Wuvg. ofPlarv,22F^t(faJuInr7i 



Notes on the Conventual Buildings. 



81 



its proportions, low down in the wall, and intended more for 
observation than for light to the interior. 



Notes on the Conventual Buildings. 
By T. 8. Pope, Architect. 
The upper room, now used as a granary, has a panelled ceiling of 
oak, with moulded ribs f Plate VI., Jigs. 1 and 4) of 15th century 
work. The panelling seems to extend further, and this chamber, 
measuring lift. Sin. x 21ft. 4in., has an aperture of the form of 
a quatrefoil, by which persons in the upper room could see all 
that was taking place in'the hall (Plate VI., fig. 2). At Little 
Sodbury, and other old manor houses, these apertures often take 
the form of masks, the hall being visible through the eyes of the 
mask. Under the granary is the cellar in which is the Norman 
shaft (Plate VII , Jig. 1 ) possibly placed here to support the corn 
deposited above. This cellar is three steps below the ground floor 
level. Most probably the Norman shaft originally formed one of 
the supports of the cloister roof, and was removed here during one 
of the many alterations of the priory. In the north wall of the 
priory is the window figured on Plate VI., fig. 3, which seems to 
have been the key note to all the windows, etc. , of the house when 
re-constructed and altered about the end of the 14th or very 
beginning of the 15th century, and is now the only perfect one 
remaining. The wall also merits attention. It is admirably 
executed with square blocks of freestone. In the corner of 
the cellar and adjoining the church is a small chamber in which, 
I am informed by those who have seen it opened, are the 
remains of a circular staircase, leading up to the panelled room, 
by which stairs, no doubt, the monks descended into the church, 
to say the night services. This is now walled up. Proceed- 
ing towards the south is, what appears to have been, the hall, 
judging from the remains of the oak trusses and carved corbels, 
of which five now exist. The reticulated window ( Plate VII. 
Jig.2 ) is in this part of the house ; the tracery is similar to that of a 

Vol. XI. G. 



82 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



window in Clevedon Court. It has been heightened, as shewn 
by a dotted line across it. The corbels, which have carved 
heads, are of much the same date as the window, or, perhaps, 
a little later. At the south end of the hall are two entrances, 
one, now used as a pantry, into what would, from the size of 
the chimney, seem to have been the kitchen, but this room 
has been much reduced in length since Mr. Buckley made his 
sketch (see dotted lines) and the south wall has evidently been 
rebuilt see Lysons' view of the end of house with windows).^ 
Lysons also shews a large gable window in the roof, now removed, 
which probably gave light to the hall. The long range of build- 
ings extending eastwards and forming the north side of the inner 
quadrangle marked D on the ^:>?fl7^ Plate VI. has been entirely 
rebuilt, in part from the old materials, within the last last half 
century. How it was originally occupied it is now impossible 
to state with any approach to certainty. Lysons, in his view of 
the north side of this structure, which would seem to have been 
of a mean character, shews a lofty projecting chimney indicating 
a large fireplace suitable for hall or kitchen. It is probable that 
this range, forming one side of the quadrangle, which would seem 
to have been surrounded on the other sides by the farm buildings, 
was appropriated to the Lay Brethren or farm servants, and that 
the chimney in question was that of their kitchen and dining hall. 
Judging from the ground, I cannot help thinking the Abbey 
entrance stood just where the entrance to the Farmyard now 
is, which would be very nearly opposite the Saxon chapel. It 
does not seem to me probable that the entrance would have been 
through the great cloister. 

Mr. Hudd sends me the following extract : — " Bigland says 
(Gloucestershire, vol. i., p. 464), adjoining and communicating 
with the chancel are remains of the Priory, now modernised. The 
old inhabitants of the village describe a very spacious hall and 
other apartments, which formed the quadrangle, at this time 
(about a hundred years ago) almost in ruins." The hall was 
probably the refectory which would have formed the south side 
of cloister garth. 

^ Gloucestershire Antiquities, PI. lv. 2. - Lysons' PI. lv. 2. 



i 



Notes on the Convextual Buildings. 83 

Mr. Butter worth writes : "a very intelligent and aged man in 
the village tells him he well remembers the priory buildings before 
the last alteration made about 50 years ago. He says that at that 
time there was a kind of inner quadrangle. Some distance from 
the house stood once a pigeon-house, the columbarium, and to the 
eastward of the church stood a large barn." 

Mr. Butterworth also states, that when improving the church- 
yard they found great quantities of small stones, the garden wall 
being 6ft. to the east of the west end of church, which Mr. Butter- 
worth thinks, (and no doubt justly so) was the site of the build- 
ings on the west side of the cloister garth. The soil of the church- 
yard is full of fragments of wrought stone, and it is not unlikely 
these are the remains of the guest-house and abbot's lodgings, 
which occasionally formed the western side of the cloister, and 
this, I think, was the case here. I cannot help thinking the 
eastern wing, above referred to was used by the Lay brothers, 
but in these points I must defer to others more learned in such 
plans than myself. 

The plan of the Benedictine houses were all very similar, 
and very likely the plan for this house was brought from Italy 
by the earliest monks. Mr. Butterworth's discovery of the two 
triangular openings in the eastern wall of the church having 
been windows makes a theoretical and probable restoration com- 
paratively easy as they were most likely clerestory windows. Mr. 
Buckley's plan agrees with Ly sons' views. 



G 2 



t 



84 Transactions at Deekhurst. 



ON THE SAXON 
BAPTISMAL FONT IN DEERHURST PRIORY CHURCH, 

WITH NOTES UPON OTHER EARLY FONTS, 

By ALFRED E. HUDD, F.S.A. 

Although this very ancient and beautiful font has been more 
than once mentioned in Archaeological Journals as being one 
among the many objects of antiquarian interest still to be seen in 
the little Gloucestershire village of Deerhurst, it has not, I think,, 
hitherto met with the attention it deserves from all who take an 
interest in the subject of early art, and Celtic or Saxon ornament. 

This may or may not be, as it has been described by one anti- 
quary, " the oldest ornamented font in this country," ^ but there 
can be little doubt, I think, that it dates from pre-Norman times, 
and may therefore be called, as it is designated in the title of this 
paper, a Saxon font. In this connection the term Saxon " seems 
to me more appropriate than the now more usual " Primitive 
Romanesque," though the latter, as applied to architectural 
works in this and other countries, which are more or less founded 
upon Roman models, is perhaps the best designation that can 
be used ; but, on the subject of English Art and Ornament of 
the centuries preceding the Norman invasion, the term Roman- 
esque seems hardly applicable, the Saxons having mainly derived 
their beautiful style of art desig-n, not from Rome, but from their 
early Celtic predecessors in Britain and Ireland. 

The subject of pre-Norman Baptismal Fonts seems to be one 
upon which very little is known, so little in fact that it is even 
doubted by some antiquaries whether the Saxons used stone fonts 
in their churches. Mr. M. H. Bloxam, in the last edition of his 
" Principles of Gothic Architecture," ^ says : — " We have no fonts 

^ Gj-ammar of Ornament, 1868 edition, p. 93. 

2 1882 edition, Vol. 11. , p. 19, 



Saxon Baptismal J^ont. 



35 



which '^from their details we can clearly ascribe to the Saxon 
era." The late Mr. J. H. Parker, in his "Glossary of Architec- 
ture,"^ wrote: — " No fonts exist which can reasonably be supposed 
to be Saxon, but of JSTorman date they are very numerous." In 
his introduction to the beautiful work,^ published by Yan Yoorst, 
in 1844, Mr. F. A. Paley, the Hon. Sec. of the Cambridge 
Camden Society, expressed quite a contrary opinion — "Thus we 
cannot doubt that a considerable number of fonts now exist in 
England, wherein the Saxon infant received the waters of salva- 
tion from the hand of the ancient priest," &c. " Most frequently, 
however," continues this writer, " the rude unshapely font of this 
era was replaced in later times by one of costly sculpture and 
profuse religious decoration, and thus we cannot find a great 
number of examples of decidedly earlier date than the Norman 
era." Unfortunately none of the few remaining fonts which Mr. 
Paley considered to be of Saxon date are named by him : he 
merely remarks that "while Norman fonts are common, earlier 
examples are but seldom found," which seems to imply that some 
such were known to him. 

The late Mr. Thomas Wright, F.S.A., in a paper upon 
Saxon Architecture,^ states that there is in the British Museum 
Library a manuscript of undoubted Saxon date, in which are 
represented " several figures of fonts, all of one form, a plain 
basin on a shaft, somewhat resembling an egg-cup." T have 
recently most carefully examined this manuscript,^ but, though it 
may seem somewhat presumptuous on my part to question the 
accuracy of so learned an antiquary on a subject with which he 
was so well acquainted, I cannot help feeling doubtful whether 
any of the figures referred to by Mr. Wright were intended to 
represent Baptismal Fonts, nor have I yet been able to discover 
any such representation either in English or Irish MSS., or sculp- 
tures, of earlier date than the 11th century. The cup-shaped 
objects mentioned above frequently occur in early representations 

1 Gloss. Arch., 4th edition, p. 169 (a.d. 1845). 

2 Illust. of Baptismal Fonts, Int. p. 10. 
^ Archaeological Journal, Vol. I., p. 34. 
* B.M. Cott. MS., Claud. B. iv. 



86 



Transactions at Beerhurst. 



of the birth of our Lord, or of the various saints, patriarchs, &c., 
but, so far as my observation has gone, they are not to be found 
in any Saxon illustration of the rite of baptism. In D'Agincourt's 
History of Art,^ several font-like objects are figured from early 
sculptures, ivory carvings, MSS., &c., but not in connection with 
baptism. Among the subjects thus represented are Noah's Ark, 
the Nativity, the well at Samaria, the martyrdom of St. Salome, 
etc. 

There is in the British Museum a Latin Psalter ^ of the 
11th century, in which are many interesting illustrations of 
Saxon character. One of these represents the baptism of an 
infant, and shows the priest holding the child in his arms, 
attended by four acolytes or assistants, who hold in their hands 
what may be either long candles or staves. On the other side of 
the font is a woman with three children. The font itself, which is 
the earliest representation I have yet seen, is of the cup-like form, 
much more ornamented in design than most of those above men- 
tioned, reminding one of the sham-classic apologies for fonts 
which were in use in many churches before the late Gothic 
revival, such as the one still retained, though not used, in Long 
Ashton Church, near Bristol.^ A somewhat similar font, though 
larger, is figured in a representation * of the baptism by immersion 
of the mother of Beckett, c. a.d. 1190, but it seems hardly probable 
that fonts of this character could have been in general use in the 
1 1th or earlier centuries. 

It should, however, be mentioned that some few cup-shaped 
fonts, more or less resembling the objects figured in the illumin- 
ated manuscripts, still remain in old churches. Bespecting these 
the late Bev. W. Phelps, F.S.A.,^ wrote The .Danish Fonts 
are goblet shaped ; some few of this form are to be found in our 
oldest churches, and agree in form and detail with those given by 
Wormius, in his Danish Antiquities." Cup-shaped fonts remain in 
the churches at Chalk, Kent ; Holt, Worcestershire ; Mevagissey 

^ History of Art by its Monuments (1847). 
2 Harl. MS. 603, fol. 14. 

^ Illustrated in Rutter's Delineations of N.W. Somerset, PI. 15, fig. 4. 
^ Royal MS. 2. B. vii. Old England, fig. 50S. 
5 Hist. Somerset, Vol. L, p. 187. 



Saxon Baptismal Font. 



87 



and Stratton, Cornwall ; Plymstock, Devonshire ; Sapcote, Leices- 
tershire, &c,, and are figured in the volume of " Illustrations 
of Baptismal Fonts " ^ above mentioned. None of these, how- 
ever, appear from their mouldings to be of either Danish or Saxon 
date, but belong probably to late ISTorman times, from the end of 
the 11th century to late in the 12th. Fourteenth century cup- 
shaped fonts are common both in England and on the Continent. 

Mr. W. Nelson Cote says -p- — " The earliest pictorial represen- 
tation of the rite of baptism we have found is in a manuscript 
of the ninth century, in the library of La Minerva, at E-ome. It 

is entitled Benedictis Fontis It is one of the oldest 

illustrated manuals of Baptism in existence, and prescribes trine 
immersion." The font - represented in this picture is not unlike 
some of those still to be found in the early Baptisteries of 
northern Italy, quatrelohed in shape, and large enoug>h for the 
total immersion of several adults at one time. It is not likely 
that such la.rge fonts were ever used in England. We know from 
Bede ^ that it was usual in early days in this country to baptize 
all converts, as in the apostolic period, by immersion in rivers, 
lakes, or springs. Thus it is stated that Paulinus baptized at 
York, ^ in a wooden church built for the purpose. King Edwin of 
Northumbria, with all his nobility, and a large number of the 
people. A little later it is recorded that, at Adgefrin, Paulinus 
was fully occupied for thirty-six days in catechising and baptizing 
the people resorting from all villages and places in the neighbour- 
hood, and, when instructed, " he washed them with the water of 
absolution in the river Glen which is close by." Also " he 
baptized in the river Swale, which runs by the village of 
Cataract," — (Catterick, near Richmond, Yorkshire, the Roman 
Cataractonium), " for as yet oratories or fonts could not be made, 
in the infancy of the church in those parts." This statement of 
Bede's seems to have been taken by some writers to imply that 

1 This work is frequently called {e.g.. Transactions Vol. viii., p. 153) 
•'Paley's Fonts," because a preface was written for it by Mr. F. A. Paley. 
The editorial notice, however, on p. 5, is signed t.c. 

'■^ Archaeology of Baptism, London, 1826, p. 127. 

^ Bede Eccles. Hist. Bohn's edition, Book II. , ch. xiv. 

* On Christmas Day, a.d. 627. 



88 



Transactions at Beeehitrst. 



in his time (8tli century) baptismal fonts were not in general 
use in churches, But it seems only to refer to the converts of 
Paulinus and other early missionaries. ^ In the Yatican Library, 
at Rome, there is an ancient MS. ^ in which St. Sylvester is 
represented as baptizing a youth by immersion in a stone font, 
circular in shape and without ornament. It is probable that 
many of the early fonts were not unlike the one there represented, 
and that some of these remain still in use, having been more or 
less altered in shape and ornamented in later times. This is 
probably the case with the very interesting font in the church of 
St. Martin, Canterbury, which was said to be of the time of St. 
'Augustine (c. 600) though its sculptured ornamentation seems to 
be Norman work. There is a very early looking font, not unlike 
in general form and character the Deerhurst example, in the 
church at Morville, Shropshire, which is figured in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal. ^ In his Antiquities of [Shropshire, Vol. I., the 
Rev, R. W. Eyton states that there was a collegiate foundation at 
Morville in Saxon times, and thinks the font may possibly be " a 
relique of that age." At Linley Church, in the same county, is 
another early font, resembling that at Morville, but rather later 
looking in its style of ornamentation.'* Both have cable mouldings, 
and, as much of the architecture in both churches is of late 
Norman character, it is probable that the fonts belong to the 
same period : there is nothing of the special Celtic or Saxon 
character in their design such as we have at Deerhurst. There 
are some divergent spirals of the S. form on the large Norman 
font in Bromyard Church, Herefordshire. A tub-shaped font, 
ornamented with sculptured interlaced work, remains, stand- 
ing on the ground without a supporting pedestal, in Denton 
Church, but is probably of early Norman date, as is the jar-like, 
inscribed font at Little Billing, Northamptonshire.^ 

The very curiously inscribed font at Bridekirk, Cumberland, 
which used to be considered an undoubted Saxon work, is now 
1 See paper by JRev. H. M. Scartli, Transactions, Vol. v., p. 69. 
- v. Codex Greek : also figured by Mr. Cote, in Arch, of baptism. 
3 Arch. Journal, Vol. xii., p. 209, fig. 1. 
•* Id. , p. 209, fig. 2. 
5 Illust. B. Fonts, PI. I. 

i 



Saxon Baptismal Font. 



89 



supposed to have been made about a.d. 1150-70, by E/ichard, the 
architect of Norham Castle.^ There is a cast of it at South 
Kensington. 

The oldest baptismal font at present in use in England is 
doubtless that now in Chester Cathedral, but it is not a native 
production, having been brought to England a few years since from 
North Italy. It is a beautiful work of art, and probably dates 
from the 6th or 7th century. 

A stone object, somewhat resembling the upper part of the 
Deerhurst font, is represented in an ancient MS. in the British 
Museum, 2 the ornamental decoration with which it is covered 
consisting entirely of spirals. ^ This represents, however, not a 
baptismal font, but a sculptured stone well cover, such as one 
often sees in North Italy, and of some of which plaster casts are 
in the South Kensington Museum. This illustration, which is 
copied in Knight's Old Engiand,^ is of interest, since it shews 
that these ornamental well covers were used in England in the 
10th century. 

It is quite possible that the so-called " Saxon Font " in South 
Hayling Church, Hampshire, which, according to Longcroft,^ " was 
found in 1827, in a shallow well in the south parish," may have 
been a Saxon well-cover, rather than a baptismal font. As 
described and figured by Mr. J. Harris,^ this interesting relic, 
when discovered, consisted of a square block of limestone, measur- 
ing 2ft. 3ins. at the top, having a large hole at the bottom which 
permitted the water to flow in from the spring, and a smaller 
hole at the side, allowing it to escape into the adjacent pond. 
All four faces are ornamented with geometrical figures of early 
character, among which divergent spirals are clearly visible. 

Have we here an explanation of the reason why Saxon stone 
fonts are so seldom found in ancient churches 1 Was it the 

^ Stephens' Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, Vol. iii. 
pp. 222, 223. - Cotton MS. Nero, c. jv. 

^ In a modern Japanese drawing, reproduced in the Magazine of Art, 
Vol. VI,, 261, the waves of a river are represented by spirals very like these 

4 Old England, Vol. i. fig. 297. ^ Biog. Acc^ of the Hund. Bosmere 

^ Journal British Archaeological Association, (1886). Vol. 42, p. 65, and 
PI. 7. 



90 



Transactions at Df.ekhurst. 



custom in pre-Norman times to baptize outside the church, in 
holy wells or streams, and not, on ordinary occasions, within the 
walls of the sacred buildings. In another Cotton MS. which 
represents the consecration of a Saxon church,' two curious tub- 
like objects appear in the foreground, which may possibly be 
baptismal fonts ; both are apparently made of staves of wood 
roughly bound together, and one at least seems to be full of water. 
Wooden fonts were certainly used in England in early times, as 
they still are, I believe, by the Eastern Church in Russia, and else- 
where. ^ The font in Chobham Church, Surrey, is formed of wood, 
lined with lead ; there is a plain octagonal oak font at Efenechtyd, 
Denbighshire ; a rudely-fashioned object formed from the trunk 
of a tree, and supposed to have been used as a font in primitive 
times, is preserved in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland. A wooden font, found in a bog at Dinas Mowddwg, 
Merionethshire " formed of a massy piece of knotty oak, rude on 
the sides as in a state of nature, the top and bottom levelled 
seemingly with the axe," is figured in the Archseological Journal 
for 1856, where an account is given of it by Mr. W. W. Wynne, 
M.P., who says: " In the early days of Christianity Fonts were 
not confined to churches. They were usually kept in private 
houses, and sometimes in public places in the open air. Out of 
tenderness to infants they were afterwards removed into the 
porch, and finally into the church itself." No authority is given 
for this statement by the writer. In the very curious represen- 
tation given by Lacroix in his Moyen Age, Vie Eeligieitse, fig. 178 
of the baptism " des Saxons vaincus jjar Char lemagne, from a 15th 
century MS., the two Saxon Kings kneel in shallow wooden tubs, 
dressed only in their golden crowns, while the priest recites the 
baptismal office. In the back ground are eight similar tubs, filled 
with water, to which eight captives of lesser rank, perfectly nude, 
are being conducted by priests and acolytes. A church and 
monastery appear beyond. The sponsors, Charlemague and his 
officers, stand near the priests. 

^ Reproduced in Knight's Old England, Vol. i. fig. 215. 

2 Fonts of stone, or of wood — lapidareAim vel lupium — were ordered to be 
used in Scotland by the Provincial Synod, a.d. 1225. Wilkins Concill, 623. 
Archcyologia, xi., p. 122. 



Saxon Baptismal Foxt. 



91 



This picture reminds one of a somewhat similar event which 
took place in the year 878, near Langport, Somerset, where 
" Guthrum, the King of the Pagans (Danes), with thirty of his 
principal warriors, came to King Alfred at a place called Aller, 
near Athelney, and there the King receiving him as his son by 
adoption, raised him up from the font of holy baptism, and gave 
him the name of Athelstan." ^ 

The very rude and primitive-looking font in the church at 
Staunton, Gloucestershire, figured in our Transactions, ^ may also 
be of Anglo-Saxon date, as its one little band of ornament — 
which, according to Sir John Maclean, is " similar to that on the 
abacus of a Norman capital in the church of English Bicknor" — ^ 
may have been an addition of much later date. 

It will be seen from the above remarks that we are unable to 
gather much information as to the nature and appearance of Saxon 
baptismal fonts from representations given in early drawings or 
sculptures, but if we may judge from the few specimens of stone 
fonts which still remain, to which a pre-Norman origin can reason- 
ably be assigned, they differed as much in shape and character in 
pre-Norman times as they did in later periods. From the earliest 
times till the 15th century, among the hundreds of baptismal 
fonts that remain in our churches, so great is the variety of form 
and ornament that hardly two can be found alike in all particulars. 
It has been left for the 19th century workers to imitate instead 
of design, and it is now no unusual thing to find an entirely new 
copy of a baptismal font which the original designer probably 
carved with his own hands, and " out of his own head," some six 
or seven centuries ago. Some few instances may be named. The 
beautiful font in the Temple Church, London, is a good modern 
copy of one of late Norman date, in Alphington Church, Devon- 
shire. The " Norman " font in All Saints' Church, Bristol, is a 
poor copy of that in Thornbury Church, Gloucestershire.* The 
font now in use in Christchurch Priory Church, Hampshire, is a 
recent copy of the old one, fragments of which are still preserved 
in the church. 

1 Chron. Florence of Wore. a.d. 878. ^ y^j^ -pi 3 i^i. p. 28. 

The Thornbury font is figured in Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts, 
1. 18. 



92 



TkAKSACTIONS at DEERHtTRST. 



There has, however, been an immense improvement of late 
years both in the design and construction of baptismal fonts, and 
in the treatment of those of ancient date which had not been 
entirely destroyed. It seems hardly possible that less than half 
a century since the following statement could have been made of 
the then state of things in a christian country : — " A corres- 
pondent in the Church Intelligencer^ No. 63, who, in 1842, visited 
upwards of fifty churches between London and Lancashire, found 
the fonts generally in a miserable state. In six churches only 
was the font itself actually used. There were substitutes of all 
kinds, in one case a tea-cup. The font represented at p. 92, was 
used, as I am informed, as a substitute for a tub to catch rain 
water, but has been now properly replaced within the walls of the 
Parish Church of Youlgrave, Derbyshire.^ 

The substitution of basins, &c , for fonts seems to have been an 
innovation of long standing, as may be seen from an injunction of 
Bishop Wren, a.d. 1636, to be observed in his diocese of Norwich,^ 
"That the font at baptism be filled with clear water, and no 
dishes, pails, or basins be used in it, or instead of it." 

The first account published of the Deerhurst font was in the 
year 1845, when a drawing of the upper portion or bowl of the 
font was exhibited at one of the early meetings of the then newly 
established British Archaeological Association. The drawing had 
been sent by the late Mr. W. H. Gomonde of Cheltenham, with a 
letter, in which he said that the font had been " kept in a farm- 
yard many years ; perhaps in the time of the Reformation, or in 
that of Cromwell, it was ejected from the church," and that he 
was afraid it would be no more seen, " as I hear it has been sold 
for the sum of .£6, and carried away I know not where." ^ For- 
tunately, however, it had fallen into good hands. One month 
before Mr. Gomonde's letter was read in London, Dr. Samuel 
Wilberforce had accepted the Deanery of Westminster, which he 

1 Markland"s Remarks on EngHsh Churches, p. 91, note and fig. p. 92. 
- Bloxam's Principles of Gothic Architecture, 1882 edtn., Vol. ii., p. 19, 
note. 

3 Journal British Archaeological Association, Vol. i., p. 65. 



I 

I 



Plate VHT 




1 



F O N T, 

Deerhurst Church. 



a. From Elmsfeone. 

lAYA PS. 51 broapS' Bristol 



Saxon Baptismal Font. 



93 



held till the following October,^ when he became Bishop of Oxford. 
As Dean of Westminster, and one of the vice-presidents, Dr. 
Wilberforce took part in the meeting of the Archaeological 
Institute at Winchester, in September, 1845, and delivered an 
address on "The Nature and Value of Archaeology," which is printed 
in the Winchester volume of the Institute. (Introduction pp. 5-13). 

The following account of the modern history of the font has 
been given to me by the vicar (the Rev. Geo. Butterworth).^ 
" Its return to Deerhurst came about in this way. Miss Strick- 
land, of Apperley Court, discovered in the year 1870, in a garden 
close to the Severn, a mile-and-a-half from Deerhurst Church, an 
upright carved stone, used as a kind of rustic ornament to the 
garden. It fortunately struck her that the ornamentation of the 
stone exactly resembled that of the font, and that it was probably 
the stem of the ancient font, the bowl of which was, at that time, 
in Longdon Church. Miss Strickland brought me round to her 
opinion, and we then asked Longdon to give us up our old font ; 
Longdon most graciously complied, Miss Strickland giving in 
exchange a perfectly new font. I suppose it will always be matter 
of opinion whether or not the bowl and stem belong properly to 
each other. As they seem to fit each other, it would be very 
singular if there w^ere no old connection between them, the 
ornamentation being so nearly the same on both, and so remark- 
able, but it is not exactly the same, as on the stem a small portion 
of pattern is discoverable, which does not show on the bowl. 
The scroll pattern on both is, I believe, identically the same. . . . 
Whether the pattern of the rim and lower portion of the bowl is 
more modern than the spiral pattern, as some think, I cannot tell." 

It will be seen from the illustration [Plate VIII.) that the font, 
as it at present stands in Deerhurst Church, consists of three 
portions, each of which is formed of a single block of stone: 1, the 
upper portion or bowl ; 2, the pedestal ; and 3, the base or step. 

1. The Bowl. — This was the only portion figured in the Archseo- 
Icgical Association Journal, from Mr. Gomonde's drawing, and 

1 Ashwell's Life of Bishop Wilberforce, p. 261. 

^ See also Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, Vol. ii., p. 110. 



94 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



consists of a block of rather coarse-grained oolite (probably from 
the neighbouring Cotteswold Hills) circular, or rather tub-shaped 
in form, the surface being almost entirely covered with ornamental 
sculpture. 

The only remark respecting the font published in the account 
of the meeting of the British Archaeological Association, in addition 
to the brief extracts from Mr. Gomonde's letter, is as follows : 
being, I presume, the opinion of Mr. Thomas Wright, F.S.A., 
to whom the letter S()ems to have been addressed : — " The ornamen- 
tation is uncommon, and apparently of an early character ; " with 
which probably the subject would have been consigned to oblivion, 
had not the report of the meeting and the small illustration fallen 
into the hands of a gentleman who had given much attention to 
the subject of early art, Mr. J. O. Westwood, who wrote to the 
Association expressing a hope that the influence of that learned 
body might be exerted to rescue the font from the destruction 
that appeared to await it. Mr. Westwood, in this letter, gave an 
excellent account of the ornamentation of the font which, unfor- 
tunately, he had not at that time examined, his remarks being- 
founded upon the small woodcut illustration above-mentioned. 
Although this engraving gives a fairly good general idea of the 
appearance of the portion of the font it represents, it is not 
sufficiently accurate to be made use of for the purpose of critical 
comment upon the minute details of the ornamentation. As, 
however, Mr. Westwood's description of the font is by far the best 
that has been published, and as it has been quoted from by most 
recent writers on the subject it is here given. 

" This font, from the style of its ornamental carving, appears 
to me to be far more ancient than any other font hitherto repre- 
sented. The peculiar ornament of the body of the font — that of 
spiral lines running off" and conjoining with other similar lines, 
forming an endless pattern — is especially Irish, and is found in 
the finest of the most ancient illuminated Irish copies of the 
Gospels, and in those which were executed in England, under the 
influence of the Irish Missionaries. Thus it is found in all the 
illuminated pages of the Gospels of St. Chad and Mac Regol,^ and 

1 In Bodleian Library, said to date from about a.d. 820. 



Saxon Baptismal Font. 



95 



in the Gospels of Lindisfarne or Durham Book ; ^ but I do not 
recollect having seen it in manuscripts known to be more recent 
than the 9th centurj^ It also occurs on the Irish stone carved 
crosses. As therefore, in Saxon manuscripts more recent than 
the 9th century, we find no traces of this'* style of ornament, I 
think we are justified in regarding this font as the one existing at 
Deerhurst in the time of venerable Bede himself. The ornaments 
round the base and rim of the iont are, however, of a totally dif- 
ferent style, and I should conceive them to be after work of the 
11th century. Such flowing arabesques as they are represented 
to be, are never found drawn in MSS. which have the spiral 
pattern." ^ 

It will be seen from the illustration (Plate VIII.) that the 
pattern on the body of the font consists, as described by Mr. 
Westwood, of " spiral lines running off and conjoining with other 
spirals, forming an endless pattern." We will consider this 
portion of the ornamentation first, leaving the border patterns till 
later. It may, however, be as well to state at once that in the 
opinion of the present writer these borders are of the same age as 
the spirals ; the whole sculpture seems to be of the same style of 
workmanship, and appears to him entirely unlike any work of the 
12th century he has seen, both in its design and execution. 

In a most valuable article on " Celtic Ornament," written by 
Mr. Westwood, some years later than his letter above quoted, he 
says : — ^" The most characteristic of all the Celtic patterns is that 
produced by two or three spiral lines starting from a fixed point, 
their opposite extremities going off to the centres of coils formed 
by. other spiral lines. . . . Instances in metal-work of this pattern 
occur in several objects found in Ireland, . . . and in different 
parts of England. It is more rarely found in stone-work, the only 
instance of its occurrence in England, as far as we are aware, 
being on the font of Deerhurst Church. Bearing in mind that 
this ornament does not appear in MSS. executed in England after 

1 Bibl. Cott., Nero D. iv. 

2 Journal British Archasological Association, Vol. i., p. 250. 

2 Article on "Celtic Ornament" in Owen Jones's "Grammar of Orna- 
ment," (1868 edtn.) p. 93. 



96 



Transactions at Deerhitest. 



the 9th century, we may conclude that this is the oldest orna- 
mented font in this country." The same writer in a paper on 
" Early British, Saxon, and Irish Ornamentation/' published in 
the Archaeological Journal,^ says : — " It is worthy of notice that I 
have not found any instance of this spiral ornament on any of the 
carved stone crosses of Wales." It occurs on several of those of 
Scotland, but the only instance in England, known to him, 
was the Deerhurst font. 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen, E.S.A., Scot., in his " Notes on Celtic 
Ornament," of Scotland,^ says : "As regards Celtic stone-work the 
evidence of dated examples goes to show that the forms of orna- 
ment were developed in the MSS. first, and applied to stone-work 
later, but there is really no reason why some of the sculptured 
stones may not be at least as old as the Lindisfarne Gospels — that 
is to say, of the 7th century." The same writer states,^ " The chief 
characteristics of the Celtic style of art in Christian times are as 
follows : namely, first and foremost, the practice of arranging the 
ornaments in panels, each complete in itself and separated from 
the next, and entirely surrounded by a marginal frame. . . . 
These panels are filled in either with the geometrical forms of 
ornament already referred to, or with figures of dragons, ikc. . . . 
In later times foliaceous scroll work is also added." 

.Dr. Joseph Anderson,* says : — " The most distinctive charac- 
teristic of Celtic art is the absence of foliage It had 

reached its culminating point before a single foliaceous scroll 
makes its appearance." 

Mr. Allen ^ gives an interesting account of the geometrical 
forms of ornament which occur upon Celtic works of art of the 
early Christian period, which he divides into three classes, namely 
(1) interlaced work ; (2) key patterns ; and (3) spiral patterns. 
Of the latter he says,^ " There are, broadly speaking, two distinct 
forms of spiral patterns used in Celtic art : (1) where the band of 

1 Arch. Journal, Vol. x., p. 300. 

2 Proc. Soc. Antq. Scot. Vol. 188.3-4, pp. 253-308. 

3 Ibid, p. 259. 

Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2nd series, p. 82. 
5 Froc. Soc. Antq., Scot., 1883-4, p. 253-.S08, 



Saxon Baptismal Font, 



97 



which the spiral is formed gradually expands into a trumpet- 
shaped end ; (2) where the band of which the spiral is formed 
remains the same breadth throughout its whole length. The first 
of these forms is the earlier of the two, and is copied directly 
from the metal work of Pagan times." ,,. 

The Deerhurst spirals belong to the second and later of these 
classes. On page 297, of the same work, Mr. Allen figures three 
out of the eight panels of this font from a rubbing taken by 
himself, and on the next page he says the pattern is " founded 
on squares set parallel, the spirals being quadruple, and joined by 
C shaped curves." 

The question of the origin of the divergent spiral ornament, 
and of Irish or Celtic art, though a subject of much interest, is 
not that of the present paper. Much interesting and valuable 
information as to its early history and development will be found 
in the works of Professor J. O. Westwood, Mr. Owen Jones, Dr. 
Joseph Anderson, Miss Stokes, the Rev. G. F, Browne, Mr. 
Romilly Allen and other writers, most of whom favour the 
national or patriotic vieAv that Celtic design was an original 
product of our islands, though " whether the Irish in the first 
instance received their styles of ornament from the early British 
christians, or whether it was in Ireland that they originated, we 
cannot tell," says Mr. Westwood. ^ Various forms of spirals are in 
use all over the world as ornaments, and can be traced back almost 
to the dawn of art amongst pre-historic races. Of the diverging 
spirals the S form is much more common and general than the C 
form, such as we have at Deerhurst, but a design very similar to 
the latter is given by Mr. Owen J ones, from an ancient Egyptian 
tomb, which carries back this specially "Celtic" design to a period 
long before that of the earliest of the Celtic missionaries. It has 
been suggested by Mr. Westwood ^ that Byzantium and the East 
may have "afforded the ideas which early Celtic christian artists 
developed in the retirement of their monasteries," as it is known 

1 Grammar of Ornament, Celtic, p. 95. 

- Grammar of Ornament, Egyptian, pi. x., fig. 15. 

2 Ibid Celtic Ornament, p. 95. 

Vol. XI. H. 



93 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



that the British and Irish missionaries were constantly travelling 
to the Holy Land and Egypt. 

Diverging spirals of the C type, more or less resembling those 
on the bowl of the Deerhurst font, are figured by Dr. Anderson 
in his work on Scotland in Early Christian Times, from sculptured 
monuments in Scotland, at E-osemarkie, Drainie, Hilton of Cadbol, 
Monifieth, Shandwick, and St. Yigean's. This latter is especially 
interesting, as, in addition to some diverging spirals, it bears an 
inscription in the Celtic language which was read by the late Sir 
James Simpson as Drosten : ipe Yoret ett Forcus, which he 
translated thus : — " The stone of Drosten the son of Voret, of the 
race of Fergus," and he identified this Drost as a Pictish king 
who was slain in the year 729.^ Dr. Anderson does not accept 
this reading of the inscription, which he thinks may be of later 
date. This " Drosten's Stone " is also interesting in connection 
with our present subject as one of its sides is sculptured with a 
running scroll, described by Dr. Anderson ^ as " a foliaceous scroll 
with lanceolate leaves, and a triplet of fruit alternately on either 
side of the wavy stem," which reminds one somewhat of the scroll 
work at Deerhurst, though it is certainly not intended to represent 
the same plant. It seems to me that the shrub represented in the 
St. Yigean's monument is one not often found in sculptured stone, 
though I believe there is a 14th century example in the choir of 
Bristol Cathedral; namely, the Visct'.m Album, or mistletoe. 

Beturning to the ornamentation of the Deerhurst font we will 
now consider the nature of these scroll-work borders. The presence 
on the Drosten stone of both the diverging spirals and scroll 
pattern shows that there are exceptions to Mr. Westwood's rule 
that the two are never found together in Celtic art, or at least 
it shows that they are occasionally found together in sculptured 
stone-work. Another very early example of scroll work, some- 
what like that at Deerhurst, is on the two sides of the celebrated 
cross at Ruthwell, in Annandale, which was, according to its 
Bunic inscription, made by Caedmon, who died c. 680 a.d. These 
are figured by Dr. Anderson,'^ and described as " running scrolls 

1 Scot, in Early Christian Times, 2nd Ser. pp. 198-200. 

- Ibid. p. 194, fig. 125. ^ Hjij.^ ggg. M2, U3, and pp. 238, 244n. 



Saxon Baptismal Font. 



99 



each representing a vine, with its branches alternately recurved, 
and bearing grapes in symmetrical clusters, a bird or beast lodging 
in each of the branches and feeding on the fruit. The vine is the 
most ancient subject of Christian art. It appears in the cata- 
combs," &G. Now it has been supposed by Miss Butterworth, 
who has had every opportunity of studying the work at Deer- 
hurst, and has taken special interest in the font, that the scrolls 
there represent vine branches, with " symmetrical clusters " of five 
grapes each. This opinion may be right, but I incline myself to 
the belief that what the sculptor intended to represent was a 
branch of wild rose, with leaves, flowers, and fruit, possibly the 
common " Trailing Dog rose" {Rosa arvensis)^ the stems of which 
are nearly destitute of thorns. In Britford Church, near 
Salisbury, there is an ancient archway decorated with Celtic or 
Saxon interlaced work, the borders of which much resemble the 
borders of the Deerhurst font. This interesting work, which 
is undoubtedly of Saxon date, is beautifully illustrated in the 
Journal of the British Archseological Association,^ by Mrs. E. J. 
Goldney, where an account of the remains is given by Mr. H. J. 
F. Swayne, of Wilton, who has most kindly sent me a photograph 
of the ornament for comparison with the work at Deerhurst. It 
will be seen on comparing the design on Flate VI 11.^ with Mrs. 
Goldney's illustration, that the Britford scrolls, though they do 
not represent the same plant as those at Deerhurst, resemble the 
latter in several particulars, especially in the connecting links by 
which the sprays are united. Respecting these, Mr. T. S. Pope, 
in a paper on " the Architectural Remains of Deerhurst Priory 
Church,"^ says : " The representation of the little connecting links, 
technically called, " garters," inclines me to think that it was 
copied from goldsmith's work, for which the Saxons were cele- 
brated." Similar connecting links will be noticed in the orna- 
mental scrolls on the sides of the Buthwell Cross, and on the 
beautiful early cross in the churchyard at Bakewell, Derbyshire ; 
this latter, though without foliaceous enrichments, and therefore 
of earlier character than the Deerhurst work, resembles the latter 
1 Vol. xxxii. p. 497. 

- Proceedings Clifton Antiquarian Club (1885), Vol. i, p. 20. 
II 2 



lOQ 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



in having some of the triangular spaces left by the curves of the 
alternate right and left spirals, filled in with a curious trefoil 
ornament. 1 

It has been suggested that some of the Celtic and Saxon 
ornaments may have been imitated from Roman work. There can 
be little doubt but that the pilasters of the celebrated Couplet-win- 
dow in the east wall of Deerhurst tower are either Roman, or 
imitated from Roman sculpture {PI. V.) It is therefore possible 
that these scroll patterns may have been imitated by the pre- 
Norman workman from one of the Roman mosaic pavements, so 
many of which probably remained in the neighbourhood of Deer- 
hurst at the time the font was made. The border of the great 
circle in the Woodchester pavement, not many miles south of 
Deerhurst, has scroll-work not very dissimilar, though much more 
foliaceous than the patterns on the font. A somewhat similar 
pattern is common on Samian ware. 

It has been supposed by some writers that much of the Celtic 
ornament was derived from Roman work, but the fact that in 
Ireland, where the art attained its highest developement, few if 
any Roman remains are to be found, is fatal to the theory. 

II. The Pedestal. Some doubt has been expressed by at 
least one antiquary whose opinion on such subjects is worthy 
of our attention, as to whether the stone which now supports the 
bowl of the font at Deerhurst, really belongs to it, This sug- 
gestion appears to have originated with the Rev. G. Foster 
Browne, B.D., the President of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, from whom I received a letter about a year ago, in 
which he stated his opinion that the real pedestal of the font was 
preseved in a neighbouring church He did not give any reasons, 
however, for his belief, and it was at that time quite new to me ; 
it seems, however, to be still Mr. Browne's opinion, as appears 
from a report in the Academy for December IStli, 1886, of a recent 
meeting of the Cambridge Society, at which the President "showed 
an outline rubbing of the font (Deerhurst) and a fragment of a 
square stone support at Elmstone Hard wick, five or six miles on 

^ There is a beautiful engraving, by Le Keux, of this cross, in the Archl. 
Journal, Vol. XI., p. 282. 



Saxon Baptismal Font, 



101 



the Cheltenham side of Deerhurst. These are covered with spirals 
of the C pattern, very carefully and elaborately drawn, and they 
are quite unlike any other sculptured stones in England. The font 
has above and below the panels of spirals a very graceful scroll, 
probably of a later pattern than those on the Ruthwell cross, ^ the 
Drosten stone at St. Vigeans, and other very early examples." 
Mr Browne thought that the theory of a previous speaker that 
some of the so-called " Saxon work " at Deerhurst was " a repro- 
duction after the conquest of early patterns and details," met 
some of the difficulties peculiar to Deerhurst, but he could not 
dispute the Celtic character of the spiral work on the font, and 
could not conceive where the supposed copier could have found 
his originals in the twelfth century. 

In an article on " Sculpture in Pictland," ^ \)y the Rev. G. F. 
Browne, the author accepts the theory that the St. Vigeans stone "is 
presumably a memorial" of Drosten son of Yoret, slain a.d. 729 
and says, that many beautiful variations of this scroll occur on 
stones in the North of England, at a date quite as early as that 
named ; the Ruthwell cross, as previously mentioned, belongs to 
the 7th century (c.665). Though the Deerhurst scroll work is pro- 
bably of rather later date than these, it does not follow that we 
are therefore to attribute it to the 11th or 12th century ; on the 
whole, it seems to me that in the absence of any pure Norman 
work in the church, we shall probably not be far wrong if we 
date the whole of the ornamental portions of the font, to the 
9th or 10th century. 

1 have recently, by the kindness of the Yicar of Elmstone, been 
enabled to take rubbings and measurements of the three sculptured 
sides of the stone there, and, on the same day, to examine 
and compare the rubbings with the spirals of the Deerhurst font. 
The result is that I have come to the conclusion — though it is 
somewhat audacious on my part to offer an opinion which is at 
variance with that of one of our very first authorities on sculp- 
tured stones — that the Elmstone fragment never formed part of 
a font, and that the pedestal now at Deerhurst is in its right 

^ Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2nd Ser., pp. 232, 244n, 

2 Magazine of Art (1883) Vol. II. p. 19. . ^ 



102 



TllANSACTIOXS AT DeERHUKST. 



place. My reasons for these opinions are : 1st, that the spiral- 
work on the present pedestal at Deerhurst is more like that on the 
body of the font than are the Elm stone spirals, being enclosed in 
panels ; 2nd, that it fits the upper part of the font much better 
than the Elmstone stone could ever have fitted it; 3rd, that the 
presence of the stone ornamented in a manner similar to the Deer- 
hurst pattern is sufficiently accounted for by the fact, for which I 
am indebted to the Vicar, the Rev. Geo. Bayfield Roberts, that the 
church of Elmstone, or as it is called in Domesday Book "Almondes- 
ton" 1 was founded by the monks of Deerhurst, to whom the parish 
belonged. The stone is but a fragment, and has been much cut 
about, having been used, apparently, as a water stoup in the 14th 
or 15th century, when, probably, its corners were bevelled ofi", and 
a square hole cut in the top. It is, however, possible that it once 
formed part of a cross, and that the hole is original. The spiral 
patterns remain upon three of the four portions of the original 
faces of the stone, no ornament being visible on the fourth face.^ 

The patterns upon the pedestal at Deerhurst consist of divergent 
spirals exactly resembling those on the upper portion of the font, 
enclosed in similar panels, but separated from each other by panels 
ornamented with interlacing strapwork ; this is so much worn 
that it is difficult to distinguish the exact design, but it is not un- 
like, I believe, work found on some of the stones with the spiral 
ornament in Scotland. The upper part of the pedestal is divided 
into seven panels, of which four contain the spiral ornaments. 
The lower portion has been cut down in a most curious manner, 
and now forms an octagonal stem, which is inserted into the 
step supporting the font. Whether this is original work, or was 
an alteration of the mediieval workmen, it is difficult to guess. 

It has been thought by some that the pedestal should be re- 
versed, so that the octagonal stem should support the eight panels 
of the bowl, but this would hardly be an improvement, I think, 
to the general effect of the font. Perhaps at the time this octagonal 
cutting was made the whole of the cut portion was inserted into the 

1 In Atkyns's Glo'cestershire, p. 225, it is called "Elmston." The 
present Vicar does not adopt the double name Elmstone -Hardwick, which, 
he says, is modern and unnecessary. - See Plate YIII, 



Saxox Baptismal Eont. 



103 



floor of the church. Mr. Butterworth informs me that before 
the parts were re-united, so far as he can recollect, both distal sur- 
faces of the stem were plain and unbroken, as was also the surface 
of the bottom of the bowl, which fits the stem. 

III. The Step, — The octagonal stone, upon which the font at 
present stands, has been in the church for some centuries, but is 
probably not nearly so ancient as the font itself. It supported, 
before the restoration of the Saxon Font, the curious nonde- 
script font described by Mr. Buckler ; ^ when the Saxon font 
was restored to Deerhurst, this old one was presented to the 
church at Castle Morton, Worcestershire, which happened to 
be in need of a font, and I believe it still remains there. Mr. 
Butterworth describes it as plain and unornamented, with an 
octagonal stem, probably of fourteenth or fifteenth century 
date, and he does not remember any "carved work" or "re- 
mains of scroll patterns in slight relief " with which Mr. Buckler 
imagines its surface to have been once covered. At the time 
Mr. Buckler visited Deerhurst, the Saxon Font was probably 
at Longdon, and so escaped his notice. I have not seen the font 
he described, 2 which then occupied the place of the present one 
in "the dark corner of the interior" of Deerhurst church, but if 
it belongs to the fourteenth century, when so much work was 
done at Deerhurst, ifc is probable that the much more beautiful 
font which preceded it, must then, for some incomprehensible 
reason, have been ejected from the church, and that neither the 
much abused men of the 1 6th nor of the 1 7th century were guilty 
of what all must look upon as an outrage on good taste if not a 
desecration. The step may also be of 1 4th or 1 5th century date. 

In conclusion the following dimensions of the font, as it at 
present stands in Deerhurst church, may be of interest. 

Total height without step (not including 4 or 5 ins. let into step) 

3 ft. 5 ins. 

Diameter across the top - - - - - 2 ft. 4^ ins. 

1 Ante pp. 64, 65. 

2 There is an engraving of it in Ly son's Gloucestershire Antiquities, 
PI, 52, fig. 8, which I am imformed is rather a flattering portrait. It cer- 
tainly does not agree with Mr. Buckler's description. 



104 



Transactions at Deekhurst. 



Diameter of interior of bowl > - - - 2 ft. 0 ins. 



The interior of the bowl is not lined with lead, nor does it 
appear ever to have been so. It had not originally a hole at the 
bottom to drain off the water, which seems to have been drawn 
off at the side. 

The County of Gloucester contains a fine series of pre-Refor- 
mation Baptismal Fonts, some few of which have been figured 
and described in our Transactions. Others have appeared in various 
archaeological publications, but the greater number, including 
some of considerable interest, remain, almost unknown, in our 
smaller country churches. It is to be hoped that many of these 
may find a place in our Journal, or still better that a com- 
plete record of the whole number may be undertaken by our 
Society. 



Depth - - . - 

Depth of exterior 

Greatest circumference of bowl 



1 ft. 1 ins. 



1 ft. 9 ins. 
7 ft. 5 ins. 



The Saxon Chapel at Deerhukst. 



105 



THE SAXON CHAPEL AT'BEERHURST. 
By the Rev. GEORGE BUTTERWORTH, M.A., Vicar. 

This building was brought to light in August, 1885, under the 
following circumstances : — Up to a certain day in that month 
there was no visible sign of what is now evident to all eyes. 
Abbot's Court was a rambling picturesque farm-house at Deer- 
hurst, with a general reputation of being very old. In consequence 
of a change of tenancy, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to whom 
the property belongs, purposed altering the character of the build- 
ing. It was to cease to be a farm-house, and was to be turned 
into cottages, or a cottage. Being vacant, and under ordinary 
repair, the building could easily be entered by the curious. Among 
others, the writer of this paper visited it, and noticed the great 
thickness of the walls of a portion of it. It belonged, evidently, 
to three distinct dates, the central portion being the oldest. This 
portion, like the rest of the house, was, upstairs and downstairs, 
divided into chambers, whether sitting-rooms or bed-rooms. Out- 
side, thick plaster covered the walls, and effectually concealed all 
ancient vestiges. At the back of the building a keen eye was 
just able to trace on the plaster, 14 feet from the ground or so, a 
faint marking of a somewhat semi-circular shape. It struck the 
writer that possibly this ill-defined line betokened the existence, 
beneath the plaster, of a round-headed window. On removing 
the plaster this proved to be the case. Stimulated by the hint 
thus fortunately conveyed, the writer, in conjunction with Mr. 
Collins, of Tewkesbury, the builder engaged on the repairs of the 
farm-house, examined most carefully the remaining portions of 
the thick walls, and the result of their joint investigations 
was the discovery of a chapel, consisting of nave and chancel, 
separated from each other by a rude chancel arch. 

One more word as to the discovery. Close to the walls of the 
farmhouse several fruit trees were standing. These were cut 



106 



Tkaxsactioxs at Deekhurst. 



down from the ground as the repairs went on ; and on the very 
day following the fall of one of them an inscribed stone of great 
apparent interest was perceived, which previously had been en- 
tirely concealed by the tree. More will have to be said about 
the inscription on this stone. 

I now proceed to describe the chapel. It is a small building 
divided into nave and chancel. The extreme exterior length is 
46 ft. ; the width of the inside of the nave is 16 ft., of that of the 
the chancel lift. The height of the side wails of the nave is 17ft. ; 
the thickness of the walls close upon 2ft. 6 ins. The two portions 
of the building arc divided by a very solid chancel arch. The 
material composing the walls is the blue lias stone of the locality ; 
all the angles of the chapel, the arches, imposts, and jambs are 
worked in dressed stone of an oolite description, procured no 
doubt from the neighbouring hills. The most noteworthy feature 
in the chapel is the chancel arch. The height of the opening 
from the ground is a little over 10 feet; the width from jamb to 
jamb, 6 feet 6 inches. The massive jambs, 2 feet 3 inches in thick- 
ness, are composed of large blocks laid in irregular long and short 
courses, five of these being found on the north side of the arch, 
seven on the south. The imposts consist of four members, and 
are 9 inches in thickness. Their mouldings may be briefly des- 
cribed as the union of a chamfer, two slight hollows, and an 
upright face above. The arch springing from them, formed of a 
ring of single stones, is of a stilted and somewhat horse-shoe 
shape. On the west side a plain square-edged label runs round 
the aisle, dying into the abacus ; on the chancel side there is no 
label {see the j^lcin Plate IX., and details Plate X.) 

The chapel had two entrances opposite to each other, near tlie 
west end of the nave. That on the south side is nearly ol)literated; 
but on the north side half of the arch and one entire jamb remains. 
{Plate IX. fig. 2). Like the chancel arch, this one also tends to 
the horse-shoe shape. Its jamb consists of five ashlar blocks of 
irregular size. The impost is 5 inches in thickness, and consists 
of a simple square projection. A square rib, or label, runs round 
the arch. The archway is 8 feet 3 inches high ; the entrance was 



Plate K 



E. 




S. 



W 

Newly Discovered Chapel at Deerhurst. 




lAM/is S/B/iOAD S'' Bristol 



The Saxox Chapel at Deeehuest. 



107 



only 2 feet 9 inches in width. No door appears to have been 
attached to it. 

0£ the windows of the nave, one is still perfect on the south 
side {Plate IX. fg. 3). Opposite to it, on the north, are remains of 
another, similar to it. The sill of the surviving window is 9 feet 
from the ground. It has no ashlar work about it. The opening is 
4 feet 6 inches in height, 2 feet 6 inches in width. There is a splay- 
both inwards and outwards. The head is semi-circular. Part of 
the inner oak framework, taking the curved form of the head, 
remains, and shows that the actual aperture admitting the light 
was very narrow. 

Over the windows there was an arrangement of thin slabs, 
placed in converging fashion, of which traces are visible. Apart 
from this single pair of windows and the doorways, no original 
features distinguish any longer the ancient walls, which at various 
times have had inserted into them modern windows and door 
frames. Probably there were only two windows in the nave : it 
had no west window, neither does the chancel seem to have had 
an east window. The height of the gable of the nave is 29 feet. 
The roof is modern. Resting upon the summit of the two side 
Avails, and reaching to the wall-plates, runs a series of oak beams, 
black with age. These help to form the flat ceiling of the nave, 
and must be of great antiquity. 

The ordinary building-stones of the walls are *of no great 
length or thickness, irregular as to size, and are bedded in very 
copious mortar. Inside and out, the walls were originally plastered, 
the plaster being carefully thinned off, where, at the angles, 
worked stone was met with. 

The chancel has an interior length of 14 feet. Its south wall 
is wanting. The north and east walls have been cut down at 
the level of 9 feet from the pavement ; and upon these massive 
truncated walls (supplemented by a new south wall, run out 
in the line of the south wall of the nave) was constructed, 
in the Tudor period, an upper room, forming a portion of the 
handsome timbered house which stands on the east side of the 
chapel, and into which both chancel and nave were incorporated 



108 



Transactions at Deerhukst. 



as domestic apartments. How daylight was admitted into this 
small chancel there are no means of knowing. 

In the N.E. angle of the chancel a first-pointed capital and 
abacus are seen.^ The height of the side walls of the chancel was, 
apparently, about 15 feet. 

Inserted into a large chimney-stack of the Tudor erection 
adjoining the chapel, a stone might have been noticed bearing the 
inscription already alluded to. Recently, however, it has been 
placed within the chapel to ensure its preservation. Its surface 
was of a nearly square form, but a great part has been cut away 
to render it, apparently, at one time the head-stone of a lancet 
window. The portion which remains is inscribed with letters of 
an early character, proving the stone to have been originally the 
dedication slab of an altar. The letters preserved run as indicated 
{Plate X., Jig. 1). Prior to mutilation the inscription was 
probably to this effect: — "In honore See Trinitatis hoc altare 
dedicate e." 

Now in the English Council of Celchyth, held in the year 
816, one of the canons ordered that care should be taken in the 
erection of new churches or chapels, that the name of the Holy 
Person to whom they were dedicated should be inscribed on the 
wall, or on a tablet, or else on the altar. ^ Even before this in- 
junction was issued, it is known that dedication inscriptions were 
sometimes made; but the practice seems soon to have become 
obsolete. Very few inscriptions of the kind have survived to the 
present day. 

I go on to speak of the probable date and history of the chapel. 

Its architectural features proclaim it, with sufficient clearness, 
to be of pre-Norman date, and at the same time evidence seems 
wanting which might assign it, by reason of details of a marked 
character, to an early portion of the Saxon period. It is probable 
that we may safely give it to the middle of the 11th century. 
Independent monumental evidence appears to corroborate this 

1 It looks as though there might have been a column under it, but there 
is not any actual indication of the former existence of such column. 

- Tlie locality of Celchyth, or Cealchythe (as that of Cloveshoo), is 
uncertain. Probably both were in Mercia. 



Plane I 




+ I N _H O N O 

Res ceTRi 

NITATIS HOC 
ALTAReoe 
DICATV e: 



+ODD^ DVXIVSSITI^NC 
RGGIAH AVIAN CONSTRVI 
MQVe DeiDcSRUNHONO 
Re STRINITATSPROANIMACR 
nANlSVly£LFRlClQ€ DGHOC 
Lq(2ASVFTA6 ALDReOVSVERO 

ePsayieANDeiDiDc/viTii id 

BVSAPtXIIIIAVHANNOSREG 
fNI€A[>0(/ARD) RGGISANGLORV 



Fig 2^ 



CHANCEL ARCH. 




BdF towarcLs J^aye' BaJI tffivarJjs Chancel 
(loohng east). (looking -west). 




IMPOST. 



Fig 4^. 



LaYAHS SlBHOAOy BfllSTOL. 



The Saxon Chapel at Deerhttrst. 



100 



assignment of date. Close to Abbot's Court, in the year 1675, 
its possessor, as lessee, Judge Powell, found in the adjoining 
orchard an inscribed stone of great archaeological importance. It 
runs thus in Latin : — 

Odda Dux jussit lianc regiam aulam' construi atque dedicari 
in honorem S. Trinitatis pro anima germani sui Elfrici que de hoc 
loco asupta. Ealdredus vero Eps qui eandem dedicavit II Idibus 
Apt xiiii autem annos regni Eadwardi Kegis Anglorum. (See 
facsimile')} 

Now this inscription, carefully preserved at Oxford, has hitherto 
naturally been referred to Deerhurst Church, and is the sole 
authority for giving that building the received date of A.D. 1056. 
Documentary evidence, indeed, establishes the fact of the donation 
of Deerhurst Priory by Edward the Confessor to the Abbey of 
S. Denis, near Paris ; and it is no improbable assumption that in 
the days of that monarch the church may have been renovated, 
or even, in greater or less measure, rebuilt. But be this as it 
may, it has now beconie a probability of the highest order that 
the Odda inscription says not a word about the church, but belongs 
really to the newly discovered chapel. It is matter for regret that 
the loss of a single letter in the mutilated altar-inscription throws 
just a shade of doubt over the reading " See Trinitatis.'^ It is 
just possible, scarcely probable, however, that the words " S. Petri 
Apli." should be substituted. But if " Trinitatis " is the true 
reading, then we have the fact of two stones inscribed with the 
same dedication-name being found close to the small Saxon chapel. 
That the shorter inscription belonged to the chapel there can 
scarcely be a reasonable doubt. It is a curious circumstance, 
here to be noted, that the Chronicle, or Register, of Tewkesbury 
Abbey, deposited in the British Museum, and quoted by Leland 
and Dugdale, speaks of an inscription to be seen in the writer's 
days at Deerhurst, which, as given in the Chronicle, resembles 
greatly the existing " Odda inscription," but strangely alters some 
of the terms. The chronicler states that the inscription was to 

^ A cast {Plate X. fig. 2) of this inscription, together with a record of 
its discovery, has been placed within the chapel. 



110 



Transactioks at Deerhuest. 



be found over the entrance of a small chapel which was opposite 
the gate of the Priory, i 

Is this " small chapel " our recovered chapel In spite of a 
considerable amount of jumble, and of the attributing of an 
unconscionable antiquity to the inscription he gives us, it seems 
almost certain that the writer is alluding to the surviving " Odda 
inscription." If so, however, he shows, it is true, a curious ignor- 
ance, or oversight, as to " Edward, King of the English." But 
what to my own mind is quite conclusive against the claim of Deer- 
hurst Church to the appropriation of the " Odda inscription " is 
the impossibility of the church having been constructed in the 
very limited time between the consecration of the " regia aula " 
and the death of JElhic, whom, it commemorates. This period, 
as we know, from the early chronicles, and the inscription itself, 
was little more than two years — a space of time wholly inadequate 
for the erection of such a building as the stately Saxon priory 
church. 

The chapel, then, seems to name Odda as its founder with an 
utterance clear and decisive. We are compelled therefore to 
enquire into the history of Odda, as well as into that of the manor 
upon which the chapel stands. The old chroniclers and various 
charters give us the following information : — Odda (whose name 
seems to be a variant of several well-known forms of the same 
appellation, such as Odo, Otho, Oddo) was one of two, probably 
three brothers, who were kinsmen as well as friends and adherents 
of the Confessor. 

Long before Edward came to the throne, Odda, the eldest of 
the family, had been apparently engaged in public employments.^ 

1 The original words, as given by Dugdale in his Monadicon, are these : 
** Isti prsefati duces " (Oddo and Doddo, supposed to be flourishing in Mercia 
at tlie beginning of the 8th century), " habuerunt quondam fratrem nomine 
Almaricum, cujus corpus fuit sepultum apud Derhurst in parva capella 
contra portam prioratt\s ibidem, quia capella ista aliquando fuit aula regia : 
ibi monstratur sepulchrum ejus usque in hodiernum diem, ubi scribitur in 
pariete supra hostium, Hanc regiam aulam Doddo dux consecrari fecit in 
ecclesiam ad honorem SanctoB Marice Virginia ob amorem fratris sui Ahnarici." 

A chapel connected with the church could not be opposite to the gate of 
the priory, being, therefore, of course, external to the precinct. — Ed. 

'•^ As early as the year lOln he subscribes a charter -with the appellation 
"minister" (thane); in 1035 he styles himself "Miles"; in 1044 he is 
"nobilis." t 



The Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst. 



Ill 



He seems to have resembled Edward in tastes and character : 
pious, and devoted to ecclesiastical interests, he assumed the 
monastic habit before his death. We are unable to trace with cer- 
tainty his place of residence during the greater portion of his life, 
but, when advanced in years, we find him suddenly summoned, on 
a crisis in Edward's reign, to the government of a large portion of 
the south-west of England. This crisis was the expulsion, although, 
as it proved, only temporary, of the powerful house of Godwin, in 
the year 1051. It is to be remembered that, although in theory 
and by title Edward was surpreme lord of the whole of England, 
yet, practically, during his entire reign his rule over a great portion 
of the kingdom was little more than nominal, and indeed elsewhere 
the power of the earl in charge was much more of a reality than 
that of the sovereign. Earl Godwin, with his several sons, Harold, 
Sweyn, and the rest, acting almost always in opposition to the 
King, although, it may be, on patriotic principles, possessed a most 
extensive jurisdiction. South of the Wash, the whole east of Eng- 
land was theirs, then the south-east, then the whole of the south 
below (and sometim.es above even) the line of the Tham3s, and 
lastly all the district to the south-west of the Bristol Avon. This 
unbroken territory comprises at least a dozen of our modern 
English counties. As opposed to the house of Godwin, and ever 
firm in allegiance to the King, are to be reckoned up to the 
time of their respective deaths, the Great Northern Earl Siward, 
and Leofric Earl of Mercia (husband of Godiva) who, under 
Edward, governed the midland counties. When Edward managed 
to banish Godwin and his sons, he at once found an Earldom 
for his relative Odda, and gave him the counties of Devon, 
Dorset, Somerset and Cornwall. Soon afterwards he gave to him, 
together with another relative of his own, the joint command 
of the royal fleet at Sandwich. However, we hear of no great 
doings on the part of Odda. In the following year the banishment 
came to an end, and with it the short-lived jurisdiction of Odda. 
At no long interval after these events we come upon traces of 
Odda at Deerhurst. His brother Elfric died there in December, 
1053, and to his memory Odda erected what in the existing 
inscription is styled a " rcgia aula." Odda himself died also at 



112 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



Deerhurst, on 31st August, 1056, only a few months after the 
consecration of his sacred edifice (12th April), What was the 
exact nature of his connection with Deerhurst, or Gloucestershire, 
is simply a matter of conjecture or inference. 

It has been considered probable, on the evidence of signatures 
to charters, that subsequently to his appointment to his great 
earldom, he held some smaller command within the extensive 
dominion of the friendly Earl of Mercia, Leofric. and that this 
government gave him the title (which he employs) of "Dux." 
But we do not feel certain that he calls himself " Dux " after his 
resignation. No doubt by some description of tenure or another he 
held property at Deerhurst. He was also connected with Pershore 
Abbey, where he became a monk very soon after Jie resigned 
his great earldom, and where both he and Elfric were buried. 
E-especting Elfric, we know that, after an active life, he also 
became a monk. It seems highly probable that a certain Dodda, 
who appears in frequent connection with both Odda and Elfric, 
was their brother. After Odda's death he is known as " Princeps."^ 

Here we have to investigate, as best we are able, the nature 
of Odda's work at Deerhurst, and the history of the site of the 
building which we assume was his. The expression " regia aula " 
has been variously interpreted. Like "basilica," its synonym, 
it may mean a church : both words, standing separately, bear 
frequently this meaning, as is shewn by Ducange ; or, it is thought, 
the expression may have regard to the founder, as being a royal 
or sub-regal personage. The purport of the builder, as solemnly de- 
clared in the inscription, forbids us to contemplate a " royal hall " 
in a merely secular sense. Built in view of the repose of the soul of 
a brother, the erection was doubtless one of a sacred character— 
an oratory, it may be, or chantry chapel, attached to which may 
have been a residence for officiating priests. We have seen that 
its consecration took place in the year 1056. But now little more 
than nine years afterwards the extensive Manor of Deerhurst, 
upon which stands the small chapel recently discovered, was for- 
mally conveyed to the Abbey of Westminster by the great charter 

1 For a portion of these details I am indebted to the kindness of Walter 
de Gray Birch, Estj[., of the British Museum. 



The Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst. 



113 



signed by the dying Edward on the 28th December, 1065. Indeed 
long before this date the Confessor had been making preparation 
for his grand foundation, and had accumulated on its behalf 
enormous treasures in money and land. A certain undated Saxon 
charter relating to the abbey makes it more than probable that 
the Manor of Deerhurst was actually bestowed on Westminster 
several years before the great Latin charter was signed. On the 
supposition, then, that Odda erected his sacred building on an 
estate forming part of the Deerhurst Manor, we may raise the 
question as to whether he was a party with the King in bestowing 
the manor and the " regia aula " upon the abbey, or whether it 
was after his death that Edward made the gift. At all events it 
is matter of history that what Edward gave the Conqueror con- 
firmed, and that this manor remained in the possession of the 
abbey till the Dissolution, when it was conveyed to the newly- 
formed Capitular Body of Westminster. 

It is stated indeed by Leland that when Deerhurst Manor was 
first bestowed upon Westminster it had been taken away from 
Pershore Abbey, but the great antiquary seems to have been led 
into error — the fact being that both the Manor of Pershore and 
that of Deerhurst were granted at the same time to the favoured 
establishment rising on the northern bank of the Thames.^ 

If we could receive Leland's statement as correct, we might 
then conjecture that possibly it was Odda who originally gave 
the manor to Pershore — an abbey to the interests of which he 
was evidently devoted. But the statement is supported by no 
evidence. Also I may add that Leland makes the evident mis- 
take of attributing to the Conqueror the Confessor's act of 
donation to Westminster. 

The Manor of Deerhurst, together with the chapel, seems to 

have been altogether independent of the Priory of Deerhurst, 

although the chapel is within a very short distance of the latter. 

It has been observed by the Pev, C. S. Taylor that the entire 

old Hundred of Deerhurst was composed of the manor of that 

^ Domesday does not inform us as to the right Edward possessed of 
conveying Deerhurst. It does mention, in the case of Pershore, that that 
manor was the King's. 
Vol. XI. 1. 



114 



Transactions at Deeehurst. 



name (belonging to Westminster), and the possessions in Glouces- 
tershire of Deerhurst Priory. He founds upon this fact the 
ingenious conjecture that at an early period Deerhurst Manor, 
including many modern parishes, belonged to Deerhurst Priory, 
which subsequently was forcibly dispossessed of it. 

One would be reluctant to believe that Odda, instead of 
building Deerhurst Church (which work has long been attributed 
to him on wholly insufficient grounds), had actually "persuaded " 
the prior and the orethren to part with a valuable possession. 
So let us hope that he personally was quite within his right in 
dealing, in any way he may have done, with the Manor of Deer- 
hurst. At the same time, in those primitive days, even men of 
pious memory, as Odda undoubtedly was, appear to have had 
little scruple as to " robbing Peter to pay Paul," or, as to the 
matter of that, to enrich themselves. History is by no means 
favourable altogether to the Confessor himself, as to his way of 
dealing with monasteries and their endowments. It is to be noted 
that although both Elfric and Odda died at Deerhurst, they could 
not have been regular inmates of the priory, as they were monks 
of Pershore Abbey. Something must have drawn them both to 
Deerhurst. 

Although it seems certain that the "Odda inscription" does 
not record the fact of the building of the church by the Earl, yet 
it is by no means improbable that work was done to the priory 
and church in the days of Edward and Odda. It is known, as 
has been said, that Edward gave the priory to S. Denis, and it is 
very possible that the monastic buildings needed restoration or 
reparation at the time of the donation. 

Forty years earlier Cnut, in his heathen days, had ravaged 
the greater part of Mercia, and specially let loose his destructive 
propensities against churches and monasteries. In one of his 
expeditions he arrived at Deerhurst, where he made a peace with 
Edmund Ironside (a.d. 1016). Deerhurst Priory had been at 
his mercy, for Edmund had kept on the other side of the Severn. 
If the priory escaped devastation it was little less than a miracle. 
Still we have no direct evidence either that Edward the Confessor 



The Saxox Church at Deerhfrrt. 



rebuilt the priory, or that Odda undertook this same work. 
Toward the close of the 10th century the priory must have been 
in good condition, since we know that S. Alphege was at that time 
a monk there. It seems likely that at a still earlier period, as 
tradition says, it had been devastated by the Danes. 

The discovery of the chapel, and the consequent removal of 
the date 1056 from the church will probably modify the general 
view of the age of the latter building. Till quite of late Deer- 
hurst Church has been confidently pronounced to be a building of 
the middle of the 11th century. Now such certainty has disap- 
peared. Some of our best antiquaries, among them Mr. Buckler, 
led by the supposed monumental date, have ascribed the main 
portion of the existing Saxon work to the 11th century, while 
they affirm that certain features must be much more ancient, and 
that these had doubtless been taken from some older church. I can- 
not but think that there is much to support the theory that these 
so-called " more ancient features " are actually in their original 
position, and that the tower and other Saxon portions of the 
church date from before the 11th century, although they may 
have received restorative treatment at that period. 

One concluding word about the chapel. From the days of the 
Confessor onward down to the Reformation we may conceive of 
it as a consecrated building, having beside it, or around it, 
erections of a domestic character, — notably, a lodge of the Abbot 
of Westminster, or the " Abbot's Court." At the Dissolution it 
is to be presumed that it was disused as a chapel, and incorporated 
into the pile of a new residential building. Whether or not Odda's 
dedication marked the transfer of the whole manor either to 
Westminster or to some other religious house, is a point which 
cannot, with our present evidence, be determined. Were this, 
indeed, the actual case, we should have no difficulty in taking 
" aula " as describing what certainly (as stated above) was to be 
found on the spot in subsequent years, viz. , a range of buildings 
of a mixed character, comprising, no doubt, a house of goodly 
dimensions, together with a chapel — the whole being dedicated to 

religious uses. However, as regards the question of a gift, in the 
I 2 



116 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



first instance, to a large religious establishment, it must be con- 
ceded that the actual terms of the inscription point rather to an 
independent foundation, and to an erection appurtenant to the 
manor on which it stood. 

Since the foregoing remarks were set up in type, the writer 
has been able, we believe, to set at rest the question of the 
true reading of the mutilated inscription. He writes that on 
taking down the stone bearing the short inscription for the pur- 
pose of setting it up in the chapel on bringing it into a better 
light, he could distinctly see the commencement of the stroke 
over the letter C in the contracted word " Sancte," thus removing 
all doubt as to the accuracy of the reading of that word (see ante 
p. 109). He writes further, "it may also interest the readers of 
the Transactions to be assured that the soil of both parts of the 
old chapel has been carefully excavated to a depth of several feet, 
with the result of finding nothing of interest. We had no right 
to expect to come upon any relics of Elfric, brother of Odda, as 
it appears quite certain that, although dying at Deerhurst, he was 
interred at Pershore. The archives of Westminster Abbey have 
not as yet been made to yield any notices of the ancient chapel. 
It has been recently ascertained that the accounts of the Manor of 
Deerhurst are preserved there for the period between Edward I. 
and Henry YII." 



ClKENCESTEK FllKE GkAMJIAK 8cH00L. 



117 



CIRENCESTER FREE GRAM]\IAR SCHOOL. 
By the Rev. E. A. FULLER, M.A. 

While searching ancient records for matters relating to the 
Parish Church of Cirencester, I was incidentally led to examine 
into the history of the Cirencester Grammar School, which, in its 
earlier days, was appendant to the church. 

In towns where the power and influence of a great monastery 
was supreme, the foundation of a free school was sometimes the 
act of the monastic body. Thus Jocelyn de Brakelonde tells us 
in his chronicle that Abbot Samson, of Bury St. Edmonds, in the 
reign of King John, being desirous that education shou]d thence- 
forward be free, first provided a school-house, and afterwards a 
schoolmaster's stipend, so that the scholars should no longer have 
to contribute either towards the rent of premises, or the salary of 
teacher. There is nothing to shew that at Cirencester there was any 
connection between the monastery and the school. Nor is there 
any record of the original founding of the school ; but there would 
appear to have been a school in the town from an early period, 
for in the registers of the Abbey of Gloucester ^ is a record con- 
cerning a dispute which arose between that Abbey and the Abbey 
de Lyra. The matter coming before the Pope, he appointed the 
cause to be heard in Cirencester Parish Church by the Abbot of 
Eynesham, the Prior of St. Frideswide's, and the Dean, i.e. Rural 
Dean of Oxford, who again nominated three deputies, one of whom 
was the schoolmaster of Cirencester. This establishes the fact 
that a school existed as early as A.D. 1282 ; but I have found 
nothing concerning the maintenance of the school at that period, 
nor any other mention of it from that time for two hundred 
years, when in the register of Robert Morton, Bishop of Worces- 
ter,2 in a list of contributors from the Deanery of Cirencester 
in 1487 to a clerical subsidy for the King, among the chantry 

1 I., 281. 2 f. 14 b. 



118 



Transactioks at Deekhurst 



priests and stipenclaries of Cirencester Parish Church appears the 
name of Master Simon Moreland, Schoolmaster of Cirencester, 
who has to pay 13s. 4d., i.e. a fifteenth of £10. This <£10 was an 
endowment by John Chedworth, Bishop of Lincoln, who died in 
1481, and it was paid by the Monastery of Winchcomb, a charge, 
I presume, on some donation of land to that monastery by the 
bishop ; but I have not been able to find any particulars of the 
grant, neither the bishop's will nor the Winchcomb registers of that 
date being in existence. The bishop was a Gloucestershire man, of 
good family, one branch of which was about that time settled in 
Cirencester, John Chedde worth and Thomas Chedde worth being, 
in 1460, two of the feoffees of the property of the Lady Chapel in 
the parish church. The bishop, in 1458, obtained a license 
to found a chantry in that church, ^ where the Chedworth arms 
still remain, both carved on a shield in the Lady Chapel, and 
depicted in stained glass in the tower window, azure a checron 
between three foxes' or wolves' heads erased or. The chantry, as he 
founded it, was for a schoolmaster ; and in the ecclesiastical 
valuation made in 1535 for the payment of a tenth to the King, 

in the account of the parish church, Humfrey master of 

the Grammar School of Cirencester, appears as receiving yearly 
.£10 from the Winchcomb Monastery according to the appoint- 
ment of John Chedworth, formerly Lord Bishop of Lincoln, and 
the payment of the <£10 is entered among the accounts of that 
abbey. 

Bad times were now at hand for the School. That valuation 
of 1535 had revealed a large amount of wealth, which the King 
and his courtiers were eager to appropriate. First fell the smaller 
monasteries in 1536 ; and in 1539 the larger houses shared their 
fate : Winchcomb was suppressed along with the others, and 
there was an end of the Bishop's endowment of <£10, which 
thenceforward, whatever other use it may have been put to, was 
utterly lost to Cirencester School. How the townspeople managed 

1 Pat. 35, Henry VI. i. 6. 

- Say veil (?SaYille) appears to be the missing name. For the will of 
of R. Osmond, A. D. 1517, at Somerset House (Holder quat. 34) is said to 
have l^een drawn by Humphrey SayvcU, at that time Curate of Cirencester. 
Val. P^ccles. ii. 447, 459. 



ClRENCESTEH FreE GrAMMAK ScHOOL. 



119 



during the next five years does not altogether appear ; but it is 
quite clear that they did not find it an easy thing to raise a stipend 
of £10, equivalent to about £120 now ; and in 1545 they diverted 
the endowment of the Lady chapel in the Parish Church to school 
purposes ; at any rate they made the chantry priest keep school 
for his stipend of £7, besides saying mass, he having from other 
sources a pension of £4. They were not, however, out of their 
troubles yet, for the greed of the king and his courtiers remained 
unsatisfied as long as there was any property of any kind left in 
connection with the church which could be seized ; and two Acts 
were passed in 1546 and 1547, which confiscated to the king all the 
property of every chantry, guild, &c. 

Commissions were issued, and reports made by the com- 
missioners under both these acts concerning the property of the 
various chantries, &c. ; and as matters began to look serious, and 
there was great danger lest the town should again be deprived of 
the Schoolmaster's stipend, the people made interest with the 
commissioners under the act of 1547 — who were a number of 
Gloucestershire gentlemen, some of them belonging to the 
neighbourhood — and induced Thomas Sternholde the king's 
surveyor to append to his final report the following memorandum. ^ 

" That this saide Towne of Cyrencestre is an ancyent Boroughe 
Towne. The greate number of people and the contynuall accesse 
of the nomber repayringe to the same Towne consydered, the 
Inhabytants there are most humble Sutours that it may please the 
King's majestie and his most honorable Counsell to lett them have 
therein stablyshed some learned man to teach a grammer Scheie 
for the vertuouse bryngynge up of the youthe thereabout where 
are many chyldren which heretofore hath been very rudely and 
ignorantly and for lack of such a teacher syraplye brought up and 
without knowledge till within these three yeres paste ; Sythens 
which tyme the aforesaide parishioners v/ith their whole assente 
dryven thereunto of grete necessitie did appoynte one of the 
abovesaide services in their said churche called our Ladye Service 
to be counted to the keeping of a Scheie, and the Incumbent 

1 Augmentation Office, Certificate of Chantries, 23, No. 40, 



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thereof named as abovesaid Syr Thomas Taylor hath very diligently 
appleyed himself in teachinge of children and hath hadd for his 
salarye yerely vij lih. and his mansion house. In which saide Towne 
till the dissolution of the monastery of Wynchecome there was 
graunted and payed oute of the same monasterye one yerely pension 
of X liK to and for a fFree scole there to be maynteyned and kept. 
Sythens the dissolution of whiche monasterye the same yerely 
pension of x lib. hath been withdrawen and not payed unto the grete 
discommoditie of the same towne of Cirencestre." 

Sternholde supported this petition by naming Cirencester as 
one of the "Townes where it is thought moost necessary e and to 
be placys moost mete to have grammer scoles newleye erected." 
Accordingly when this report came before the Council in London 
that the disposal of the property might be settled, they determined 
that the school should be continued with the accustomed wages 
till further orders. ^ This was in the first half of 1548, and the 
final settlement was not long delayed. On June 20th in the same 
year, a commission was issued to Sir Waiter Mildmay and 
Robert Kelway, to determine about the grammar schools, and 
they on July 20th appointed that the long established school at 
Cirencester should be continued, that Thomas Taylor should 
continue to be schoolmaster at his previous stipend of <£7, which 
should be paid him by the receiver of the court of Augmentations 
for Gloucestershire. 2 No doubt it was thought that matters were 
all safe now, but there was another turn in fortune's wheel for the 
school yet. Queen Mary came to the throne, and after Michaelmas 
1555 there was no more stipend to be got out of the crown receiver. 
The school, however, was not allowed to drop, the master did his 
work, and was maintained somehow by the townspeople, in hope of 
better times returning. It does not appear how or when Taylor 
vacated the school, he was only thirty-three in 1548, but in January 
1560, Elizabeth having then been more than a year on the throne, 
William Ardern, Schoohnaster of Cirencester appeared before the 

^ A marginal note was made to tliis effect on Sternholde's Report — con- 
tiiiuetur the scho/e (/uonsque. 

- Lord Treasurer's Remembrancers' Roll, Exclie(|. Record, 2nd Elizb. 
Hil. pars. i. rot. 6. 



Cirencester Free Grammar School. 121 

Barons of the Exchequer, told the story of the settlement of the 
stipend, and complained that though he and his predecessors had 
always done their work well and faithfully, yet since Michaelmas, 
1555, the crown receiver had steadily refused to make the appointed 
payment. Whereupon the Barons having searched the records of 
the Court of Augmentations ordered the arrears to be settled, and 
the stipend to be paid regularly in future. ^ From this time forward 
there was no difficulty about the £7, and before long local funds 
were available for its increase. 

How it was that the lands belonging to Jones' Chantry were 
preserved to the church does not actually appear, I presume 
it was owing to the fact that it was not founded as a perpetual 
chantry, but only for a - term of 60 years, of which 40 were 
already passed at the time of the confiscation of the chantry 
lands, at the end of which period of 60 years the feoffees were 
directed to make other uses of the money. It would almost seem 
that as soon as the chantry services ceased in the reign of 
Edward VI., the feoffees were accustomed to devote some of the 
income towards the school ; but at any rate when the term of 
60 years expired in 1567 and a new enfeoffment was made, then 
£7 or £S were appropriated to this purpose ; the town taking a 
great interest in the school. The condition of the school about that 
time may be gathered from a return made by John a Pennington, 
and other inhabitants of Cirencester, in answer to questions put 
by the Bishop of Gloucester, in 1579, as commissioner appointed 
by the crown to enquire into the condition of the grammar schools 
in his diocese,^ 

" First (say they) we find and testifye that we receive yearly 
the sum of seven pounds, deducting the portage money, to the 
use of our grammar schoole of Cyrencester. Item we find and 
testifye that our school at Cyrencester is well, tidily, and decently 
kept, continued, and maintained. Item we find and testifye that 
our Schoolmaster named Anthony Ellys a bachelor of arts is a 
sufficient, meet, well approved, and hable man to teach grammar, 
and teacheth his scholars diligently. Item we saye and believe 

^ Same reference as before. 

- Special Commissions, Excheq. I'lth Eliz, 875. 



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that the said grammar school cannot be placed in any other place 
more conveniently than where it is placed for the encrease of 
learning." The whole stipend is returned as 20 marcs, i.e. — 
<£13 6 8 ; and from another record the school would appear to have 
flourished under Ellys with from 100 to 120 scholars in attendance, 
sons of gentlemen and others. ^ 

A further increase of stipend was made by the crown in 1583 
at the suit of George Lloyd, gentleman, and others, on whose 
application Sir Walter Mildmay, the treasurer, advised the Queen 
to increase the £7 up to £20,- at which sum the endowment by 
the crown has since remained. It will be seen by this account 
that Cirencester does not owe much to the crown with regard to 
the grammar school endowment. The first interference of the 
crown, was a distinct robbery of an old school endowment of .£10 
a year. The next was, when confiscating land and houses, the 
clear annual income of which then in 1548 amounted to £66, 
simply to confirm an already existing appropriation of £7 of that 
amount, for a schoolmaster's stipend. It was thirty-five years 
after before that miserable pittance was made up to £20. 

The augmentation out of Jones' lands was not yet definitely 
settled. Thomas Helmes, who succeeded Anthony Ellys, seems 
to have been an incapable man, so the local authorities gave him 
notice to go, and the augmentation was withdrawn. Thereupon 
litigation ensued, and Helmes appealing to the Barons of the 
Exchequer, in 1587, complained of Christopher George, Esq., 
Henry Elrington, Humphrey Bridges, and others, as treasurers, 
churchwardens, and feoffees of Jones' lands, for detaining his 
stipend. He recited the confirmation of the first £7 to Thomas 
Taylor, declared that in 1567 the feoffees had by deed indented 
assigned £S to the schoolmaster's stipend, and alleged that about 
eight years ago, Henry Elrington, for seven years running 
churchwarden, envious perchance at this stipend of £8 disposed 
to so good a use, did along with the others begin to oppose the 
payment, and afterwards when the crown had increased its endow- 
ment to £20, they had retained the £S unthankfully as towards 

' Excheq. Bills and Answeis, Elizab. 90. 
Same reference as before. 



Cirencester Free Grammar School. ]23 

the crown, contrary to all equity and good conscience, and dead to 
the hindrance of good learning. A commission of enquiry was upon 
this issued to Sir Henry Poole and others, when Henry Elrington 
and the rest who were impleaded made their answer. They said 
there was no certainty about Thomas Taylor's appointment, but 
that after him, one Baker, schoolmaster, and his successors had 
been nominated, chosen, and admitted by the bailiff, treasurers, 
churchwardens, and others the masters of the town, with a stipend 
of <£7 from the exchequer, and £6 or £7 more added by the said 
bailiff, &c. The schoohnaster had always been removable upon a 
quarter's or half year's notice by the churchwardens, with consent 
of the bailiff and others, if there were cause of dislike. John Jones 
having directed, that at the end of the term of 60 years, the 
churchwardens, &,g. , should dispose his money to the repairing the 
body of the parish church, making and repairing of high ways, 
gifts to the poor, &c., at their discretion, they had in 1567, when 
a new enfeoffment was made to the above uses, thought good to 
increase the £7 out of the exchequer to <£14, if the schoolmaster 
should be one they liked, until other help might happen to be 
provided. But when the Queen augmented her £7 to £20, the 
treasurers, <fec., thinking that to be enough, had employed their 
£7 in repairing the church, at the present greatly in decay, and 
likely to be more ruinous if it be not forseen, also in amending 
some of the decayed houses of Jones' trust, in repairing of highways, 
and the poor. Moreover Thomas Helmes is so unskilful and slack 
that his scholars do not profit, and the school has dwindled down 
to 4:0 scholars, all which being considered by the Bishop of Glou- 
cester and the defendants, they gave half a year's notice to Thomas 
Helmes before the augmentation up to £20 was settled, so that 
they might provide a better schoolmaster. Albeit he Thomas 
Helmes hath heretofore proudly said that he will be schoolmaster 
in spite of the most part of the parishioners ; all which indiscreet 
speeches, and lewd bearing, and other causes considered, they 
prayed the court to let them as before have the nomination of tlie 
schoolmaster. As to the £7, when the half year's notice was 
expired, as they much disliked the contempt and obstinacy of the 
man in not departing, they had detained it, as was lawful according 



124 



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to the terms on which it was granted, but it was detained for no 
other cause, and not at all for the hindrance of learning. There- 
upon the court considering that it was needful to have an usher 
in the said school, ordered the disputed stipend, which they fixed 
at £8, to be employed ever in maintaining an usher in the said 
grammar school, and the schoolmaster for the time being to be 
content with the £20 given by her majesty. It was also ordered 
that Helmes should be examined by the Bishop of Gloucester, and 
Dr. Rudd, the Dean, concerning his abilities to teach and aptness 
to train up scholars, with power to remove him if they thought 
good. They were also to settle about the arrears, and the bishop 
from henceforth was to have the appointing of schoolmaster and 
usher. 1 

The result of the bishop's visitation, of which there is no account, 
must have been that Mr. Helmes was continued as schoolmaster, for 
his name appears as such as late as 1614, at which date the regular 
entries in the vestry book commenced. But the churchwardens, &c., 
as plainly resisted the order concerning the payment of the £8 ; 
for on complaint of Helmes to the Lord Chancellor, in 1603, 
another commission of enquiry was issued under the Charitable 
Uses Act, of 1601, to Sir Henry Poole, Sir John Hungerford, 
George Master, Esq., and others ; when a jury found that the 
churchwardens and others as feoffees of Jones' lands, had by deed 
indented in 1567, apportioned £8 yearly to the free grammar 
school, which £8 having been regularly paid to the schoolmaster 
from 1567 to 1583, had since that time been withheld and detained.'^ 
A decree now finally settled the payment of the £8 as obligatory, 
and it would seem that at first under the order power was given 
to the master to receive the £8 from the tenants of J ones' land 
direct ; but afterwards on petition to Lord Chancellor Bacon by 
the churchwardens, &c., this order was varied and the payment 
was again entrusted to tlie feoffees. 

Somewhere about 1615 the mastership was vacant, and Henry 
Topp was appointed, presumably by the bishop on the authority 
of the foregoing order, certainly not by the appointment of the 
churchwardens, &c., as in former days.'^ This appointment was no 

1 Excheq. Decrees and Orders, Vol. 14, f. 33a. 

^ Vestry Book, 122 a. b. ^ ji^i^^^ 57b. 



Cirencester Free Grammar School. 



125 



happier than tho former one. In April 1639, Mr. Topp was 
complained of, and the vestry ordered him to be more diligent and 
forthwith to provide an usher ; and in the next month as he had 
paid no attention to their order they gave him notice to leave, 
but he paid no more attention to this order than to the former one. 
Then they tried to pay him out, and in 1641 he agreed to go for 
£80 ; but he was a clever fellow, and having got the £80 he still 
held on, and did not finally give up possession till early in 1649 ;i 
when the school being again vacant, and there being no Bishop of 
Gloucester,the treasurers, minister, churchwardens, constables, &c., 
as of old exercised the right of election, ^ and Hector Foard, M.A., 
was appointed. The same manner of election was followed in 
March 1660, when John Hodges was appointed,''' after which there 
is no note of the manner of appointment, which since the middle 
of last century has been claimed by the crown. But the following 
is a list of succeeding masters mostly from other sources :— * 

John Gwynne, about 1666. John Parkinson, about 1678. 
He being master, a patent mider the great seal was obtained for 
him, for the payment of .£20 for his life ;^ but he resigned and 
was succeeded by 

John Turner, about 1683, 
who was again, as others, his predecessors, paid the £20 warrant 
of the Chancellor of the Exchequer.^ 

John Reeves. Richard Arthur, about 1725. 

George Whitwick, about 1750. James, about 1755. 

He was the last appointed in the old way. Party feeling ran very 
high at that time, and an application was made to the crown 
the result being that James was ousted, and a patent was issued to 

1 Vesty Book, 56b. -65b. ^ jj^i^^ 551,. 3 md^^ 73^. 4 Kilner MSS. 

5 Vestry Book, 85b. ^ jj^i^^^ 92b. 

^ Lord Bathurst had at a previous election tried to secure both seata 
for the borough, for his two eldest sons, he having always before been 
content with one seat. This had produced great irritation, and the town 
in general was in opposition to Lord Bathurst. The calling in of the Crown 
was a bit of retaliation. Lord Bathurst's second son, Henry, afterwards 
second Earl, was made Sergeant-at-Law, and appointed a Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas in 1754 ; and he was commonly said in Cirencester to have 
been his father's chancellor long before he was the King's. — Kilner MSS. 



126 



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William Matthews, about 1756, 
who was succeeded by his stepson, 

John Washbourn, about 1765, 
in whose time according to Rudder, ^ for many years there was not 
a single scholar in the school ; not as Rudder explains, because 
Washbourn was incapable, or because the people did not care for 
education, but they sent their children elsewhere. Dr. Wash- 
bourn would seem to have considered boarders from the country 
more profitable than town scholars, who were accordingly dis- 
couraged, and the few that did offer themselves, besides being- 
made to pay quite otherwise than free scholars used to pay, 
were by him excluded from the free school seats at church, and 
put upon a very different footing from the boarding scholars who 
numbered between 20 and 30. Umbrage was taken at this, and 
about 1780 the churchwardens began to charge him the same price 
for sittings as they charged other persons. In 1783, Dr. Wash- 
bourn dismissed all his boarders. ^ 

Dr. Washbourn was succeeded by the following gentlemen, 
under whom the Grammar School continued on its old footing 
with varying fortunes :— 

Rev. J. Buckoll - - - 1805 Rev. H. Wood - - 1823 

Rev. — Grooby - - - 1807 Rev. E. Wood - - 1835 
Rev. W. Bartrum - - 1851 

It will have been noticed, and possibly with surprise by those 
familiar with county history, that I have said nothing about 
Bishop Rowthall. The truth is that his name never appears in 
connection with the school, till Anthony a Wood in his A thence. 
Oxonienses says, that the bishop in his old age founded a grammar 
school, and gave a house with £7 a year. What authority Wood 
had for this statement I know not ; but he passed through Ciren- 
cester on his way to Bath in 1678, and, as his manuscripts in the 
Bodleian Library shew, made a great many notes about Ciren- 
cester Church, etc. I expect that he made a mistake ; he possibly 
heard something about an old endowment by a bishop, he saw 
Rowthall's arms very large on two shields in the nave, and 
mixed his information wrongly. One might have thought that 

1 History of Cirencester, p. 309, 
Kilner MSS. ' * 



CiPvENCESTEK FrEE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



127 



the townsmen had by that time forgotten the true story, and 
themselves given him wrong information about Rowthall ; but 
though what in all probability is their version, at that time, of 
the settlement of the stipend, is wrong in attributing it to Philip 
and Mary, yet even in that there is no mention of Bishop 
Rowthall.^ At a]iy rate the history which I have given above 
is taken from official documents. 

So also about the house, I have no evidence earlier than 
Anthony a Wood's account, a hundred and fifty years after 
Rowthall's death, which mentions his name. The earlier school 
would appear to have been held in Dyer street, for in a list of 
unsold feefarm rents, arising from ancient chantry lands, &c., in 
1649, appears a tenement in Dyer Street, called the Schoolhouse.^ 
Possibly the school outgrew the original house, and Bishop 
Rowthalle gave a larger house on the outskirts of the town, in 
Lawditch Lane : but the school there would seem to have been 
enlarged or rebuilt in 1534. For in that year, Elizabeth Tolle, 
widow of Robert Richard formerly bailiff of the town and 
founder of the chantry of St. Anthony, bequeathed <£10 towards 
" the repairing of a new schoolhouse."^ The word repair is 
similarly used in a will of 1492, concerning the new porch of the 
church, "ad reparationem novi porticus."* Whatever was done 
then, the building was much out of repair at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, but owing to the general dissatisfaction with 
Mr. Helmes nothing was done to remedy matters. Accordingly in 
May, 1609, he wrote as follows : 

"To the right honorable the Earle of Salisbury Lord high 

Treasurer of England, Male it please your good Lordship to 

understand that after many petitions exhibited to the late Lord 

Treasurer for the repairinge of the Kinges Majestie's free grammer 

schoole within the Towne of Circester he graunted a survey to be 

made of the same schole, which survey was accomplished and 

delivered to his Lordships liandes accordinge to his commandment, 

^ Crown Auditor's Report for Gloucestershire in the warrant of the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. — Vestry Booh, 92b. 
- Harleian MS. 5013, f. 76. 
^ Will at Somerset House. Hogan, quat. 17. 
* Will at Somerset House, Doggett, p. IIS. . 



128 



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and the content thereof was, that 200 poundes would not repair it, 
with a letter from my Lord Davers ^ to justifie the needf nines there- 
of. Your poore supplicant Thomas Helmes, schoolemaister driven 
to povertie by reason of a suite dependinge betwixt him there, 
being and some of the chiefest of that towne, for the recoverye of 
eight poundes by the yeare due unto the saide schoole, which 
suite did continue for the space of twentie and one yeares, being 
nevertheless contenanced by the right Hon. the old Lord Treasurer, 
your father, and doctor Master,^ as long as they did live, most 
humbly therefore pray your good Lordship to be a meane to our 
most gratious Kinge which favoureth all goodnes, to bestow in 
timber or ells what shall seem good unto his majestie for the 
repairinge thereof, and your said supplicant shall according to his 
bounded dutie daily praie to God for your honnors' health and 
prosperities 

He did not get much by this letter for the endorsement on 
it is : — 

"I am not to sollicite his majesty in other men's suites, 
especially in matters of this nature." 

R. SALISBURY. 

So the school buildings continued out of repair apparently 
during the remainder of the tenure of Mr. Helmes, and through 
that of Mr. Topp, with whose appointment as not being their own, 
the town was evidently much displeased, and accordingly the 
vestry were unwilling to use the church funds for the purpose, so 
that any repairs executed were at Mr. Topp's own cost.^ But 
when in 1641 he had agreed to go on payment of £80, a good 
deal of money was spent on the buildings.^ On Mr. Hodges' 
appointment, it was ordered in 1661 that in future he was to keep 
the school in repair, but both in 1663 and 1665 bills for repairs 

^ Henry Lord Danvers, afterwards created Earl Danby, was at that 
time the owner of what is now Lord Bathurst's Home Park, and built the 
first house there. His father, vSir J, Danvers, had bought the estate from 
Sir T. Parry, steward of Queen P]lizabeth's household, who w^as the original 
grantee from the crown of that part of the abbey property. 

- Dr. Master, physician to Queen Elizabeth, bought tlie site of the 
abbey with certain lands, and built the original modern Abbey House. He 
died in 1588. George Master, mentioned in page 106, was his son. 

^ Domestic Papers, Jas. I. Vol. 45, No. 78. 

" Vestry Book, 67b, = lUd, 60a, 61b. « Uml 74b, 75b. 

* 



Cirencester Free Grammar School. 



129 



were ordered to be paid.^ After this date nothing appears of 
particular interest in relation to school buildings. 

This paper was written some ten years ago. Since then, on 
the death of the Rev. W. Bartrum in 1881, a new scheme has 
come into force. A certain amount of th*e endowment given in 
1722 by Mrs. Rebecca Powell for another kind of school has been 
diverted to the Grammar School ; the old buildings in Lawditch 
Lane have been sold, and larger school buildings have been erected 
in the New Road. 



Vol. X. K. 



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KIRBY'S QUEST, 
Contributed BY SIR HENRY BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., kc.y President. 
Part I. — Its History. 

The Inquisition, known by the above title, was instituted whilst 
John de Kirkeby was Treasurer, (12th to 18th Edward I.) to 
ascertain what knights' fees there were " held of the king, or of 
any one else." The importance attached to it is shown by his 
presiding ex-officio over the commissioners in several counties,^ 
whilst Philip de Wylebi, who, after long acting as one of the 
barons of the exchequer, had been promoted to the chancellorship 
of that court at the earlier date, (1284) presided in others. 

No copy of the Royal Writ authorising this inquiry is known 
to exist, so that we are left to conjecture the occasion of its issue, 
and the ulterior objects in view. 

The nearest parallel is to be found in the returns of fees and 
sub-enfeoffments called for from his tenants in capite by Henry II. 
in 1166.^ In both instances the kingdom was gradually recovering 
from the devastating effects of a protracted civil war, at the close 
of which many lordships and manors had passed from the losing 
to the winning side, and it must have been expedient for the 
officers of the exchequer to obtain full particulars of the new dis- 
tribution of lands on which the fiscal, not to mention the military, 
resources of the crown mainly depended. 

Kirby's Quest does not seem to have been directly connected 
with any intended impost, though it doubtless proved useful after- 
wards in the assessment of the heavy burdens entailed by 
Edward's Foreign Conquests. 

It formed part rather of that general scheme for re-establishing 

1 As he became Bishop of Ely in July, 1286, and is never so styled in 
these ^olls, the Inquisition must have been taken prior to that date. 

2 "Liber Niger Scaccarii." 



Kirby's Quest. 



131 



and securing the rights of the crown against encroachment from 
the church or baronage, which the king had steadily pursued since 
his accession. J ust as the special Inquisitions for the Hundred 
Rolls — by their disclosures of the strife and oppression that pre- 
vailed throughout the realm, paved the way for the Statute of 
Gloucester in 1278, under cover of which the proclamations of Quo 
Warranto were put forth — so those now held, by demonstrating 
the extent to which the multiplication of petty lordships, often 
sub' inf ended four or five deep, had been carried, ^ — naturally led to 
the enactment in 1290 of the statute, " Quia Emptores," whereby 
a simple but effectual check was placed on the creation of new 
manors, by providing that in all future alienations of any portion 
of an estate, the land should be held, not of the immediate feofFer, 
but of the chief lord of the fee. 

Another reason for this inquiry may perhaps be found in the 
fact that the Monks were still striving to evade the provisions of 
the statute of Mortmain passed in 1279, so that precise informa- 
tion as to the lands they already held and of the enfeoffments 
they had made, must have been indispensable for preventing a 
repetition of the frauds from which the royal revenues had pre- 
viously suffered. 2 Hence the names and holdings of all tenants of 
whatever degree were called for, contrary to the usual practice, 
and hence, too, the indisposition clearly perceptible in many cases 
to furnish the details sought.^ 

In spite of this, however, the accounts of the sub-feoffees 
given, is a feature of peculiar interest in these returns, and 
renders them of unusual genealogical importance. The Rev. 
Mr. Eyton, who made great use of those relating to Shropshire, 
classes Kirby's Quest in the same category with Domesday, the 

^ Manors of half a hide, held as one-tenth of a knight's fee, will be 
found in the return annexed, in possession of holders six stages removed from 
the original lord. 

^ A Fee was, in order to escape the military service due on it, granted 
to some abbey collusively, and regranted to the donor for a trifling consid- 
eration. 

^ Juries often declare that they know not by what service or foi how 
many Fees a Lordship is held, or even that they cannot find out the actual 
holder. 

K 2 



Transactions at Deerhuest. 



Liber Niger, the Testa de Nevill, and the Nomina Villarum, 
whilst the Council of the Surtees Society, when intimating their 
intention in 1866 to publish the portion respecting Yorkshire, 
describe it as "in value and importance second only to Domesday 
Book." 

It may seem strange that a record so highly extolled by compe- 
tent judges, should have hitherto attracted so little attention,^ and 
that with the exception of Yorkshire, the return for no county 
should yet have been published in full. This neglect is probably 
due in no small degree to the disappearance long since, not merely 
of the original Inquisitions, but of such early abridgements of 
them as once existed : whilst even those of later date have come 
down to us in an incomplete and unauthentic form. 

Putting out of the question some fragments of parchment, 
which are supposed to be part of the actual returns made on oath 
by jurors in certain counties, none however having any heading- 
left to guide us — our knowledge of the results of the Quest is (save 
in the case of Yorkshire for which independent abstracts are 
extant) derivable from a paper book, now in the Public Record 
Office, 2 into which have been transcribed, in small legal hand- 
writing of the sixteenth century, abstracts of the Inquisitions for 
twenty counties arranged in alphabetical order — those for Devon, 
York, Somerset, Dorset, Surrey and Sussex, and Leicester, being 
stated in the headings to have been taken before John de Kirkeby, 
treasurer, whilst those for Lincoln, Nottingham, and Derby, were 
before Philip de Wylebi, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

These abstracts, which are perfectly homogeneous, occupy 
about 230 folios, out of a total of 457, extending from folio 120 
to folio 349 consecutively. The earlier and later portions of the 
volume are filled with rough notes of escheats, extents of lands, (fcc, 
of various dates, but having no connection with Kirkby's Quest. 
They are in darker ink, and in a bolder hand, evidently that of the 
owner of the memorandum book himself, additions and alterations 

^ A version of one of the fragments alluded to in the next paragraph, 
relating to the County of Kent, was contributed to the " Archseologia 
Cantiana " by Mr. James Greenstreet, in 1887. (Vol. xi p. 365). 

^ Exchequer Miscellaneous Records— No. 52 T.G. 15. 644. 



Kirby's Quest. 



133 



being made in the same writing throughout the abstracts, which 
he had presumably employed a clerk to enter from some earlier 
copy then in existence.^ 

There is no clue to the name or office of this owner, nor are 
any introductory remarks prefixed to the part containing the 
" abstracts," nor explanation added of the reason why similar 
abstracts for the rest of England were not given. 

The book in question was brought from the Exchequer, where 
it is supposed to have belonged to the department of the Queen's 
Remembrancer, in the year 1857. It must have been lost sight of 
for many years previously, since Madox, who wrote his well known 
History of the Exchequer at the close of the 17th century, was 
ignorant of the existence of any copy of Kirby's Quest ; and on 
the other hand, Stacey Grimaldi, in the carefully compiled 
Catalogue of Authorities prefixed to his " Origines Genealogicse," 
published in London so recently as 1828, makes not the slightest 
allusion to such a record. 

The substantial accuracy of the version since recovered is fully 
established by its close agreement in the case of Yorkshire, with 
that given in an ancient roll preserved in the archives of that 
county, the history of which can be traced back as far as the 
year 1484.2 

It is also, to a minor extent, corroborated in the case of the 
County to its connection with which the remainder of this paper 
will be devoted. 

^ These details are entered into, because a recent writer, on the supposi- 
tion that the entire contents of the volume belong to Kirby's Quest (a title 
only endorsed on it within the last thirty years), proceeds to describe it as a 
collection of documents from the time of Edward I. to Edward IV., so 
roughly and badly made as to be comparatively worthless, " or only valuable 
because the records which it preserved may have been lost or destroyed." 
I am not aware that any one ever claimed more for the Quest than is admit- 
ted in the last sentence. We do not possess the original : we have not even 
an authenticated copy ; but the same may be said as to the " Nomina Villa- 
rum," and that has never been undervalued by antiquarian students. 

2 Vide Introduction to Vol. 22 of Publications of the Surtees Society, 
" Kirkby's Inquest, the Survey of the county of York, temp. Ed. I." 



134 



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Part II. — The Return for Gloucestershire. 

This was not one of the counties selected by John de Kirkeby 
for his Iter., for we learn from the heading that the commission 
was presided over by Richard Rowell, probably from his name 
a local man, there being a manor so called in Kiftesgate Hundred. 

There is internal evidence in the Inquisitions to prove that 
they were held not much earlier than 1283, nor later than the 
autumn of 1286,^ and this accords not only with the approximate 
dates assigned to those of other counties, but with the opinion 
expressed by that indefatigable antiquary, John Smyth, of Nibley, 
two hundred and fifty years ago ^ 

The recent publication by the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archseological Society of his " Description of the Hundred of 
Berkeley," has revealed the fact that Smyth was well acquainted 
with a very early abstract of these Gloucestershire Inquisitions, 
which he repeatedly quotes as "an ancient book of Knights' Fees 
of the time of King Edw I., with the Remembrancer to the Lord 
Treasurer in the Exchequer, compiled of divers Inquisitions taken 
by Richard de Rowell and others." This "ancient book," which 
was clearly not the paper book of the 16th century,^ must 
have, like that, disappeared soon after Smyth wrote in 1639, and 
as no trace of it has since been discovered, we must be content 
with the later one which has been preserved. Unfortunately the 
Return for Gloucestershire is extremely defective, as may be seen 
at once on comparison with the " Nomina Villarum " compiled 

^ John Botetourt holds Dursle (Woodmancote). He only succeeded to 
it in right of his wife, on the death of her brother Otto in 1282, and 
as there were other sisters, some legal delay was inevitable. On the other 
hand, Anselm de Gurnay holds Beverston, and as his writ of " Diem clausit" 
is dated 23rd October, 1286, the return must have been made at an earlier 
date than that. 

Smyth, after referring to the Inquisition on the death of Henry 
de Berkely, of Dursley, in July, 1287, speaks of a return of knights' fees of 
temp. Edward I., in which his tenure is mentioned as "somewhat more 
ancient." Description of Hundred of Berkely, page 75. 

3 My reasons for this conclusion are given in full in a paper in 
Genealogist for January, 1887. 



Kirby's Quest. 



1S5 



about thirty years later. The separate holdings of all sizes men- 
tioned in the former are under 180 ; whereas in a summary at the 
end of the Return of 9th Edward II., the numbers of " Vills " in 
the county is given as 234, or deducting the five boroughs, 229. 

The deficit is mainly due to the entire omission of the follow- 
ing Hundreds, which, in 1316, comprised 44 manors, viz. : 
Tewkesbury, Westbury, Salmonesbury, Pucklechurch, and Dudes- 
stan. 

This may have arisen from various causes ; as, for example, 
they may have been " in the king's hand " by reason of escheat, 
so that the particulars wanted could be obtained without inquiry 
on oath ; or they may have been owned by Ecclesiastical Corpo- 
rations, or by great Nobles who threw obstacles in the way, just 
as it is recorded that in Yorkshire the bailiffs of Earl Warrenne 
refused permission to the jurors to enter within his " liberties." ^ 

Gilbert de Clare, " the Red Earl " of Gloucester, who was 
then lord of the Hundred of Tewkesbury, was both self-willed 
and powerful enough to have ventured on a similar course,^ and 
it is to be noted that although other hundreds and manors owned 
by him are nominally included in the Return, scarcely any infor- 
formation as to the services they were held by, or the names 
of his feoff'ees is supplied,^ 

The absence of Westbury is more easily accounted for, as it 
was a Royal Hundred, and the four or five parishes it contained 
were so scattered by the interposition of parts of the Forest of 
Dean, as to be often included in Blideslowe.* 

The other missing Hundreds had ecclesiastical lords. Puckle- 
church belonged to the Bishop of Bath and Wells, of whom its two 
or three manors were held by knight service. Salmanesbury had 

1 Vide Introduction to Surtees Society's Survey of County of York. 

2 Though not actually in rebellion, he was at this moment waging 
a private war on the Earl of Hereford in the Marches of Wales. 

3 Under Thornbury Hundred we find — "Item comes Glouc. ten.manerium 
integrum de Rege in Capite, sed non Jitmentio in Inquisitionibus predictis per 
quod sei'vicium.'" Under Britwoldsbourne Hundred — "Item comes Glouc. 
ten. manerium de Fayreford quod est de Honore Glouc, de Rege in Capite, 
sed non fit mentio in Inq. predictis per quod servicium, tt-c, dC'C." 

* Vide Fosbroke's History of Gloucestershire, Vol. II. p. 13. 



136 



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been given by Henry III. in exchange for the lordship of the 
maritime towns of Rye and Winchelsea to the foreign Abbey of 
Fecamp ; but as, with the exception of the town of Cheltenham, 
none of the 19 manors contained in it were held of the Abbot, 
this does not explain why the Inquisitions regarding them were 
omitted, nor is the explanation to be found apparently in the 
Hundred having escheated, since in the Quo Warranto proceedings at 
Gloucester, in 1287, the Abbot was duly represented by his attor- 
ney, brother Richard de BromdefFeld. The last in the list, Dudes- 
tan, though owned by the Crown, was usually farmed by the 
Abbot of St. Peters, Gloucester, of whom, however, no mention 
is to be found throughout the entire Return, although numerous 
manors, not only in that but in eight other Hundreds, were held 
by that monastery. 

The omission is, I believe, due to the circumstance of all 
these manors having been seized by the king's escheator on the 
death of Abbot Reginald in 1284 ; and, in spite of the election by 
the chapter of his successor shortly afterwards, not restored until 
in 1287, a judgment adverse to the rights claimed by the Crown 
during vacation of the Abbacy, was pronounced.^ 

There are other omissions in the Return more inexplicable 

than any of the foregoing : as for instance, where — although the 

name of a Hundred is set forth, instead of the full number 

of manors in it following — a fraction only are entered. Thus, in 

the case of Grumboldash, 1 alone, out of 15 in the Nomina 

Villarum," appears; and in that of Whitstan, but 4 out of 13. 

A few of the manors so passed over are to be found included 

under other Hundreds, — a remark which applies likewise to some 

pertaining to the Hundreds wholly omitted. 

1 Reginald died on 13th September, and John de Gamages was installed 
on 30th of November as Abbot, the chapter voting him a subsidy" on account 
of the manifold oppressions which had overwhelmed the community since 
the time of the vacancy." In 15th Edward I., in an Inquisition before the 
Justiciary at Gloucester, the Jury found "that on vacancy no Hoyal 
Escheator was accustomed to enter on the manors of the abbey and receive 
the rents." Probably a compromise was thereupon arranged with the Crown, 
for on the death of Abbot John in 1307, there is an entry of the payment of 
200 marks, the fine fixed on a vacancy in the abbey. Cartulary of St. 
Peter's, Glouc, Vol. I., pp. 34-39, Rolls Series. 



Kirby's Quest. 



1S7 



The boundaries of Hundreds had indeed become very fluctua- 
ting and uncertain in the thirteenth century, depending a good 
deal on the influence of the great lords, who sought as far as 
possible to have their possessions, however isolated, included for 
fiscal and judicial purposes in their own liberties. In the case too 
of some of the larger manors, which extended into two or even 
three conterminous Hundreds, there seems to have been no 
settled rule as to whether the holders should account partially in 
each, or collectively in one of the number. 

A comparison of such Returns as the present, with those of 
earlier or later date, is thus rendered difficult and unsatisfactory, 
as will be at once found on attempting to collate it with the " Aid 
for making the Black Prince a Knight," recently contributed to 
the Society's Proceedings by Sir John Maclean. 

Still with all its omissions and imperfections, which of course 
in some degree impair its utility, Kirby's Quest for Gloucester- 
shire is an invaluable record, and it is high time it should receive 
the attention it deserves. It must be borne in mind that except- 
ing in so far as they unconsciously followed Smyth in respect to a 
single Hundred, the historians of the county hitherto have written 
not only without its aid, but in entire ignorance of its existence. 
As they often had little to guide them, when tracing the devolution 
of manors in the period which intervened between the last men- 
tion of them in the fiscal Returns which have been published 
under the title of " Testa de Nevill," the latest of which for 
Gloucestershire comes scarcely further down than 1250, and the 
curt announcement of the names of their lords in the " Nomina 
Yillarum " of 1316, it need not be wondered that they occasionally 
made mistakes, especially in the case of families not holding 
direct of the Crown and not impleaded therefore by writs of Quo 
Warranto, nor included in the " Inquisitiones post mortem" 
formerly in the Tower. 

Any one indeed who glances over Fosbroke's History, the 
latest and most elaborate yet published, can hardly fail to be 
struck with his inability frequently to account for the changes of 
pwnership that had occurred during these eventful sixty or 



13S 



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seventy years, nor to appreciate the importance in a genealogical 
point of view of a record which helps to bridge over this interval. 

The study of Kirby's Quest in fact must form an essential 
preliminary to the compilation of anything pretending to be 
a complete history of the County, and its publication therefore in 
an easily accessible form, will certainly constitute not the least of 
the services rendered by the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society. 

The clerk, who, in the 16th century, copied this E-eturn into 
the paper book now at the Public Record Office, although he gave 
the abbreviated latin text correctly enough, seems to have had no 
acquaintance with Gloucestershire ; and when unable to decipher 
the names of places or persons, to have entered them at a guess. 

Moreover, he wrote almost a running hand ; and many of his 
letters are so carelessly and imperfectly formed that it is often 
hard to be sure of them : his c, for example, being scarcely 
distinguishable from t, or his n from u, and vice versa. 

It has been thought best, however, to have the MS. merely 
extended, without any attempt to correct errors and misreadings, 
even where obvious, leaving such rectifications as seemed essential 
to be suggested in notes at the foot of each page. 

These are chiefly based, as will be seen, on the authority of 
Domesday (denoted by D), of the Hundred Rolls (H.R.), of the 
Placita de Quo Warranto (Q.W.), and above all of the Nomina 
Yillarum (N.Y.) — The Return of the aid levied for knighting the 
Black Prince in 20th Edward III., wherein reference is often 
made to an aid of 18th Edward I., is also cited as A.B.P. 

Brief explanations are occasionally appended, but where 
Fosbroke's History affords any clue to difficulties it has been 
deemed sufficient to refer to it. The last three Notes as to the 
Hundreds of Hagemede, Campden, and Cranbourne, respectively, 
have extended to inconvenient length, but they touch on points of 
some interest, and I was anxious to show the probability of the 
entries to which they relate, having been added at the Exchequer 
subsequently, on the termination of certain law suits in which the 
Earl of Gloucester had been engaged. 



Kirby's Quest, 



139 



EXCH: Q. R. MISCELL. BOOKS, VOL. 52.— KIRBY'S QUEST." 

Glouc. — Rotuli feodoriim que tenentur de Rege in capite et de aliis diversis 
in Com Glouc seundum inquisitiones inde factas coram Ricardo Rowell 
et sociis suis ad hoc assignatis per ipsum Regem. 

Hundred de Burnetre^ juxta«« Bristoll. 

Stoke Gyffard. — Item Johannes Gyffard miles tenet in villa de Stoke 
unum feod. milit. deEpiscopo Wygorn.' Et Episcopus de Rege. 

Rade^. — Item Radulphus de Wilinton tenet in villa Rade di. feod. mil, de 

predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege ut supra. 
JoHiNTON ^. — Item Rogerus Corbet tenet in villa de Johinton di. feod. milit. 

de Com Heref . Et Comes de predicto Episcopo. Episcopus de Rege ut 

supra. 

Haust ^. — Item Jacobus Russel tenet villa de Haust di. feod. mil. de predicto 

Episcopo. Et idem Episcopus de Rege. 
Cancok ^. — Item Margar de 'Cancok tenet unum feod. in eadem villa de 

predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Weston S'ci Laur' ibid, — Item Walterus Cancok tenet di. feod. in Weston 

S'ci Lauf de predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 

Item Willielmus de Weyn tenet duas hydas terre in Weston S'ci Lauf de 

predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Hemburn ^, — Item Willielmus de la Haye tenet in Hemburn de predicto 

Episcopo duas hydas terre. Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Item Hildeburga de Westbur tenet unam hidam terre per servicium militaf 

de predicto Episcopo, Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Item Robertus Coveleye tenet unam hidam terre et di. de predicto Episcopo. 

Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Yriddelond — Item Willielmus Maunsel tenet unam hidam terre in 

Yriddelond per servicium milit. de Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Hamptotst ^. — Item Ansilinus de Gurnay tenet unam hidam terre in Hampton 

per idem servicium de predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 
Ibm'. — Item Willielmus Savage et Rogerus le Buteler tenent unam hidam 

terre in Hampton per idem servicium de Episcopo. Et Episcopus de 

Rege. 

1 Known later as Henbury Hundred. It belonged to the See of Worcester before the 
Conquest, D. 

2 A mistake of the copyist for Yate, N.V., an outlying manor long held by the "Wilin- 
tons.— A.B.P, 

3 Ichinton N.V , another outlying manor in Thornbury Hundred, held by the Corbets.— 
A.B.P. 

4 Aust N.V., held by the Russels of Dirham as to one moiety. — A.B. P. 

5 Cantok. — This is not the name of a manor, but of the family which held the other 
moiety of Aust.— N.V. Her husband died 12th Hen. I. (Close Roll, m. 10.) 

6 Henbury. — I can find nothing as to this William de la Haye. The Nomina Villarum 
does not give the names of the bishop's tenants in this manor. 

7 Tridland, or Thirdland, according to Fosbroke, Vol. ii. p. 74.— A.B.P. 

8 Shirehampton, —apparently, as the Butiler's held there of the Bishops of Worcester. 
The holding of the De Gurneys must have been Radwyk, which came to them from Robert 
Fitzharding, and of which Thomas, son and heir of John apAdam was Lord in 9th Edward n. 
N.V, cl. A.B.P. 



140 



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Stoke Ep'i. — Item fflorencius Humfrey tenet unam virgat. terre in Stok 
Epi per idem servicium de predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 

Hahnington ^. — Item Ricardus de Grenevill tenet di. hidam terre in Hahn- 
ington per idem servicium de predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de Rege. 

CuMTON ^. — Item idem Ricardus de Grenevill tenet di. f eod. milit. in Cumton 
de Galfrido de Apecote. Et idem Galfridus de Willielmo de Bello 
Campo, Comite Warf. Et idem Comes de predicto Episcopo. Et. Epis- 
copus de Rege. 

Hahnington . — Item Petrus Crok tenet unam virgat. terre in Hahnington 
per servicium milit. de predicto Episcopo. Et idem Episcopus de Rege. 

Werkesburn ^. — Item Willielmus de Werkesburn tenet di. hidam terre in 
Werkesburn per idem servicium de predicto Episcopo. Et Episcopus de 
Rege. 

HCTNDRED DE KyFFTESGATE. 

Senebur.* — Item heredes Radulphi Musard tenent manerium deSenebur de 
Rege in capite pro quarta parte unius feod. 

Weston^. — Item Episcopus Wygorn' tenet manerium de Weston pro uno 
feod. milit. sed non fit mencio in Inquisitione de quo etc. 

Homburn ^. — Item Abbas de Wynch tenet manerium de Humburn de Rege 
in capite sed non dicunt per quod servicium. 

Ollinton''. — Item Johannes de Ollinton tenet villam de Ollinton de Roberto 
de Mortuo Mari. Et idem Robertus de Rege sed etc. 

Adeleminton. — Item abbas de Wynch. tenet manerium de Adeleminton de 

Rege sed non dicunt pro quot feod. 
WoKELTON^. — Item Abbas de Eynesham tenet manerium de Wokelton de 

Episcopo Line'. Et Episcopus de Rege sed (non) dicunt etc. 
Cheveringworth ^. — Item Hugo de Chaveringworth tenet manerium de 

Cleveringworth de Willielmo Burnel. Et idem Willielmus de Petro de 

Marius. Et idem Petrus de Radulpho de Tony. Et Radulphus de Rege. 
Backeshore. — Item villa de Backeshore tenetur de Johanne Golaffre. Et 
idem Johannes de Ricardo de Solar. Et idem Episcopus de Rege pro di. 
feod. milit. 

1 Hahnington.— There is no place of this name in Gloucestershire, but there is near 
Highworth, in the adjoining county of Wilts, now in the Diocese of Bristol, but some 30 or 
40 miles distant from that city. 

2 Compton Grenville N.V. cl. A.B.P., now "Greenfield." 

3 Werkesburn is not mentioned in N.V. or Fosbroke, but a William de Werkesborne was 
the Bishops' chief bailiff in 3v Hen. IH., vide Jurj/ List, Trans. Vol. X. 

4 Saintsbury— part of tl e Musard Barony of Miserden. Ralph Musard died 1st Edward I., 
leaving his heirs infants. 

5 Weston on Avon.— There were several Westons in this Hundred. This one was held 
by the Bishops of Worcester for Evesham Abbey. Fosbroke Vol. II. p. 315, V. etiam Rot. 
Q.W. 

6 Honey burn, alias Cow Honiburn— held by the Abbot of Wynchcombe N.V. 

7 Ullington.— John de Olynton held it of Robert de Mortimer.— Esch. 16th Edward I., 
No. 30. 

8 Wokelton— Not mentioned by Fosbroke, nor included in the Monasticon among the 
■Gloucestershire possessions of the Abbey of Eynsham, Oxfordshire. 

9 Charingworth— Fosbroke II. p. 323. 

10 Backsore was held by the de Solers family. 

i 



Kirby's Quest. 



141 



Langebery 1. — Item Ricardus Labank in Langebery. tenet ij carucas terra 

de Briano de Branton pro di. feod. milit. Et idem Brianus de Edmundo 

de mortuo mari. Et idem Edmundus de Rege. 
Weston 2. — Item Johannes de Cantilupo tenet manerium de Weston de 

Abbate de Evesham pro ij partibus unius feod. Et idem Abbas de Rege 

in capite. 

Item dicunt quod xij virgat. terre tenentur de Abbate de Evesham pro di. 

feod. milit. sed non dicunt qui eas tenet. Et idem Abbas de Rege. 
PuBBEWOKTH ^. — Item Johannes de Bosco tenet maneria de Pubbeworth de 

heredibus Comitis Wynton,' Et iidem heredes de Rege pro ij feod. 
Norton Gyefari^. — Item Episcopus Wygorn' tenet manerium de Norton 

Gyffard de Rege in capite pro di. feod, milit. 

Wyllesheye^. — Item Abbas de Evesham tenet manerium de_,Wyllesheye de 

Rege in capite per Baron sed non dicunt per quot feod. 
SuELL^. — Item idem Abbas tenet manerium de Suell de Rege in capite sed 

non dicunt ut supra. 
LoNGA Merston ^ Item Abbas de Wynch. tenet manerium de Longa Merston 

de Prior Covetr'. Et idem Prior de Rege sed non etc. 
Weston — Item Johannes de Langel tenet manerium de Weston deComite 

Warr'. Et idem Comes de Rege sed non etc. 
Quenton. — Item Johannes Marmioun tenet manerium de Quenton de 

Philippo Marmum. Et idem Phillipus de Comite Leyc'. Et Comes de 

Rege. 

MuNE^. — Item Johannes de Penbrigg' tenet villam de Mune de Rege in 
capite pro di. feod. milit. 

Hundred de Visel^. 

Payndeswik — Item Willielmus de Monte Caniso tenet villam de Payn- 
deswike de Rege in capite que pertinet ad Baroniam suam. 

Egesworth. — Item Walterus de Elynn^^ et Stephanus de Egesworth tenent 
villam de Egesworth de eodem Willielmo per servicium di. feod. 

La Musardire^^. — Item Johannes Musard qui est in custodia Regis tenet 
villam de la Musardire de Rege in capite per servicium di. feod. 

1 Long-borough — a remnant of a great estate of the Mortimers. Rudder gives the tenant's 
name as Le&^anck, but it was probably Le&anc, as the place is known as Bank's Fee, or 
Langeborough le Fosbroke VII. p. 290 et A.B.P. 

• 2 Weston Cantilupe— N.V. 3 Pebworth. 4 Willarsleye N.V., now Willersey. 

5 Swell, Upper or Overswell. 

6 Marston Long or Sicca— purchased by the Abbot of Wynchcombe from St. Mary's 
Coventry temp Hen. III.— Fosbroke Vol. II. 

7 Weston Mauduit— John de Langley succeeded 8th Edward I. esch., et A.B.P. 

8 Mune, or Meon, a manor in the Hundred of Botloe, but reckoned as a dependency of 
Queinton.— Fosbroke, Vol. II. 

9 Bisley - one of the seven Hundreds of Cirencester. 

10 Painswick was part of the Barony of Munchensy. 

11 Edgworth was held by the Helyons, as a dependency of Painswicke.— Fosbroke, Vol.1, 
p. 359. 

12 Musarden, corrupted into Miserden, was the " Caput Baronise " of the Musards. As 
John came of age in 15th Edward I., esch. No. 75 (Probatio setatis\ this inquisition is clearly 

earlier date 



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Seperton I — Item Henricus Huse films Henrici Huse qui est in custodia 
Regis, Walterus de Yhill et Henricus de Leye tenent villam de Seperton 
de Rege in capite per servicium di. feod. milit. 

Fromton^. — Item Johannes Manse] 1 filius Willielmi Maunsell tenet hame- 
lectuni de ffromtom de eodem per servicium quarte partis unius feod. 

Hundred de Derehurst. 

Whycfeld ^. — Item Nicholaus de Hedenet tenet Whycfeld de Willielmo le 

Poer. Et idem Willielmus de Abbate Weston. Et idem- Abbas de Rege 

per servicium di. feod, milit. 
Ti'MBERdene'*. — Item Robertus Blaunket tenet Tymberdene in Com. Wygorn' 

de eodem Willielmo. Et idem Willielmus de predict© Abbate. Et Abbas 

de Rege per idem servicium. 
Item Hugo Mustell tenet aliara medietatem predicti feod. de Willielmo le 

Poer in Brokemoncote. Et. idem Willielmus de Abbate. Et Abbas de 

Rege. 

Hundred de Tedbaldeston. 

Clyve. — Item Episcopus Wygorn' tenet manerium de Clyve cum membris 
de Rege in capite sed non fit mencio per quod servicium. 

Stoke.5 — Item Nicholaus le Archer tenet partem de Stoke de Rege in capite 
per servicium deferendi unum Arcum cum sagittis cum Rege in exercitu 
suo sumptibus suis pro xl diebus. 

Hundred de Camuppeden. 

Camuppeden Item Camuppeden tenetur de Rege in capite per servicium 
di. feod. milit, sed non fit mencio qui earn tenet. 

BuEGUs de Berkeley. 

Berkeley. — Item Thomas de Berkeleye tenet Burgum de Berkeleye de Rege 

in capite sed non fit mencio per quod servicium. 
Ib'm. — Item Abbas S'ci Augusti Bristoll tenet vj tem partem predicte ville de 

Berkleye [blank] de predicto Thoma. Et idem Thomas de Rege sed non 

fit mencio etc. 

1 Sapton — Sapperton.— The name of the second tenant was de L'Isle,— Fosbroke, Vol. I. 
p. 360.— Et in A.B.P. 

2 Frampton Mansel is in Sapton.— Fosbroke, Vol. I. p. 366— Et in A.B.P. 

3 Wightfield— In the parish of Deerhurst ( see ante p. 2.) A hamlet in the Liberty of the 
Abbot of Westminster 7— A.B.P. 

4 Tymberden— Robert Blanket died seized of this manor, 19th Edward L esch. No. 64. 

5 Brockmoncote.— I cannot discover, but Hugh Musted held half a fee of the Abbo!- in 
Wodynton (Bodjniton?) in Westminster Hundred. — Vide A.B.P. 

6 Campden reckoned only as a borough in the Hundred Rolls, and is included in the N.V. 
under Kiftsgate Hundred. It was in fact no more than a lordship which the Earls of Chester 
had held from the Conquest till their extinction, when it passed through heiresses to Roger 
de Somery, who left four daughters, whose husbands, CromM'ell, Ludlow, Erdington and 
Sudley shared it, though a suit against them, brought by Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, as heir 
to Ranulph Earl of Chester, was at this time pending, which accounts for the open verdict 
of the jurors. 

Hundred de Britwoldesburwe. 
Lechlade.— Item Comes Cornub' tenet manerium de Lechlade. Simult cum 

* 



Kirby's Quest. 



143 



Castro de Hochall.^ Idem Comes tenet manerium de Langeberg' de Eege 
in capite pro tribus feod. milit. 

SuTHEORG Eton et al' 2. — Item heres Benedict! de Blakeham qui est infra 
etatem et in custodia Regis tenet manerium de Sutheorum simut cum 
Eton quod est in Com. Berk, et Westwell quod est in Com. Oxon. et 
Thormerton quod est in hundredo de Bradel pefT servicium unius milit. 

EsTLETHi 2. — Item Radulphus de Lethi tenet in Estlethi unumfeod milit. de 
Herberto de S'co Quintino. Et idem Herbertus de Comite Glouc'. Et 
Comes de Rege in capite 

Ib'm. —Item Abbas de Bruera et Robertus Deverus tenent in eadem villa 
unum feod. milit. de Willielmo Comyn. Et idem Willielmus de Theobaldo 
de Verdon. Et Theobaldus de Rege unde predictus Robertus respondet 
pro quarta parte predicti feod. et predictus Abbas pro tribus partibus 
ejusdem feod. 

Item Robertus Devereus et Simon Morye tenent di, feod. milit. de Abina de 

Blakeford. Et eadem Abina de Willielmo Comyn. Et idem Willielmus de 

Theobaldo de Verdon Et idem Theobaldus de Rege in capite. 
Hetrop ^. — Item Abbatissa de Lakot tenet manerium de Hetrop de dono Ele 

Comitisse Sarum in puram elemosinam de Comite Line' pro quarta parte 

unius feod. milit. Et idem de Rege in capite. 
Fayreford. —Item Comes Glouc' tenet manerium de Fayreford quod est de 

honore Glouc' de Rege in capite sed non tit mencio in Inquisitionibus 

predictis per quod servicium. 
AuRiNCONE. — Item Johannes le Soer tenet manerium de Aurincone quod 

membrum predicti manerii de ffayreford de predicto Comite in capite 

pro uno feod. milit. 
KiNEMERFEoRD ^. — Item Hercs Patricii de Cadurtis tenet manerium de 

Kinemerfford de Rege in capite per Baroniam. 
Beyebur''. — Item Episcopus Wygorn' tenet manerium Beyebur de Rege in 

capite per Baroniam. 
Bardesle^. — Item Robertus de Plesy et heres Reginaldi filii Petri tenent 

Bardesle de Comite Heref pro uno feod. milit. Et idem Comes de Epis- 

copo Wygorn.' Et idem Episcopus de Rege in capite. 

1 The words " de Hochall Idem Comes ten" are inserted in different ink and hand- 
writing, the latter apparently that of the owner of the memorandum book. Perhaps he only 
filled in a gap left by the copyist. I have searched in vain Pearson's Castles of England and 
Wales for anything approaching to Hochall. Longborough, in Kyftesgate Hundred (see notel, 
page 141 ante), was taken by Henry III. from the Mortimers, and given to Edmund Earl of 
Cornwall. 

2 Southrop.— An account of Benedict de BlaJcenham will be more conveniently given 
under Thormanton in Bradley Hundred. 

3 East Leach.— Throughout this entry c must be substituted for t. 

4 Bruern— A Cistercian Abbey in Oxfordshire, founded by the Bassets. 

5 Hatherop N.V., held by Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire. Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln 
had acquired the rights of the Earls of Salisbury by marrying the daughter and heiress of the 
last William Longsp^e (Dugd. Bar). 

6 Kenmersford N.V , now Kempsford, was the Barony of the family of de Cadurcis or 
Chaworth, and passed with the heiress to Henry Earl of Lancaster before 9th Edward IL 

7 Bybury N.V. 

8 Brandesley, N.V., held by Edmund de Plessy, now Barnsley. 



144 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



Ablyngton ^. — Item Radulphus de Wylton^ tenet manerium de Ablington 
de Episcopo Wygorn' pro uno feod. milit. reddenS inde per Annum. — 
xxxiijs. iiij^. 

HUNDEED L»E GrECTISTON.^ 

SuDLEYE et al'**. — Item Johannes de Suleye tenet manerium de Suleye cum 
Todinton, Newinton, Stanleye, Grete, Grecton, Piseleye, Cotes, Yrap, 
membra ejusdem una cum aliis terris suis de Rege in capite per servicium 
duorum feod. 

AuMELBON ^. — Item Abbas de Abbindon tenet manerium de Aumeldon de 

Rege in capite sed non fit niencio per quod servicium. 
LucHiNTON ^. — Item idem Abbas tenet Luchinton de Roberto de mortuo 

mari de Castro Ricardi per servicium di. feod. 
EsTON Somt'vill^. — Item Johannes de Eston tenet Eston Somervill de 

herede Radulphi Musard per servicium' unius feod. 
Thewenge^. — Item Abbas de Wychincumb tenet manerium de Thewenge 

Snoweshull cum Brokhampton Cherleton cum membris Staunton et 

Hallingg' de Rege in capite per servicium ij milit. 

Hundred de Bkadele. 

Stowell^. — Item Ad Mercel tenet Stowell pro di. feod. milit. de Emma de 
la Penne. Et eadem Emma de Baronia Willielmi de Hasting' que tenetur 
de Rege in capite. 

Stowell^''. — Item Archiepiscopus Ebor' tenet manerium de Cumton quod 
pertinet ad Baroniam de Chirethedon sed non fit mencio etc. 

Cumton. — Item Adam le Despens tenet in Cumpton quartam partem unius 
feod. de Archiepiscopo Ebor'. Et idem Archiepiscopus de Rege. 

Sevenampton. — Item Episcopus Hereford' tenet Sevenampton que pertinet 
ad Baroniam suam. 

Skipton 11. — Item Robertus Pulye tenet di, feod. in Skipton de Comite Here- 
ford'. Et idem Comes de Rege per Baroniam 

Ib'm . — Item Robertus Clive tenet in eadem villa terciam partem unius feod. 
de Ade de Clurrugge. Et idem Adam de Roberto de Mortuo mari. Et idem 
Robertus de Rege per Baroniam. 

I Ablinton. 2 Abbreviation for Wylington .— Fosbroke "Vol. II., p. 466. 

3 Afterwards merged in Kiftsgate. 

4 Sudley N.V., held by John de Sudley and his wif e Alicia— et. A.B.P. 

5 Dumbledon N.V., held by Abbot of Abingdon. 

6 Lutlinton ? no doubt one of the many Littletons, and a portion of Dumbleton, which 
Fosbroke states to have been held by the Abbot of Robert Mortimer. 

7 Aston Somerville N. V., then held by William de Somerville. This family seems to have 
been styled indifferently de Aston or de Somerville. — Fosbroke II. p. 302. 

8 Twenyng- N.V,, now Twining. The Abbots other manors were adjacent. 

9 Stowell— part of the manor of Thormenton held by Adam Martel N. V., et A. B.C. 

10 Stowell is, it strikes me, here repeated in the margin by mistake for Cumton. 
Chirchedon or Churchdown, the Caput of the Archbishop of York's Barony lies near 
Gloucester in the omitted Hundred of Dudstan. A Feodary of rather earlier date, printed 
by the Surtees Society, gives Turstin le Despencer as answering for half a fee at Comptou 
Abdale and Brithampton, whilst Gilbert Morin, Reginald de Periton, Geofrey de Longchamp, 
Walter de Mucegros and Peter Fitz Herbert answer in the aggregate for nearly three more 
fees. 

II Shipton—Pelie— Fosbroke Vol. II. p. 4S5. 



Kirby's Quest. 



145 



Ib'mI. — Item Willielmus de Solers tenet in eadem villa di. feod. de Rogero 
Tyrel. Et idem Rogerus de Roberto de Chandos. Et idem Robertus de 
Rege per Baroniam, 

Wytington. — Item Ricardus de Crapes tenet Wytington pro uno feod. de 
Rege in capite. 

Salperton. — Item Thomas Comyn tenet Salperton |)rodi. feod. de Wiliielmo 
Comyn sed [non] fit mencio etc de quo idem Willielmus tenet. 

Wyneston ^. — Item Johannes le Brun, Walterus de Berton, Absolo Clericus, 
Simon de Solers tenent Wyneston pro di. feod. de Baronia de Cormyayles. 
DiNTON ^. — Item Episcopus Wygorn' tenet Wydinton de Rege per Baro- 
niam. 

Aston \ - Item Radulphus Pypard tenet Aston pro uno feod. de herede de 
Longo Campo. Et idem Heres de Herede Walteri de Clyfford. Et idem 
heres de Episcopo Wygorn'. Et idem Episcopus de Rege per Baroniam. 

DouL>EsWELL. — Item Willielmus dominus de Doudeswell tenet Doudeswell 
Hamelectum de Wydinton pro uno feod. de templar, Et Templar de 
Comite Heref. Et idem Comes de Episcopo Wygorn'. Et Episcopus de 
Rege per Baroniam. 

FoxcoTE^. — Item Willielmus Cressun tenet Ifoxcote pro tribus partibus 
unius feod. de Templaf. Et ipsi de heredibus de miners. Et iidem 
heredes de Episcopo Wygorn'. Et idem Episcopus de Rege per Baroniam. 

NuTGRAVE. — Item Bartholomeus de Turbervill tenet Nutegrave pro uno 
feod. de Episcopo Wygorn'. Et Episcopus ut supra. 

HoLDECOTE ^. — Item Willielmus de marisco tenet Holdecote pro quinta parte 
unius feod. de Episcopo Wygorn.' Episcopus ut supra. 

Parva Colesburx. — Item Robertus de la Burere tenet quintam partem unius 
feod. in parva Colesburn de Johanne de Marisco. St idem Johannes de 
Episcopo Wygorn'. Et Episcopus de Rege. 

Hannepenne Superiorem''.— Item Robertus de Marmilun tenet Hanne- 
penne superiorem de Reginaldi filio Petri. Et idem Reginaldus de Episcopo 
Heref. Et idem Episcopus de Rege sed non fit mencio etc per quod 
servicium. 

GuNKEDE Superiorem ^ — Item Abbas de Oseneye Matill' de Pelton, Gal- 
fridus de Langel tenent Gunkede superiorem pro di. feod. de Episcopo 
Bathon'. Et idem Episcopus de Comite Cornub. ' Et Comes de Rege in 
capite. 

1 Shipton— Solers— divided between Robs, de Solers and the Knights' Hospitallers N.V. 

2 Winstone, in Bisley Hundred, according' to Fosbroke Vol. I. p. 356, but entered under 
Bradley Hd. in N.V., as held by the Abbot of St. Peter, Gloucester, Thomas de Bertram, 
John de Aston and Simon de Solers. John le Brun died seized of Wyneston 31st Edward I., 
No. 169. 

3 Wychinden N.V., now Withinton, and still held from Saxon times by the See of 
Worcester. 

4 Cold Aston, or Aston Blank, on the death of Ralph Pipard in 3rd Ed. II., it passed with 
his daughters and heirs, half to Edmund le Botiller and half to John Rodborough, N.V. 

5 Foxcote had been held by a Henry de Miners— " Testa de Nevill." I believe the 
name became Meyners and Manners later. The Cresons held in A.B.P. 

6 Holdecote or Hilcote is a hamlet of Wychindon, — A.B.P. 

7 Hampen.— Geoff re3' Marmion was lord of Hagnepenne temp. John. — Fosbroke Vol. II., 
p. 436 et. A.B.P. 

8 Turkedon, N.V., then held by the Abbot of Oseuey, the Abbot of Cirencester, John 
de Pelton, and Laur. Semaur. The copyist evidently wrote down this place-name at a 
venture. 

Vol. XI. L. 



146 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



Thormanton ^. — Item Benedictus filius Benedict! qui est in custodia Regis 
tenet in Thormanton iinum feed, milit. de Rege in capite per Baroniam. 

Ib'm. — Item Petrus de Staunton tenet in eadem villa di. feod. de Niche 
[sic] de multon. Et ipse de predicto Benedict©. Item Willielmus de 
Ramesden tenet di. feod. de eodem Benedict©. Et. idem Benedictus 
tenet omnia predicta feoda de Rege in capite per Baroniam. 

Hamptoneth ^. — Item Henricus Pynkeneye, Reginaldus de Grandigall, 
Johannes de Muterich tenent Hamptoneth pro uno feod. de Baronia 
Willielmi de Breuse. Et idem Willielmus de Rege in capite. 

Hundred de Respegate. 

Shedeworth ^. — Item Comes Warr' tenet Shedeworth pro duobus feod. de 

Rege in capite per Baroniam. 
Cerneze'*. — Item Archiepiscopus Ebor. tenet di. ville de Cerneze que perti- 

net ad Baroniam suam de Chirthesden. 
Rendecumb. — Item Willielmus de la Mare tenet Rendecumbpro tribusfeod. 

de Comite Glouc'. Et idem Comes de Rege in capite. 
Brumeefeld. — Item Johannes GyfFard tenet Brumeffeld quod pertinet ad 

Baroniam suam de Rege in capite. 
CoDBRiCLEYB 5. — Item Egidius de Berkeley e tenet Codbricleye pro uno feod. 

de herede Roberti Waleraund. Et idem hered [sic] de domino de Dur- 

seley. Et idem dominus de Rege in capite. 
Colesburn.— Item Willielmus le Poer et Walterus Lonhed tenent Colesburn 

de Reginald© filio Petri pro duobus feod. Et idem Reginaldus de Epis- 

c©p© Wyg©rn'. Et Episc©pus de Rege in capite. 
Hulkeston ^. — Item Johannes le Brun tenet unum feod. in Hilkeston de 

Rege in capite de Baronia Cormeale. 
Syde''. — Item Simon de Caly tenet in villa de Syde di. feod. de Simone de 

Cr©me. Et idem Simon de Johanne de Brun. Et idem Johannes de 

Rege in capite. 

DuNTiSBURN^. — Item Thomas de Gardino et Henricus de Leye tenent di. 
feod. in Duntisburn et in gardino de Johanne de Brun. Et idem 
Johannes de Rege in capite. 

1 Thoi'manton, better known as Farmington, part of the Barony of William de Hastings, 
on whose death in 6th Edward I. it passed to Benedict de Blackenham, who had married his 
daughter Joan. They cannot have enjoyed it long, as we find it in the King's hand with 
Benedict their son and heir. The latter must have come of age before 26th Edward I., for he 
gave part of Thurmanton to Alice— probably his sister, wife of Hugh de St. Phillbert, whose 
son John de St. Phillbert held it in N.V. 

2 Hampnet, N.V., John de Muntriche was then one of the Lords. De Breuse's Barony, as 
Fosbroke suggests, was that of St. Valery. 

3 Chedworth N.V., when it was still held by the Earl of Warwick, Guy de Beauchamp. 

4 North Cerney, not included in the Feodary of the Barony of Churchdown already 
referred to. The Archbishops of York had wrested it from St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester. 

5 Cubberley or Coberleye in N.V. 

6 Elkstone— Eweston, N.V. 

7 Side.— Likewise held of the Barony of Cormeilles, de Brun must be a mistake for le 
Brun. 

8 Duntesburn is not now in Rapsgate Hundred but in the adjoining one of Cirencester, 
though one of the three Manors into which it was divided, was, according to Bigland, 
reckoned in the former, 'i his was Dunte-^bourii Lear, given by William Fitz Osbern to the 
Abbey of Lire in Normandy.— D. 



Kirby's Quest. 



147 



HUNDEED DE BrIDESLOWE. 

Brideslowe 1. — Item Grimbaldus Pauntefot et Johannes de la Boxe tenent 
quartam partem unius feod. in Brideslowe de Comite Heref. Et idem 
Comes de Re e, 

Ib'm. — Item Rogerus de Brideslowe tenet quartam partem unius feod. ibidem 
de Alano Plunkenet. Et idem Alanus de Regd 

Lydeneye. — Item Radulphus de Wylington tenet unum feod. milit, in 
manerio de Lydeneye de Comite Warr'. Et idem Comes de Rege. 

Ib'm 2. — Item Willielmus fit. Ancelli de Gurnay tenet quartam partem unius 
feod. ibidem, de Ancello Patre suo. Et idem Ancellus de Comite Warr'. 
Et idem Comes de Rege. 

Alington ^. — Item Ricardus de Alington tenet x^m partem unius feod. 
Ibidem de Johanne de Curly. Et idem Johannes de Comite Warr'. Et 
idem Comes de Rege. 

Ib'm, — Item Thomas Pavy (?) 'tenet sextam partem unius feod. ibidem de 
Comite Warr', Et idem Comes de Rege. 

Item Johannes de Nasse Capellanus et Walterus Waryn tenent sextam 
partem unius feod, de Philipo de Maundevill, Et idem Philippus de 
Ricardo de Maundevill, Et idem Ricardus de Comite Warr', Et idem 
Comes de Rege. 

CHANELmwoRTH — Item Hugo de Chane [?Chave] linworth tenet sextam 
partem unius feod. ibidem de Comite Warr'. Et idem Comes de Rege. 

Aberton ^ — Item Prior Banthon' juxta Glouc' tenet in Ayberton f eod. unius 
militis de Bartholomeo de Mora de quo idem Bartholomeus tenet medieta- 
tem de Willielmo de Colevill. Et idem Willielmus de Waltero de Lacj^, 
Et idem Walterus de Rege. Et aliam medietatem ejusdem feod, tenet 
predictus Bartholomeus de ffulcon de Lacy. Et idem ffulco de Waltero 
de Lacy. Et idem Walterus de Rege. 

Hdelbesfeld ^. — Item Abbas de Tinternye tenet villam de Hueldesfeld de 
Rege in capite de dono Regis Edwardi nunc pro Ixi^. de feod. firma per 
annum. 

1 Blideslowe.— The first entry relates to the hamlet of Boxe, in which the Pauncefots at 
de la Boxes long held shares. Fosbroke Vol. II. p. 196. et, A.B.P. 

2 Lidney. — This was the Manor of Pirton in Lydney derived hy the de Gournays from 
Maurice de Gaunt. This " William son of Anselm de Gournay," is a younger son, not men- 
tioned in the pedigree, but he must have died, like his elder brother John, at an early age, 
as his lands passed to John Apadam, who married their sister. — V. et. A.B.P. 

3 Alvington ? I cannot, however, trace the names of any of the Feoffees of the Earl of 
Warwick, except in the case of the V\'aryns, who are recorded as holding Nasse. 

4 Chevelinworth, in Blideslowe Hundred, is nowhere mentioned, and I can only con- 
jecture that Hugh de Cheveringrworth, who held the manor of the name in Kiftesgate of 
William Burnell, happened to hold one here of the Earl of Warwick, which had come to be 
known by the surname of the tenant. 

5 Aylberton N.V., held by the Prior of Lanthony. The B of the above entry is a mistake 
for 2y.—V. et. A.B.P. 

6 Hewelsfield in St. Briavel's Hundred, which we are told in the Hundred Rolls was 
given by Edward I. to Tintern Abbey. It is the only mention of the King in the Roll, 

L 2 



us 



Traksactions at Deerhurst. 



Rydene 1. —Item Ricardus'^Talebot tenet manerium de Rydene de Comite 
Warr'. Et idem Comes de Rege sed non fit mencio etc per quod ser- 
vicium. 

Langele. 

Halweston 2. — Item ffulco fit ffulconis tenet Halweston de Rege in capite 
pro di. feod. 

Lfthbagton 2. — Item Abbas de Malmesbur. tenet Luthbagton de Rege in 

capite sed non fit mencio etc per quod servicium, 
RoCHAMTON*. — Item Johannes Gyfi'ard tenet Rochamton de Rege in capite 

pro di. feod. 

Overe^. — Item Ansilinus de Gurnay tenet Overede Comite Warr'. Et idem 

Comes de Rege sed non fit mencio etc. 
ToKiNTON. — Item Hugo Poynz tenet Tokynton de Comite Glouc'. Et Comes 

de Rege sed non fit mencio ete. 

Hundred de Grimbaldesham. 
DuRAM 6. — Item Guydo fferre tenet Duram de Rege in capite per servicium 

unius feod. 

Hundred de Berkele. 

Berkele et al' — Item Thomas de Berkele tenet de Rege in capite Berkele 
Hamme, Alkinton,^ Erbingg,' Coveleye, Slembrigg' Canne Jweleye, King- 
eston,^ Wotton, Gromhall,!*' Asselexorxe, et Borefeld ^^per servicium iij 
milit. 

Borfield — Item Johannes Gyffarde tenet di. feod. in Borefeld de Thoma 

de Berkeley. Et idem Thomas de Rege in capite sed non fit mencio in 

Inquisicione per quod servicium. 
CromhaleI^. — Item Willielmus de Wanton tenet quartam partem de Crom- 

hale de eodem Thoma. Et idem Thomas ut supra. 
Ib'm. — Item Cristian a de Mariscus tenet alteram quartam partem de Crom- 

hale de eodem Thoma. Et idem Thomas ut supra. 

Erlingh. — Item Robertus de Berkele tenet Erlinge. de eodem Thoma. Et 
idem Thomas ut supra. 

1 Ruerdean in St. Briavels' Hundred N.V., but I cannot find that the Earl of Warwick 
ever held the Manor, or the Talbots under him, as it belonged at this date to the heirs of 
William de Alba Mara. Richard Talbot, however, held the adjacent manor of La Ley which 
may have been really a dependency of Ruerdean. 

2 Alweston. — The tenant in capite was Fulk, son of Fulk fitz Warine. 

3 Littleton.— Abbot of Malmesbury N.V. 

4 Rockhampton held by John Gyffard of Brimsfield N.V. 

5 Over.— Although this Over is in the old Hundred of Swinesheved, which is now incor- 
porated with Langley, it is generally reckoned in Berkeley Hundred, because it passed with 
Beverston for centuries, and is so given by Fosbroke Vol. I. p. 489. 

6 Dyrham, in Grumbolds ash Hundred. On the decease s.p., in 12th Edw. I. of Matilda, 
widow of Robert Walrand, and d. of Ralph Russel, this manor reverted to her next of kin, 
and Robert Russel died seized thereof in 25th Ed. I., esch No. 28. It is difficult therefore to 
understand in what capacity it was held by Guido Ferre, but, whether as custos or trustee, 
his tenure must have been merely temporary. 

7 Berkeley.— The names of the Vills were carelessly copied. 8 Erlingham, 9 Kingscote. 
10 Cromhale. 11 Ashelworth, and 12 Horefield should be substituted. 

13 Horfield. 

14 Cromhale was held by the Wautons (or VValtons) not Wantons. 



Kirby's Quest. 



149 



IvELEYS^. — Item Walterus de Brumpton tenet di. feod. Iveleys de eodein 

Thoma. Et idem Thomas ut supra. 
Ib'm.— Item Walterus de Bet tenet di. feod. de eodem Thoma ut supra. Et 

idem Thomas ut supra. 
KiNGESTON. — Item Ricardus de Kingescote tenet di. feod. in Kingeston de 

eodem Thoma ut supra. Et idem Thomas ut s'lipra. 
Ib'm. — Item Johannes de Olepenne tenet di. feod. in eodem villa de eodem 

Thoma ut supra. 

DuRSEL 2. — Item Johannes Buteturt tenet Dursel de eodem Thoma ut supra. 
WoTTON. — Item Robertus le vel tenet ij virgatas terre in Wotton de eodem 
Thoma ut supra. 

Beverston et Kingesweston^.— Item Anselinus de Gurnay tenet Bevers- 
ton et Kingesweston de Rege in eapite per servicium unius milit, et di. 

Hull*. — Item Nicholaus fit. Radulphi tenet Hull de Rege in capite per 
servicium di. milit. 

Dursel et Newenton.— Item Henricus de Berkele tenet Dursel et 
Newenton de Rege in capite per servicium duorum milit. 

Osleworth. — Item Abbas de Kingeswode tenet Osleworth de predicto 
Henrico de Berkeley e et idem Henricus de Rege. 

Hundred de Cyrencestr'. 

Dunameneye 5. — Item Nicholaus de Walers tenet Dunameneye de Edmundo 
fratre Regi per servicium quarte partis unius milit. Et idem Edmundus 
de Rege. 

Hampton Meysy. — Item Robertus de Mej^sy tenet Hampton Meysy de 

Comite Glouc' per servicium di. feod militis. Et idem Comes de Rege. 
Sutherneye^, — Item Amaricius de S'co Amando tenet in Suthterneye unum 

feod. milit. de Comite Hereford'. Et Comes de Rege. 
Ib'm. — Item idem Amaricius tenet in eadem villa unam hydam terre que 

fuit Anselini de Tudemor que tenetur de dicto Comite. Et idem Comes 

de Fege sed non fit mencio etc per quod servicium. 
SoTiNGTON — Item Johannes de Langeley tenet in Sotington unum feod. 

milit. de Galfrido de Genevill. Et idem Galfridus de Rege in capite. 

^ Item idem Johannes tenet unam hydam ten e de feod. Asculfy le musard 
de Ardeberne per servicium di. feod. milit. Et idem Asculf us de Johanne 
. Musard. Et idem Johannes de Rege per Baroniam. 

1 Eweley, now Uley.— Smyth, who, in his " description of the Hundred of Berkeley," 
cites, in the case of almost all the manors, " the ancient book compiled from the Inquisitions 
taken before Richard Rowell," gives the names of the tenants respectively as Robert de 
Brampton and William de Bett. 

2 Durriley, or rather " Woodmancote, juxta Dursley," which John Botetiirt acquired 
after the death of Otto fitz Thomas. Esch. 10th Ed. I., No. 23. 

3 Beverston was always held in combination with Kings Weston, which is in Henbury 
Hundred. Anselm de Gurnay died in 14th Ed. I. — October 1286. 

4 Hill.— Held in conjunction with Nimpsfield.— vide A.B.P. 

5 Down Amney was held by the family of de Valers N.V,, Vid.— A.B.P. 

6 South Cerney N.V., et A.B P. 

7 Suthington Langele, now Siddington, St. Peters. 

8 I do not know who this HascuJf Musard was, but his Christian name was common in 
the family. 



150 



Transaction's at Deebhurst. 



SoTiNTON 1. — Item Matilda que fuit uxor Radulphi musard tenet in Sotinton 
x^i terre nomine dotis de Baronia de fForde de hereditate Johannis musard 
fit sui qui est infra etatem et in custodia Regis sed non fit mencio etc. per 
quod servicium. 

Harhull and Hameneye^. — Item Robertus de Harniell tenet in HarhuU 
et in Hameneye ij feod. milit. de Rogero de Toweneye et idem Rogerus 
de Hugone de Sarinis. Et idem Hugo de Comite Heref. Et idem Comes 
de Rege. 

Hameneye^. — Item Alanus Pluckenet tenet in Hamaneye di. feod. milit. de 

Johanne de Bathon'. Et idem Johannes de Stephano le Bret. Et idem 

Stephanus de Comite Sarum. Et Comes de Rege. 
Ib'm. — Item Eufema le Bret tenet in Hameneye di. hidam terre de Stephano 

le Brut per servicium deeime partis unius milit. Et idem Stephanus de 

Comite Sarum. 

Cotes ^. — Item Ricardus le Waleys tenet in Cotes unumfeod. milit. de herede 
de Ponneye. Et idem hered [sic] de Theobaldo de Verdun. Et idem 
Theobaldus de Rege in capite per Baroniam. 

Ib'm 5. Item Elyas Cokerel tenet in Cotes di. feod. milit. de Radulpho Russel. 
Et idem Radulphus de heredibus de Durham. Et iidem heredes de Rege 
in capite per Baroniam. 

Ib'm ^. — Item Walterus de Cotes tenet in Cotes unam hydam terre de Willi- 
elmo de la Sale per servicium quinque {sic) partis unius militis. Et idem 
Willielmus de Comite Glouc'. Et Comes de Rege per Baroniam. 

Trussebyry ''. — Item Elena de Befford tenet unam dimid. hydam terre in 
Hamelecto de Trussebyry de dono Johannis de Solariis. Et idem 
Johannes de Solar' de Waltero de Solar'. Et idem Walterus de Constanc' 
de Leye. Et ipsa de domino Willielmo de la mare. Et idem Willielmus 
de Comite Glouc' per servicium decime partis unius militis. Et ipse 
Comes de Rege. 

1 Suthington Musard. There is no record of this Barony of Forde. The only place of 
the name in Gloucestershire is a hamlet in Temple Guiting in Kiftesgate Hundred, but it was 
not held by the Musards. Besides their chief barony, however, of Musarden in Bisley 
Hundred, they held extensive possessions both at Saintbury in Kiftesgate, and in Cirencester 
Hundred, which may have constituted a separate barony, but in the inquisitions on the death 
of Ralph Musard 56th Hen. HI., and 1st Ed. I., No 13 ; he is stated to have died seized of the 
Manors of Sudington, Senisbury, Aston, and Musard, and of the Barony de la Musardean, 
only in Gloucestershire. In the Index to the Calendarium Genealogicum Ford is given for 
Forz or Fortibus, but the Somersetshire Barony of that name belonged to the Earls of 
Albemarle. 

2 HarnhuU, in Driffield, held by Robert de Harnhull, N.V. 

3 Amney Crucis— which the le Brets held of the Earl of Lincoln (inq. ad qd damnum, 
1st Ed. II, No. 60), who in right of his wife held also the Earldom of Salisbury.— Vide Doyle's 
Official Baronage. 

4 Cotes, which closely adjoins the town of Cirencester, is stated by Fosbroke (Vol. II. 
p. 505) to have formed part of the Fee of Walter de Lacy temp. Ed. I. (he died 30th Hen. III.) 
his reference being to MS. Cotton Jul. C.I., but he does not name his successor in the over- 
lordship. As the father of Theobald de Verdun, however, married the grand-daughter and 
heiress of this Walter his succession is accounted for. 

5 That of the Russells was, I conjecture, derived through marriage with a de Verdun. 
The mention of the "heirs of the Barony of Dirham" shews that Matilda Walrand's Escheat 
was not yet relinquished. 

6 The Earl of Gloucester's interest in Cotes was possibly derived from his mother, 
Maud de Lacy, daughter of John Earl of Lincoln. 

7 Trewsbury, a hamlet in Cotes. It is a good instance of the extent to which sub- 
infeudation of small manors had been carried. 



Kirby's Quest. 



151 



Straiton. — Item Ricardus de Hampton tenet in Straiton imum feod. milit. 

de Theobaldo de Verdun. Et idem Theobaldus de Rege in capite. 
BathindenI. — Item Ricardus de Bathinden tenet in Bathinden unum feod. 

milit. de Roberto de Chandos. Et idem Robertus de Rege per Baroniam. 

Dallingworth 2. — Item Radulphus Bluet tenet in Dallingworth ij feod. 
milit. de Willielmo Bluet de Lacham. Et iddin Willielmus de Comite 
Marescallo per Baroniam. Et idem Comes de Rege. 

DuNTESBURiN ^ — Item Rogerus le Rus tenet in Duntesburn di. feod, de 
Phillipo de Mattisdonne. Et idem Philippus de Reginaldo fit. Petri. 

Ib'm. — Item Henricus de Leye tenet in Duntesburn quartam partem unius 
feod, milit. de Johanne le Brun. Et idem Johannes de Rege. 

Baudunton ^. — Item Johannes de Muleford tenet in Baudunton unum feod. 
milit. de Anselino Basset. Et idem Anselinus de Comite Glouc'. Et Comes 
de Rege per Baroniam. 

Wygewolu^. — Item Walterus ^pringaud tenet in Wygewold quartam partem 
unius milit. de Johanne Ripar'. Et idem Johannes de Barone de fforde. 
Et ipse de Rege. 

Manerium de Torbye.^ 

Item Comes Glouc' tenet manerium integrum de Rege in capite sed non fit 
mencio etc per quod servicium. 

TiDiNGTON^. — Item Rogerus Corbet tenet Tidington de eodem Comite pro 
uno feod. milit. 

Labrug'^. — Item Johannes de Acton tenet Labrug' de Rogero la ware. Et 
idem Rogerus de Anselino de Gurnay. Et idem Anselinus de predicto 
Comite pro uno feod. 

Wyk^. — Item Rogerus la Ware tenet Wyk de eodem Anselino. Et idem 
Asselinus de predicto Comite sed non fit mencio etc. 

Hundred de Wyston. 

Staull LeoistardI^. — Item Henricus de Berkele dominus de Bursel tenet me- 
dietatem ville de Staul Leonard de Rege in capite per servicium quarte 
partis unius feod. 

1 Bagendon, which was held hy Richard de Bagendok of Robert de Chandos.— Fosbroke 
Vol. II. p. 501. 

2 Daglynworth— N.V., waste in the Manor of Stratton. — D. 

3 Duntesboun Rous— alias Mattesdon. 

4 Baudynton N.V. (nowBaunton).— It seems doubtful, however, whether this does not 
relate to No. 2, for Richard de Bagyndon is stated to be Lord, and nothing said of the tenants 
above specified. 

5 Wigwold was held by Walter Spvingald. The Baron de Forde must be John Musard. 
Vide Note 1, p. 150. 

6 Thornbury is still styled a manor, as in the Hundred Rolls, but it shortly after this, 
through the influence of the Earl of Gloucester, became a hundred as in N.V. 

7 Tydington N.V., still held by the Corbets, also in A.B.P. where it is called Tyderington. 

8 Ladenridge, or Lateridge, is part of the manor of Iron Acton. — Fosbroke, Vol. II., 
p. 114. 

9 Wick-war, in the adjacent Hundred of Grumbold's Ash, was held by Roger le War. of 
Anselm de Gurnay.— N.V. and Fosbroke. 

10 Stanley St. Leonards.— Held by the Lord of Dursley. 



152 



Tbansactions at Deerhurst. 



Staull Reg'. — Item Adam le Despens' tenet Staull Reg' de Rege in capite 
pro di. feod. milit. 

Wytenhurst. — Item Comes Hereford tenet Wytenhurst de Rege in capite 

pro uno feod. milit. 
Morton i. — Item Wiliielmus de Valenciis tenet Morton de Rege in capite. 

sed non fit mencio etc per quod servicium. 
BoTTELAWE 2. — Item Wiliielmus de Pennebrigge tenet di. feod. in villa de 
Bymmek 3.— Bymmek de Rege in capite. 

Hundred de Langetre. 

Tetubir. — Item Wiliielmus de Breuse tenet manerium de Tetubir de Rege 

in capite de Baronia S'ci Walerici. 
Ib'm. — Item Abbas de Kingeswood tenet quartam partem unius feod. milit. 

in eodem manerio de eodem. 

Ib'm. — Item Jacobus Folyot tenet quartem partem unius feod. ibidem de 
eodem. 

Ib'm. — Item Johannes de Bremelan tenet quartam partem unius feod. ibidem 
de eodem. 

Ib'm^. — Item Rogerus de Doneton tenet quartam partem unius feod. milit. 
ibidem. 

Rodmertom. — Item Wiliielmus de Rodmerton tenet sextam partem unius 

feod. milit. in Rodmerton de predicto manerio. 
Chirington. — Item idem Wiliielmus tenet in Chirington in eodem manerio 

quintam partem unius feod. de eodem Willielmo de Breuse. Et idem 

Wiliielmus de Rege ut supra. 
Skipton ^. — Item Wiliielmus le Moyne tenet Skipton per serjantiam essendi 

Lardinar Regi. 

Ib'm. — Item Grilbertus de Skipton tenet in eadem villa unam feod. milit. de 

predicto Willielmo. Et idem Wiliielmus de Rege. 
Lesseberwe^. — Item Henricus de Dene tenet in Lesseberwe unum feod. 

milit. de heredibus Roberti de Caynis. Et iidem heredes de Rege in 

capite. 

Weston —Item heres Johannis le Bret tenet di. feod. et x^™ partem unius 
feod. in Weston de domino de Kilpek. Et idem dominus de Rege in 
capite. 

Item Wiliielmus de Rodmerton tenet terciam partem unius feod. de predictis 
heredibus. Et iidem heredes de Rege. 

1 Morton Valence. — Held by Audomar de Valence, N.V. 

2 Botloe. — A Hundred containing eleven Vills in N.V.; adjacent to the Forest of Dean. 

3 Dymock-Parva.— This is really an adjunct to the Manor of Mune, held by the Penbridge 
family as already mentioned, under Kift-gate Hundred.— Fosbroke Vol. H., p. 239. The 
principal Manor of Dymock was held by the Grandisones as in N.V. 

4 Tetbury. — William de Breouse inherited the Baron.y of St. Valery through the marriage 
of his ancestor with the heiress Matilda de St. Valery. He died 24th Ed. I. Doughton was 
a dependency of Tetbury Manor. 

5 Shipton Moyne N.V. The serjeantcy of keeping the King's larder was long held by the 
Moynes. 

6 Lasborough.— Henry de Dene inherited through the daughter and heiress of William de 
Lasseberge temp. Hen. III. 

7 Weston Birt. or Bret.— Alan Plukenet was Lord of Kilpeke at this time. Walter de 
Cheltenham was probably a trustee for Thomas Lord Berkeley. Roger de Dunnyle had given 
a rent charge to the Abbey of Cirencester thereon. 



Kirby's Quest 



153 



Ib'm.— Item Walterus de Chiltham tenet quartam partem unius feod. de 
Abbate Cyrencestr' in Weston & Skipton. Et idem Abbas de Rogero 
Donevill. Et idem Rogerus de domino de monte Atto de honore Comitis 
Cestr'. Et idem Comes de Rege. 

Chelinton 1.— Item Petrus de la Mare tenet in Chelinton unum feod. milit. 
de Comite Cornub' de honore de Wallingf. Et idem Comes de Rege in 
capite. 

Wylcestr' 2._Item Johannes Mautravers tenet Wylcestr' de Comitissa 
Devon' et eadem Comitissa de Rege sed non fit mencio per quod servicium. 

Hundred de Hagemede. ^ 

DoDiNGTON.— Item Henricus de Berkele tenet Dodington de Rege in capite 
sed non fit mencio etc per quod servicium. 

Caumpeden. — Item Caumpeden tenetur de Rege in capite pro di. feod. milit 
de honore Comitis Glouc'. 

Hundred de Craneburn. 

Craneburne. — Item Comes Glouc' tenet honorem de Craneburn de Rege in 
capite sed non dicunt per quot feod. nec per quod servicium. 

1 Cheriton. — Long held by the de la Mares. 

2 Woodchester.— Held by John Maltravers— on his death in 25th Ed. I.— of the Honor of 
Albermarle. Isabella de Redvers, Countess of Devon, had married William de Fortibus, Earl 
of Albermarle. She died 21st Ed. I. 

3 "Hagemede '' was not a Domesday Hundred. In the Survey, Dodington is described 
as in Hedrestan Hundred along with three other manors, the principal of which, Marshfield, 
then belonged to the Crown. It came in the next century to the Earls of Gloucester, who 
soon contrived to get it erected into a Liberty. Probably upon this a change took place in 
the site of the Hundred Court, and the new name was adopted. At all events, throughout 
the Assize Rolls of Henry III., Dodington is said to be in Hagemed or Aggmead Hundred, 
The area of the latter,"however, was so small that it soon merged in the adjacent division ; 
for, in the Hundred Rolls, we are told " Hundred de Haggemead respondet cum Hund. de 
Grumboldashe," and it had ceased to be mentioned before the close of the 13th century, as 
in the Subsidy Roll of 28th Edward I. Dodington is placed in Grumboldash, The manor of 
Marshfield meanwhile became a separate outlier of the new Hundred of Thornbury, which it 
continues to be to the present day. As Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, had long striven to com- 
pel Henry de Berkeley to acknowledge him as overlord of Dodington, this entry affirming the 
fact that Henry held that manor in capite of the King, looks as if it had been made after the 
judgment pronounced at Bristol in July, 1287. (Vide "The Berkelej's of Dursley." Trans. 
Bristol and Glouc. Archseological Society, Vol. IX. , p. 20). If so, it must have been added as 
a postscript to the original Return, which it has been shown was made before October, 1286. 

The same idea is suggested by the following entry, which seems also of 
later date : 

4 "Campden," for although we were informed under the heading of "Hundred of 
Campden " (page 142), that the jury "knew not who held this Manor, nor on what Tenure," 
it is now stated to be held as half a Knight's fee of the Honour of Gloucester ; a fact which 
could scarcely have been ascertained until after the decision of the suit brought by Earl 
Gilbert against the heirs of Roger de Somery (vide note page 142), which was not given until 
1287. (Placita, 15th Edw, I. Rot 31. Fosbrooke, Vol. II, p. 325). « 

5 " Cranbourne Hundred." The last entry likewise concerns the Earl of Gloucester, but 
it is extremely difficult to account for its appearance here at all. It is, as everyone knows, 
in Dorsetshire, its only connection with the County of Gloucester, having arisen, so far as I 
am aware, from the fact that the right to the profits from it, as well as to its extensive chase 
and manor, had always passed with the Honour of Gloucester ; added to which, the church 



154 



Transactions at Deeehurst. 



founded at Cranbourn by St. Dunstan, was a far more ancient and venerated establishment 
than the Abbey of Tewkesbury, to which Robert fitz Hamon had transferred most of its 
monks, and many of its richest endowments early in the 12th century. Perhaps, in conse- 
quence of these circumstances, it was still considered in some sort the " Head of the Honour," 
so that where we find The Hundred of Cranbourne " here inserted— Tewkesbury— (of which, 
as already pointed out, no mention is made in the Return) may be really indicated ; whilst 
when "the Honour of Cranbourn " is spoken of, that of Gloucester is meant. Such quasi- 
identification, on account of the early association of the two lordships, is far more likely to 
have been noted subsequently by the Remembrancers of the Exchequer for fiscal reasons, 
than made at the time by Robert Rowell and his associates at Gloucester. As, however, we 
only possess a copy, probably two or three times removed, of the original Abstract of the 
Inquisitions taken before them, it is, of course, impossible to verify these conjectures. 



i 



The Will of Richard Dixton, Esq. 



155 



THE WILL OF MCHAED DIXTON, ESQ 
Communicated by the Rev. E. A. FULLER, M.A. 



Some years ago, when I was making archaeological researches 
with view to writing a history of the Parish Church of Ciren- 
cester,! I examined all the wills of Cirencester folk in the registers 
at Somerset House, and' Lambeth, and Worcester, from 1400 
onwards till the period of the Reformation, and transcribed all 
that was noteworthy. 

The following is the earliest of these Cirencester wills that is 
written in English, and is interesting on that account, though 
unluckily there are a few expressions, the meaning of which is not 
clear, as the glossaries give no help. The spelling is, of course, 
irregular. The will also fixes the latest limit of time for the date 
of the building of the chapel of the Holy Trinity in Cirencester 
Church, towards which Dixton was a liberal benefactor. From the 
terms of the will he would seem to have belonged to the household of 
the Duke of York, but it does not appear what his special connect- 
ion was with Cirencester. William Prelett (Prelatte on his brass 
dated 1462) named as executor, was receiver-general of the Duke's 
large Gloucestershire estates, ^ and lived at Cirencester possibly in 
that capacity. Dixton may have been Prelatte's predecessor in 
office. The name would rather point to a Monmouthshire origin, for 
Dixton is a parish close to Monmouth, and Dixton's own property 
would seem to have been at Usk. His connection with North 
Wiltshire was evidently through his wife, a widow of one of the 
Pussells, a family of Bristol merchants who held land in North 
Wiltshire at Lydiard Millicent, Somerford Magna, Bradenstoke, 
Hullavington, and at Tytherington Kelways in the parish of 

^ Published by Baily, Cirencester. 

2 MSS. letter of Duke of York at Holm Lacy, quoted by Lysons, 



156 



Trans /vfTTOKS at Deerhuest. 



Bremhill. The Fasterne mentioned in the will is now a farm- 
house, about a mile-and-a-hal£ south-west of Wootton Bassett. 
In the Eulogium Historiarum, iii., 385, mention is made in 
connection with the story of the conspiracy of the three Earls 
against Henry IV., in 1399, of a gentleman of Cirencester highly 
trained to arms, who always sent one of his retainers to the King's 
court at Christmas to bring him back an account of the jousts held 
there. As a row of carved tilting shields forms the ornament of 
a cornice in the Trinity chapel, it is possible that B.. Dixton is the 
person alluded to. His own armorial bearings were formerly at 
Bradfield House in Hullavington parish : Argent, a 2^ He sable, over 
all a chevron gules. At Wotton Bassett the tinctures were 
reversed: sable, a pile argent.^ At Cirencester a painted shield 
agreed in tinctures with that at Bradfield, The Russell coat was 
shewn in painted glass at Bremhill, and Somerford : or, on a bend 
sable, 2 swans argent between 3 mullets pierced or ; at Bradfield,^ 
as at Cirencester — in both cases in connection with Dixton — the 
tinctures were gules on a bend argent. 

Gyles of Brugge was an ancester of the Brydges family. His 
father, Sir Thomas Brugge, had married Alice the daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Berkeley of Coberley, the last of the elder family 
of Berkeley. Thomas' wife was Elizabeth, sister and co-heiress of 
John Lord Chandos, with whom that title expired in 1371. The 
Chandos peerage was called out of abeyance for Gyles of Brugge's 
great-grandson John Brydges, as the family had by that time 
learnt to call themselves. 

THE WILL. 

In the name of oure Lord JHU Amen. The viij day of 
ik.ugust the yere of the reyne of our sovereyne lord Kynge harry the 
sixte after the conquest the xvi^. I Richard Dixton squyer havyng 
gode and resonable witte and discrecon make ordeyne and dispose 
my last testament in this maner. First I bequeth my sowle unto 
God almyghty unto the Blessed virgine his moder named marie 
and to all the companye of hevene and my body to be buryed 
withyn the new chapell of the Trinite at Ciscetre. Item I bequeth 

1 See Canon Jackson's edition of Aubrey's Wiltshire. 



The Will of Richard Bixton, Esq. 



157 



to the saide chapell of Ciscetre a cloth of silver and a black cloth 
of damask sengill and a gown of Goldsmythes werk for to make 
vestments and a c gerciers.^ Item I bequeth unto iij prestes for to 
syng and pray for me duryng the space of a yere yn the saide 
church of Ciscetre xx^^ Item I bequethe "unto the prioresse and 
covent of the house of Usk for to pray for me x marks. Item I 
bequeth unto prestes and clerkes for to doo my service and exquies 
and for almes for pour men xx^^ Item I bequeth unto frer prechours 
of Gloucestre for to fynde iij prestes of the same house duryng a 
yere for to syng for my moder and for me xx^^ Item I bequeth 
to the Grey Freres of Hereford for to doo semblably for my moder 
and for me xx^^ Item I bequeth unto maistre Thomas Radnore 
x marks. Item I bequeth unto the Abbot of Teukysbury a 
covered cupp gilt. Item to the priour and covent of the same 
house xx^^ Item to the Abbot of Siscetre a covered cupp of silver 
gilt. Item to the priour and convent of the same house xx^^ 
Item to the Abbot of Evesham a covered cupp of silver gilt. Item 
to the covent of the same house xx^^ Item to the priour of 
Bradestoke a covered cupp of silver gilt. Item to the convent of the 
same house xx^^ Item to the Abbot of Malmesbury a covered cup 
of silver gilt. Item to the covent of the same house xx^^ Item I 
bequeth for my mynde day xx^\ Item I bequeth to my lorde 
of Yorke iij of my best hors to be chosen either at Usk or at 
Wotton and all my armeur. Item I bequeth to J ane Barre ^ a cupp 
of silver covered. Item to Elizabeth Mortymer a cupp of silver 
covered. Item to dame Anneys lench a cupp of silver covered. Item 
to Elizabeth Belliers a cup of silver covered. Item to Agas Elegge 
a cup of silver covered. Item to Robert Greyndor ^ squyer my serp^ 
^ Meaning uncertain. 

2 Sister of Sir John Barre mentioned below. She married Kynnard De la 
Bere. 

^ Eobert Greyndour was son and heir of Sir John Greyndour, by 
Marion, dau. and heir of ... . Hatheway, of Ruardean. He married 
Johanna, daughter and heir of Thomas Rigge, of Charlecombe, co, Somerset, 
by Katherine, daughter and heir of Sir John Bitton, of Bitton, co. Glouc. 
Robert Greyndour died in 1443, and his relict married, secondly, as his 
second wife, Sir John Barre, of Rotherwus, son of Thomas Barre (who died 
v.p.), by Alice dau. of Richard Lord Talbot. Sir John Barre died 14th Jan. 

4 Meaning uncertain. 



158 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



of silver and my chsyne of gold. Item to Jane Greyndor his wyf 
a covered cupp of silver the wich I was wont to drynk of and a 
a Bracelet of Gold. Item to the new Chapell at Siscetre Item 
I bequeth unto the Abbot of Lanternam^ and his monkes x marks. 
Item to the priour of Goldclewe^ and his monkes xx markes. Item 
to everych of my lordes iij chapeleyns xx^ Item to John Trebell 
my confessour xx marks to syng for me ij yere in an honest place 
where so ever he woll and iiij yerdes of blew cloth. Item to the 
yemen of my lordys chambre xx^\ Item to the officers of my said 
lordys hall pantre seler Boterie and Kechyn xx^\ Item to Maister 
E-obert Beaumont a cupp covered chased with Rosys beyng at the 
Fasterne. Item to my saide lordys servants of his stable x marks. 
Item to A gentill woman called Jenet hawys xx^^ Item to 
William Benett a gown of Black furred with ficheux* heyng at the 
Fastern® and xP. Item to John Mody a gown of grene damask lyned 
and a nother gown of Russet furred with blak and xP. Item to ij 
prestes for to syng and pray for me yn the Church of Wotton 
duryng a yere xx marks. Item to the Church of lydyerd x marks. 
Item to Edmond of Oornewayle an ersgerdyll of silver. Item to 
John Russell squyer a gown of Rede damask furred with marteyns 
and a cupp of silver covered. Item to Thomas Barnaby a cupp of 
silver covered. Item to my servant John Bueld vj marks and j 

1483. Lady Joan, as she was usually called, survived him. She made her 
will 3rd Feb. 14S4-5 (proved 24th July following), in which she directed 
her body to be buried in the Church of Newland with her first husband 
Robert Greyndour (See ante Trans. Vol. VI. p. 183 and Vol. VII. pp. 117- 
125). Lady Joan died s.p., but Sir John Barre, by his first marriage, left a 
daughter, Isabella, his sole heir, married Humphry Stafford, created Earl 
of Devon in 1469, and was beheaded in the same year, after which she 
married Sir Thomas Bourchier, Knt., son of Henry Earl of Essex, but died 
s.p. 

Elizabeth, the second sister of Sir John Barre, married Edmund de 
Cornwall, Baron of Barford, who is mentioned as a legatee lower down in 
the will. Maud, the third sister, married Philip Vaughan. — En. 

1 Llanvihangel Lantarnam, three miles north of Newport. The monks 
were Cistercians. 

^ Goldcliff, south east of Newport, on the estuary of Severn. The Priory, 
as originally founded, was a cell to the Abbey of Bee, in Normandy. After 
the dissolution of the alien priories, it was attached to the Benedictine Abbey 
of Tewkesbury. 

» Stoat's fur. 



i 



The Will of Richard Dixton, Esq. 



159 



gowne of Russet medley furred with blak. Item to my wyf all my 
stuff beyng at the Fasterne except a sangwen gown furred with 
marten and the thynges above rehersed. Item my full wyll and 
entent is that the saide J ohn Hussell have and rejoyce for ever more 
all the ly velode that meneth of his moder after her deces. Item all 
myn owne lyvelode to remeyne to my next heires. Item I woll 
that Edward Blundell squyer of Worcestershire have v marks and 
vi cuppes of silver every cupp weying a mark and a half of Troye 
for to dispos the same gode for his sone Richard Blundell of 
whos sowle god have mercy. Item to Thomas Cleuche xP. Item to 
Richard of the Warderobe xl^. Item to John of pantrye vj marks. 
Item to William Wastell xl^. Item to William Estynton vi marks 
Item to Watkyn Hardyng vi marks. Item to Hewe Dawesey yj 
marks. Item to Harry Meyr vi marks. Item to Ibex c^. Item to John 
hewys xP. Item to John Danyell xl^ and a little bay hors. Item to 
Edward xP Item to John of Nokys xK Item to Walter Parker xK 
Item to litell Pers xP. Item to Elizabeth Belliers a scarlet gown 
furred with foynes.^ Item to Richard of the Warderobe the fourthe 
best hors that I have. Item to the saide Watkyn Hardyng a gown 
of scarlet with slyt slyves y furred and my cuttyd hors. Item to the 
said William Estynton a scarlet gown and a hors. Item all my 
clothyng and weryng barneys and beddyng at Usk, I woll that 
the saide Watkyn and William departe by twene hem and her 
felawes as they seme that goode ys and that they delyvery to Hew 
Dansey an hoby^ and a gown of grene damask and to every of myn 
other men an hors whiles ther ben eny. Item I woll that my hewke^ 
of silver be sold and do for my sowle. Item to John Cook servent 
to the saide Robert Greyndour xiij^ iiij*^. And that this my last 
Wyll and testament be f ullfilled and acomplesshid of all my goodys 
and catelles not bequethen be specified I make and ordeyne Gyles 
of Brugge sqyer and Wat Bagge parson of Brynkeworth Richard 
Marneford and William Prelett of Siscetre my trew and lawful 
executors and to every of hem for her labour x mark to ordeyne 
and dispose for my sowle yn the best wyse that hem semeth to be 
done as they woll answere before God. En witnesse of wiche thyng 
to this my present testament I have put to my seale. 
1 Polecat's fur. ^ A hawk. 

3 Meaning uncertain. Halliwell says that hewkes are heralds' coats. 



160 



Transactions at Deerhurst. 



Probatum fuit istud testamentum coram magistro Johanne 
Lyndefeld xxi die mensis Octobris Anno domini millescimo cccc° 
xxxviij^' Et commissa fuit administratio Willimo Prelet execiitori 
&c., E-eservata &c., ac vicesimo novembris tunc proxine sequentis 
acquietata. — {Somerset House Wills, Luffenham, f. 191. h.) 

ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

Prelatte's house was in Lauren's Street, ^ i.e. Gloucester Street. 

There is an interesting paper in The Wiltshire Magazine, by 
Canon Jackson, on North Wilts round about Wootton Basset and 
Swindon. He mentions that the Fasterne was originally a manor 
house on the Despenser property : but that it was afterwards 
granted to Edmund Langley, son of Edw. III. who was created 
Duke of York. His grandson was the duke referred to in Dixton's 
will. 

1 Register of Lady Chapel, f. 19. a. 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publicatioks. ibl 



£iotict^ oi Recent ^xchmioQxctcl anb ^ijstonral PtibltratixrnfiJ. 



HASTED'S HISTORY OF KENT, corrected, enlarged, and continued to 
the present time, from the Manuscript collections of the late Rev. Thomas 
Streatfeild and the late Rev. Lambert B. Larking, the Public Records, 
and other sources. Edited by Henry H. Drake, &c., &c. Part L The 
Hundred of Blachheath. London : Mitchell & Hughes, Wardour Street, 1886. 

The great facilities afforded to historical students during the last half a 
century by unlimited access to the Public Records, and the assistance to 
searchers by Calendars and Indices, has opened a new era in historical 
knowledge, and at the same time has entailed upon authors a higher degree 
of responsibility. This does not apply to general or national history 
only, but equally so to writers on local, topographical, territorial and 
family history. It has shewn how very unreliable are our old County 
Histories. Many of them are worthless, and the greater number of the 
best require to be re- written without delay. Where, however, are the men 
in this stirring, money-seeking, age, qualified and willing to undertake the 
laborious, thankless, generally profitless, and oftentimes ruinous task, with- 
out that support from the nobility, gentry and other land-owners, who 
ought to be, but unhappily too often are not, the class most interested in 
the work. 

Hasted's History of Kent was written more than a century ago. It 
was a work of great labour, and a labour of love, for it brought financial 
ruin upon the patriotic author ; and considering the disadvantages under 
which he laboured, in comparison with the advantages of present writers 
alluded to above, the Public Records at that time, and long afterwards, 
lying in various depositories in undigested heaps and inacessible, was a very 
creditable performance. It has long been seen, however, that the work is 
very inadequate to the historic greatness and importance of this famous 
county. As long ago as 1836 the late Rev. Thomas Streatfeild issued a 
circular announcing his intention to publish a "New History of Kent," 
for. which he had been accvimulating materials for nearly half a century 
previously, but, his mind having been withdrawn from it by the political 
excitement of the time, considerable delay occurred. At length he was 
joined and urged forward by another well known, able, and enthusiastic 
Kentish Antiquary, the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, Rector of Ryarsh, and a 
further large amount of material was brought together. " Time," however, 
waits for no man." Mr. Streatfeild was removed hj death in 1848, and his 
Papers passed to his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Streatfeild, of Charts Edge, His 
friend and colleague, the Rector of Ryarsh, upon whom the infirmities of age 
naturally gathered, also passed away in 1868. Upon his death the Papers 
passed to his brother, Mr. J. W. Larking, to whom Mrs. Streatfeild en- 
trusted them for publication, and being unwilling that the labour bestowed 

Vol. XL M. 



162 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



upon the preliminary work should be lost, and desirous to perpetuate the 
memory of his brother and his friend, he, with great patriotism and zeal, 
determined that the work should be carried out, or, at least, commenced ; and 
for many years had endeavoured to obtain the assistance of a gentleman 
properly qualified to undertake it. At length he was introduced to Dr. 
Henry Holman Drake, who willingly accepted the onerous task. This is the 
history of the present undertaking. 

The first difficulty having been overcome, it remained in the next place 
to be settled what should be the plan of the new work. To carry out the 
intention of Mr. Streatfeild, as stated in his prospectus of 1836, of writing 
an entirely new history upon a very extensive and ambitious scale, was 
deemed to be impracticable ; and after due consideration it was determined, 
after the necessary modification, to print the text of Hasted and incorporate 
into it the new matter which had been collected and any further materials 
which might be acquired by the researches of Dr. Drake, and this has been 
done, the material collected by Messrs. Streatfeild and Larking being dis- 
tinguished, respectively, by their initials, and that of the present Editor 
introduced within square brackets. 

Dr. Drake adopts the principle that " County History should supple- 
ment and amplify national history by detailing the contingents furnished by 
each locality to shape it . . . and that genealogical story, a most attractive 
part of the former, contributes more than is commonly imagined to elucidate 
the latter." This is very true, but it can scarcely be carried out on a large 
scale. In illustration of his principle, in an Introductory Chapter, Dr. 
Drake has introduced much genealogical matter relative to certain west 
country families, members of which during the Tudor period settled in the 
Hundred of Blackheath and took a prominent part in the troublous political 
and religious history of the reigns of the later Tudor sovereigns. Among 
these we find members of the well-known historical families of Carew, 
Courtenay, Drake, Hawkins, Trelawny, Slanning, Fitz, Tremayne, and 
others, all more or less of kin. Their connection is stated in the text, and 
illustrated in a series of pedigrees which no one save Dr. Drake, who inherits 
the blood of most of them, and has made their genealogy the study of his 
life, could compile. To these are added other skilfully constructed elaborate 
genealogies of familes which from very early times have been connected with 
the Hundred. The chapter is a very interesting one, and to it we must 
refer the reader. The space at our command will not permit us to enter 
into details. 

In a short Introduction to the parochial history of the Hundred, Dr. 
Drake recals to our recollection many of the great names which have shone 
in the history of the nation who were connected with this Hundred, which 
is known in Domesday as Grenvix (Greenwich), a Hundred with which, he 
says, in point of historical associations no other in England can vie. 

The first parish treated of is Deptford, and Dr. Drake traces the 
devolution of the manor from the time of the Conquest to the present. But 
the most important place in it, in modern times, is the Dock Yard, which 
may be considered as the cradle of the English Navy, though afterwards, in 
consequence of the shallowness of the water, it became eclipsed by Woolwich, 
and other yards. Of Deptford dockyard we are given a history from its 

* 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 163 



creation as a national institution. It was here that Peter the Great, Czar of 
Muscovy, was instructed in the mystery of ship-building, of which he 
became a most efficient master. Hence it may be said that Deptford was 
also the birth-place of the Russian navy. 

The Czar resided at Sayes Court, the seat of the famous John Evelyn- 
which is close to the dockyard, from the end of January to the 21st April, 
1698, and some curious anecdotes are related of this extraordinary man, of 
his drunken pranks, and the damages the premises sustained during his 
short occupation. His instructor in the dockyard was Mr. John Deane, the 
eldest surviving son of Sir Anthony Deane, the eminent ship-builder, who 
was the Chief Commissioner of the Navy and the intimate friend of Pepys 
during the reigns of Chas. II. and James II. John Deane, with the permission 
of the English Government, accompanied the Czar on his return to Russia 
for the purpose of teaching the Russians the art of ship-building, where he 
appears to have been treated with much respect. There is an interesting 
manuscript letter from him in the British Museum, dated at Moscow, 8th 
March, 1698-9, addressed to the Marquis of Caermarthen, giving an account 
of the state and progress of the Russian navy. He speaks with admiration of 
Peter's ingenuity in invention, testified by a false keel which he had con- 
trived, and also of his skill and industry as a handycraft workman. Mr. 
Deane died in Russia, it is believed, soon after the date of this letter, in 
which indeed he complains of illness. 

The important Manor of East Greenwich is not named in Domesday, 
and was hidated under some other manor, probably Lewisham, which, like 
it, was held by the Abbey of St. Peter at Ghent. When the alien priories 
were dissolved by Henry V. all their possessions fell into the King's 
hands, who, in 1414, appropriated these manors as part of the endowment of 
his newly founded Carthusian Priory of Sheene, and in 1531-2 the Manors 
of Lewisham, Old Court and Greenwich were ceded to Henry VIII. in 
exchange, who, in 1536, granted them to Sir Richard Long for life. Without 
noticing the various temporary interests created, the fee remained in the 
Crown, and King James I. granted it to his Queen, Anne of Denmark. After- 
wards it was held by Queen Henrietta Maria and by Catherine of Braganza, 
Queen of Charles II. In 1699 it was sold to Sir Johh Morden at three years 
purchase of the rents, who settled it upon trustees for the benefit of his 
College in Charleton parish, of which more presently. 

Pertaining to this manor was the Manor of Pleasaunce, which Henry V. 
granted to his uncle, Humphrey Beaufort Duke of Gloucester, with licence 
to enclose a park. Upon his death it again reverted to the Crown, and 
became a Royal residence. The house was enlarged and improved succes- 
sively by Edward IV., Henry VIL, and by Henry VIIL who was born here 
and made it his favourite residence, and to add to its convenience effected 
an exchange with the Prior of Shene for the Manors of Lewisham, Old 
Court and Greenwich as above noticed. Queen Elizabeth also added to the 
buildings and made (xreenwich her chief residence. James I. granted it to 
his Queen, who further enlarged it, as did Queen Henrietta, who, with her 
unfortunate husband, resided much at the palace until 1641, when he left 
it with the fatal resolution of taking his journey northward, and never saw 
it again. 

M 3 



164 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



During the interregnum it was treated as the rest of the Royal property, 
but, of course, reverted to the Crown at the Restoration. William III. by 
Letters Patent dated 12th of March, 7th of his reign, granted it to certain 
Commissioners for the purpose of founding a Hospital for English Seamen of 
the Royal Navy, who by age, wounds, or other accidents should be disabled 
from further service at sea, and for their children. 

In the Parish of Charlton is the noble college, to which we have before 
alluded, founded by Sir John Morden, an Aleppo merchant, for the support 
of forty honest decayed merchants. Dr. Drake gives us a curious tradition 
relating to the foundation of this excellent Institution, which we must pass 
over. 

Under the Manor of Woolwich, which, of course, receives Dr. Drake's 
careful attention, the most striking features are the Naval and Military 
Establishments, the Dockyard, the Royal Arsenal, and other great military 
establishments connected therewith. The dockyard was founded in 1512 
for building ships of larger size than could be launched at Deptford. The 
first ship built here was the Henri Grace a Dieu, of historic memory. The 
Arsenal itself is of much later origin and growth. It now covers 333 acres 
of land in Woolwich, besides a large area in Plumstead Marshes used for 
powder magazines and other purposes. A very large number of men are 
employed in the Arsenal at all times, but in time of war or emergency it is 
greatly increased. * ' At the close of the Russian War (Dr. Drake tells 
us) the Arsenal was reduced ; numbers of men were aided by a public 
subscription and sent to the colonies in 1857. In 1862, 5000 hands were 
discharged from the Arsenal." 

The devolution of the Manor of Eltham is deduced from a very early date. 
Some portion was possessed by the Crown from ancient times, and Edward III. 
acquired further portions. There was a Royal palace here as early as Hen. III. , 
in which that Sovereign, with his Queen and the chief men of his realm kept 
Christmas publicly, according to the custom of those times, in 1270. 
Edward 1. signed several charters here in 1297. It was a residence of the 
Kings and Princes of England down to the time of Henry VIII. who 
deserted it for Greenwich. Many historic incidents are related as having 
occurred at Eltham during these centuries. The palace, of which the great 
hall still remains, though in a ruinous condition, is supposed to have been 
built by Anthony Bek, Bishop of Durham, to whom William de Veci 
granted the manor, and by whom it was granted to Edward Prince of 
Wales (after Edw. 11.) who regranted it to the bishop for life. After having 
bestowed great cost on the buildings he died here in 1311, and was buried 
at Durham. The new hall now standing was built in 1479, as shewn by 
the builders account printed at page 279. The manor is still the property 
of the crown though granted on lease. 

There is nothing in the Manors of Lee and Lewisham which requires 
particular notice, except the vow of Edward the Confessor made at Ghent, 
26th Dec. 1006, that should he ever attain the throne of England he would 
restore the Ville of Lewisham with Greenwich and Woolwich to the abbot, 
and this vow he fulfilled forty years afterwards. This vow, written in latin 
in Saxon characters, is printed in facsimile (p. 237). 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 165 

In conclusion we must say that the volume shows an amount of labour 
and research which the initiated only can appreciate. This is manifested 
by the multitude of foot notes which appear on every page, consisting, 
chiefly, of important extracts from almost all classes of the Public Records, 
lengthy excerpts from Parish Registers, wills, &c., pedigrees, and other 
valuable information, ancient and modern, not Jimited, only, to the Hun- 
dred of Blackheath, but incidentally connected with the County of Kent 
and places far beyond its boundaries. Dr. Drake, in addition to his 
literary attainments, is an accomplished artist. Several of the illustrations 
are from his pencil. Mr. Larking deserves the thanks of all archaeologists for 
the public spirit with which he has taken up this great work, and Dr. Drake 
for the painstaking and indefatigable labour which has enabled him to pro- 
duce so valuable a volume. We trust he will receive the necessary amount of 
support to justify him in carrying on the History of Kent in the same way, 
and that he will be blessed with health and strength to bring it to a satis- 
factory conclusion. 

THE FAMILY OF BROCAS, OF BEAUREPAIRE and ROCHE COURT, 
HEREDITARY MASTERS OF THE ROYAL BUCK HOUNDS, with 
some account of the English Rule in Aquitaine. By Montagu Burrows, 
Captain R.N., M.A., F.S.A., Chichele Professor of Modern History in the 
University of Oxford. London : Longmans, Green & Co., 1886. 

Peoeessor Burrows informs us that his work originated from the contents 
of an old oaken chest which had long been lost, and which on being re- 
covered and opened was found to contain a great number of ancient deeds 
and other documents, extending from 1271 downwards, which he had the 
resolution and patience to decipher, and of which he now gives the public 
the result. How many other such chests may there not now be remaining 
in our old country houses which have not been disturbed even by the agents 
of the Historical Commission ? 

Professor Burrows enters upon his work in the true spirit of a genealo- 
gist. He takes nothing for granted. The tradition of the family of Brocas 
was, like that of many other ancient families, that they " came in with the 
Conqueror," and in their case they had some grounds for the pretension, for 
the statement appeared upon record in that fount of family history, the 
College of Arms. But those, who, like Professor Burrows, have attempted 
to verify the earliest pedigrees there recorded, have, like him, found how 
untrustworthy they are. He justly concluded that if any foundation existed 
for the tradition the name would be found in Domesday or some other of 
the ancient national archives, in which every description of landed estate, 
and every name of eminence, would be found. 

An exhaustive search, however, proved fruitless. The name of Brocas 
could not be anywhere discovered, and its first appearance was found in 
a Gascon Roll of 1242, nearly 250 years after the Conquest. This gave 
Professor Burrows a clue in his researches which he has so well worked out. 

Gascony then, or Aquitaine, or Guienne, as it was indifferently called, 
was the cradle of the Brocas clan. This Duchy was acquired by Henry II. 



166 Notices of Recent Arch^ologtcal Publications. 



of England, through his marriage in 1151 with Eleanor, daughter and heir 
of Duke William, and it continued annexed to the English throne for three 
centuries. During that long period it was closely associated with England in 
all its successes and misfortunes. Notwithstanding this long and close con- 
nection we know but little of Gascon affairs and the influence they must 
necessarily have had on those of England. Professor Burrows laments this. 
He says *' we know more about the Anglo-Saxon and Norman periods of our 
history than we do about the era of the Plantagenets. " To the student of 
English history, he says " the key to a large part of it will be found in the 
study of this English government of its Gascon provinces." Thus alone can 
we expect to understand the secret of the " hundred years war," and all that 
grew out of it, the reflex action of Gascony upon England, and especially 
on the growth of its constitution, the commerce of England, the personal 
history of its kings and leading families:" "and yet," he adds, "the 
materials for a history have been lying for centuries close within our reach. 
The Gascon Rolls, containing many thousands of official documents extend- 
ing over two centuries out of the three during which our island was 
connected with its dependency, were brought off from Bordeaux when the 
English were expelled in 1453." Of the first century after the union we 
possess but little knowledge, for the Gascon Rolls do not commence until 
1242. Some information is, however, to be gleaned from other sources, and 
it is hoped that the history so ardently desired by the Chichele Professor of 
Modern History at Oxford will not long be wanting ; indeed we venture to 
think there is no one so well qualified to undertake the task of preparimg it 
as the learned Professor himself. He has given a most interesting and 
admirably written historical sketch of the country in the third chapter of 
his book. 

It is to be hoped that this long digression, in consideration of the 
importance of the subject, and the bearing it has on the book before us, will 
not need an apology. 

We have mentioned that the first occurrence of the name of Brocas was 
in 1242, the earliest Gascon Roll now extant. But we do not understand 
that it occurs again for a considerable time. At this we cannot be surprised 
for five rolls only exist for the whole reign of Henry III. The family 
would seem to have been of the untitled noble class, or what in England we 
should describe as " gentlemen of ancestry." As time advanced they 
increased in influence and position, and proved themselves constantly loyal 
to the English sovereigns as hereditary Dukes of Guienne, and for that 
loyalty they greatly suff'ered in the local wars, having been expelled from 
their estates and brought to ruin. Some members of the family were 
brought over into England by Henry III. and Edward L, and a certain 
Arnald de Brocas is shewn to have been slain in Scotland (probably at 
Bannockburn) in 1314, in the King's service, leaving several children 
destitute, for whom, as appears from a Gacon Roll of the following year 
(8th Edward 11. ), provision was made. Some of them were taken into 
the royal household, and three brothers of the name were greatly distin- 
guished in the following reign by the numerous and important appointments 
which they held in the king's service. John de Brocas, the elder brother, 
was one of the king's valets {valettus), the office of a gentleman about the 
king's person, in 1314, when he could have been scarcely of full age. Bernard. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



the second brother, was a Master of Arts of some University, and Rector of 
the rich benefice of Guildford as early as 1324, and, after a prolonged 
University training, received an appointment in Gascony, speedily followed 
by others of a responsible character ; and Arnald, another brother, was, in 
1330, Master of the Horse to John the King's son, known as John of 
Eltham, who had been advanced to the Earlj^om of Cornwall in 1328. 
Another young gentleman, of the name of Simon de Brocas, was, in 1330, 
sent by the king to Cambridge for his education. The author has not 
succeeded in tracing any relationship between him and the three brothers, 
but states that they were all of the same kin. 

The space at our disposal will not allow us to give more than a brief 
outline of the services of these young gentlemen. For further information 
we must refer the reader to Professor Burrows's interesting volume. 

Bernard held the rectory of GuiHford until 1368, a period of at least 
forty-four years, but he was frequently absent from his benefice in the King's 
service. 

Of the third brother Arnald, the Master of the Horse, to the Earl of 
Cornwall, the author can tell us little. At this time (1334) there was an 
Arnald de Brocas, " who, if the same Arnald, was, like his brother, valettus 
to the King, and received payment from the crown for a debt of £38 due to 
him." It is not improbable that this was the settlement of his stipend on 
quitting the king's immediate service. Nothing more is heard of him, and 
he is supposed to have died early. 

It would seem that the members of this house must have acted with 
great zeal, probity and discretion, for though, as a rule, the Gascons were 
held in great public disfavour during the reign of the second Edward, so far 
as appears, no voice was raised against any one of the Brocas clan. They 
passed through the troubles of that reign scathless, and John de Brocas was 
well received by King Edward III. on his accession, and was by him made 
Custus Equorum JRegis, equivalent to Master of the Horse. This, however, 
was by no means the only, or the most important, office with which he was 
entrusted by that great monarch, but for particulars we must again refer to 
Professor Burrows's pages. He received the honour of knighthood in 1339-40. 
In the following year he attended the King in his Flemish campaign, where 
he captured a distinguished prisoner for whose ransom he received 400 florins. 
In 1346 he, with his two sons Oliver and John, accompanied the King in the 
invasion of France where he commanded a company consisting of 1 knight, 
14 esquires, and 24 archers ; a number considerably above the average ; and 
with his sons was present at the battle of Crecy, his son Oliver attending on 
the king as one of his esquires, and Bernard on the Prince of Wales in the 
same office. Sir John was twice married. By his first wife, Margaret, be- 
sides his three sons he had two daughters ; and by his second wife, Isabella, 
two sons, John and Oliver, of whom the first died unmarried. 

Sir John was of provident habits, and whilst he was yet young he began 
to purchase land in small parcels at Windsor and Eton, and his name is still 
preserved in the latter place in the term " The Brocas," applied to a well 
known meadow in which is a clump of trees, and in the name of the street 
leading to it ; but whence the name itself is derived is forgotten. As early as 



168 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



1334 John de Brocas was appointed chief forester of Windsor forest, which 
office he held till his death. In 1344 Sir John Brocas, with Oliver de Bordeaux, 
another Gascon, who had been constable of the castle and chief forester from 
1319 to 1325, were appointed under commission to assist the constable in en- 
larging Windsor Castle. ' ' They were directed to survey the workmen and 
their work, to encourage such as did their duty, and to compel those who were 
slothful." The fame of the magnificent works at Windsor has been given to 
William of Wykeham. He was employed under this first commission, being 
then a simple clerk, but he had the opportunity of displaying his wonderful 
skill and ability, and when Oliver de Bordeaux was dying and Sir John de 
Brocas was called off to the new war, William de Wykeham was appointed, 
under a new commission, in exactly the same terms as the first. It was to 
the first commissioners that he owed his rise out of obscurfty, and he ever 
manifested his gratitude to the Brocas family. 

We have already alluded to John de Brocas' s early investments in pur- 
chases of land near Windsor. As his income increased from his various 
important employments his purchases became more extensive, and these pur- 
chases were enhanced by various grants of lands and manors in recognition 
of his valuable services to the State. Consequently he became very wealthy. 
Edward III. was very desirous of enlarging the park at Windsor, and about 
a year before Sir John's death, which occurred at his house at Clewer on the 
feast of St. Maur the Abbot, 1 5th Jan. 1365, he made a free grant to the king 
of all the lands he had purchased in Clewer, Old and New Windsor, Bray, 
and Didworth. 

Sir John's heir was his grandson John, the young son of Oliver, who was 
already dead. He died young and unmarried, as did John the second son, 
so that Bernard, Sir John's third son, became his eventual heir, and Pro- 
fessor Burrows says, "the central figure of the family history." During the 
whole life of the Black Prince Sir Bernard Brocas was his friend and com- 
panion in arms, and was of about the same age. He was " armed for the 
first time," Prof. Burrows tells us, " on the shore of La Hogges (La Hogue), 
or, in other words, putting on for the first time on the landing of the troops 
at the same moment when the Prince was dubbed a Knight, the armour of an 
Esquire," and we have already seen that he was one of the personal Esquires 
of the Prince at the battle of Crecy. We cannot follow Sir Bernard through 
his active and adventurous career, but there is one remarkable incident in 
his life, now only first brought to light, to which we must advert. He was 
knighted between 1352 and 1354, in which latter year he was already married 
to Agnes, daughter and heir of Sir Mauger Vavasor of Denton, who brought 
him divers manors in Berkshire and Northamptonshire, among them the 
manor of Scharneston in the former county. After six years, however, we 
find a divorce had taken place, but the specific cause is unknown. The lady 
had a son named Bernard and he was not the son of Sir Bernard Brocas, 
which is some indication. Before the divorce she and her husband surren- 
dered all their lands to one Sir John Stapleton, clerk, rector of Torlaston, 
who was Sir Bernard's attorney, to the use of Sir Bernard and his heirs, 
except the manor of Scharneston, which was passed by a fine, in 1360, to 
the said Sir John Singleton to the use of the said Agnes for life, with 
remainder to Bernard, son of the said Agnes, and his heirs, which estate 



Notices of Recent Arch^ologtcal Publications. 169 



several years later is found in the possession of Henry de Langfield, the 
second husband of the said Agnes, and the putative father of the aforesaid 
Bernard. 

Seeing that the divorced parties were permitted to re-marry, Professor 
Burrows justly concludes there must have been some extenuating circum- 
stances connected with the divorce ; and this briags us to the incident to 
which we have above alluded. 

It is not our intention to enter upon the question of the early life of the 
beautiful and fascinating Lady Joan Plantagenet, known as the "Fair Maid 
of Kent," suffice it to say, that on the sudden death of her husband, Thomas 
Lord Holland, in 1361, she was free to marry again any one she pleased, 
and, of course, she had many suitors. It is said that in earlier days the 
Black Prince himself had been greatly enamoured of her, but that, for various 
reasons, both the King and Queen strongly disapproved of the match, and 
that the Prince had abandoned all thought of it. The tradition has been 
handed down that the Prince himself had become a suitor to her on behalf 
of a friend of his own as her husband, though the name of this aspirant has 
not been preserved in English History, but quite recently, Professor Burrows 
informs us, a valuable anonymous manuscript has been found in the National 
Library at Paris, and has been edited by the well known antiquary, M. 
Symfeon de Luce, called the Chronique des Quatre Premiers Valois, and here 
the secret is revealed by a contemporary. The Knight for whom the Prince 
pleaded was Sir Bernard Brocas. The story of the courtship, which is given 
at length, is very characteristic, but we have not space to extract it, suffice 
it to say that the lady refused the Knight, declaring that the cause of her 
doing so was her love for the ambassador, and the Prince's old passion was 
awakened, — and the case was closed. Their nearness of kin was of course a 
difficulty, but that was doubtless overcome by a dispensation, and Sir Bernard 
was reconciled to his disappointment by the hand of a wealthy young widow, 
Mary, daughter and heir of Sir John de Roches and relict of Sir John de 
Borhunt. Sir John afterwards married another wife, but he had issue by 
Mary de Roches only, who brought to him the de Roches estates, and the 
hereditary office of the Master of the Buck Hounds, of which we shall say a 
few words farther on. Sir Bernard survived his master and friend, the 
Black Prince, and also the King, and lived on in great credit till 1398, 
respected and honoured by all, when he departed this life and was interred 
in St. Edmund's Chapel in Westminster Abbey, where a sumptuous monu- 
ment to his memory still remains. 

He was succeeded by his sou, another Sir Bernard, whose lot was cast in 
very stormy times. He, like his father and grandfather, was a Knight in the 
King's house, and was animated by the same spirit of ardent loyalty which 
they had always manifested. He accompanied the King in his ill-omened 
journey to Ireland in May, 1399, for the purpose of redressing the disorders 
which had arisen there after the death of Mortimer. During his absence Henry 
of Bolingbroke had risen in rebellion. Sir Bernard took part with others in 
the conspiracy, as it was called, in favour of the King, with the object of 
seizing Henry at Windsor, which they nearly effected, they were finally 
captured at Cirencester, and several of them beheaded on the spot. The 
Knights and Esquires were made prisoners and carried to Henry at Oxford, 



170 Notices of "Recent Arch^ological Publications. 

where others were executed without trial. The rest, including Sir Bernard 
Brocas, were sent to London for trial. He was, of course, found guilty 
and beheaded, but, by Henry's orders, was exempted from the shocking 
barbarities which at that time accompanied executions for treason. " Thus," 
Professor Burrows remarks, "the last of the great Royal House, in the 
direct legitimate line of male descent, carried with him in his fall the 
last of the Knights and courtiers who had helped to fuse into one the 
interests of England and Aquitaine. A dreadful history was to arise out of 
this revolution." 

We have been obliged to slur over the great services rendered to the 
State by these Brocas Knights and gentlemen. Professor Burrows, in enumer- 
ating " the offices whicii they held under the Crown," writes "that their 
career ought to make some contribution to our knowledge of a brilliant, but 
still very obscure, period of history. Under two Kings, and these by no 
means the most interesting of the great English series, Edward III. and 
Richard II. — to some extent also under Edward II. — some ten of these men, 
in three successive generations, were favoured courtiers and highly trusted 
servants. They were, intimately associated with every transaction of that 
romantic time, and divided amongst them the offices of Master of the Horse, 
Chief Forester of Windsor, Wardens of the King's Castles, Gaols, and Parks, 
Captain of Calais, Controller of Calais, Constable of Aquitaine, Controller of 
Bordeaux, Ambassador, Chamberlain to the Queen, Carver to the Queen, 
Chamberlain of the Exchequer, King's Clerk of the Works, Masters of the 
Buck Hounds, and more besides. At the period when English chivalry was 
at its proudest height three at the least of the family were Knights at the 
same time, one of whom is said by a French chronicler, confirmed by other 
indications, to have been a chief comrade and favourite of the Black Prince. 
They were found at Crecy, at the Seige of Calais, at Poitiers, and at Najara. 
One, if not two of them, met death in defence of the English shores, dying 
for their English Lords as their ancestor, Arnald de Brocas, fell, in partibus 
Soctia 

The last Sir Bernard left issue several children, of whom William was 
the eldest, and now the head of the family. Henry IV. , within a year after 
Sir Bernard's execution, annulled the Act of Attainder and restored his 
children in blood. All the Brocas Knights, recognising the uncertainity of 
the times, were careful to settle their estates in trust, so that all the lands 
and manors were secured, and the sons settled themselves on different 
estates in different counties, and became the founders of different families. 
William was seated at Beaurepaire, which his descendants enjoyed in direct 
male line until the end of the 17th century. Here we must leave them and 
again refer the reader to Professor Burrows pages for their subsequent 
interesting history, closing our notice with a few words on the Mastership 
of the King's Buck Hounds. This office was held hereditarily by grand 
Serjeanty, as pertaining to the manor of Little Weldon, near Rockingham 
Castle, but it had passed entirely out of memory. Some documents found 
in the old oaken chest have enabled Professor Burrows to bring its history 
partially to light, though further information is required to state it fully. 
The Professor has shewn the creation of the office by Henry II. in favour of 
his Chamberlain, Osborne Lovel, in which family it descended to the death 
of John Lovel in 1316, when it fell to co-heirs. Margaret, the eldest co-heir, 



Notices or Recent Arch^ological Publications. 171 



married Thomas de Borhunt, to whom she carried the office, as she did, 
afterwards, to her second husband, William Danvers. By her first husband 
Margaret had a daughter Mary, who, in 1367, became the wife of the first 
Sir Bernard Brocas, who in her right held the office, and it continued in her 
descendants of the name of Brocas for five generations. It then passed by one 
of their co-heirs whose wardship and marriage had been coruptly purchased in 
the bad times of Henry VIII. by an obscure person of the name of Peysall, 
and in 1633 was sold to Sir Lewis Watson, ancestor of the Marquis of 
Rockingham, together with the manor of Little Weldon, but the office of 
Master of the King's Buck Hounds has died out, into the particulars of 
which we cannot enter. This bulky volume, for which we must thank 
Professor Burrows, is full of interest from the first page to the Ig^st, and 
throws much valuable light on English History. 

THE HIGHLANDS OF CANTABRIA : or Three Days from England. By 
By Mars Ross, author of "My Tour in the Himalayas,^' etc., and H. 
Stonehewer-Coopeb, author of " Coral Lands," etc. London : Sampson 
Low, Marston & Co., 1885. 

This is a charming book of travels in a most interesting and picturesque 
region, little known though within three days' journey from Charing Cross. 
The authors are both experienced travellers in distant lands, and are capable 
of vividly describing what they see and hear. And this work is none the 
less interesting because there would seem to be a sort of utililarian object in 
the back ground. The region referred to is the Highlands of Cantabria, a 
range of mountains on the north of Spain, in continuation of the Pyrenees, 
and bordering on the Bay of Biscay, whilst separating the provinces of 
Asturias and Biscay from the rest of Spain. 

The authors write that when heading their first chapter *' Three Days 
from England," " we intended to convey the idea that our beautiful moun- 
tains and the scenery we are about to describe, the pleasures of the 
picturesque, the artist, the mineralogist, sportsman, fisherman, and even 
the investor might by three days travel either through France or by steam 
from various ports, be enjoyed." 

Landed at Passages, whither coal steamers, which are well-fitted, clean, 
and comfortable vessels, continually ply from Cardiff, the passengers, in a 
quarter of an hour by rail may reach the picturesque city of San Sebastian, 
the Brighton of Spain — a place ever memorable to Englishmen and Spaniards 
alike from the sanguinary battles fought there in 1813. From San Sebastian the 
travellers would proceed to Bilbao, a city at the mouth of the Nervion river, 
famous three centuries ago for its manufacture of iron and steel of the finest 
quality. Bilbao blades were highly esteemed in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
It was also a celebrated port for the exportation of wool. For a while its 
commerce sank into a low condition but it has recently revived, the exporta- 
tion of iron ore alone in 1884 being about three millions of tons. The tonnage 
from this comparatively little-known port places it in the first rank of 
shipping cities in the world. A very interesting account is given of the 
social condition of the place and of the Biscayan people in general, and its 
wine trade, for which we must refer the reader to the volume itself, and, 
with our authors, hie away to the hills. 



172 Notices op Recent Arch^ological Pctblicattons. 



An amusing account is given of the railway journey towards their 
destination. The travellers looked forward to their arrival at Torrelavega, 
because they had been informed at Santander that Senor Tetis, the proprietor 
of one of the coach lines to Unquera, was not only a very pleasant gentle- 
man but spoke English remarkably well. This they thought was capital. 
They would be able to obtain from this gentleman the best information, and 
hints for their further journey. On their arrival at Torrelavega they found 
the Senor, a well-built, handsome man, with a smiling countenance and a jet 
black beard, whom they politely accosted, announcing that they proposed to 
travel by one of his coaches, and, saying they were much pleased to find 
some one who could speak English, invited him to breakfast with them. 
Senor Tetis smiled and then added, '* Plenty o' watter." This was the extent 
of the Senor's vocabulary, but we are told that in the course of another year 
he had succeeded in adding to it by learning another word, "Yes," and 
could say to an enquiring Englishman, " Plenty o' watter, yes," Notwith- 
standing, however, this unfavourable circumstance, the Senor proved an 
agreeable and useful friend. 

The coach journey from Torrelavega to Unquera was full of interest and 
amusement. The mail coach itself is described as a poor imitation of a penny 
London omnibus. It Was sometimes drawn by seven horses, two pairs and 
three abreast in the middle. The coachman was a very remarkable character. 
When he was not telling a comic story, or singing a snatch of a song, he was 
expostulating with his horses, addressing them by their names, as to their 
lazy and generally disgraceful behaviour, and now and then alternating this 
tenderness with a burst of untranslatable local Billingsgate. The horses 
went fairly well at a racing gallop up hill and very slowly down. The 
coachman provided himself with a bag of some objectionable-looking stones 
which is said to be the usual practise when horses are so harnessed, for the 
purpose of accelerating the pace of the leaders, and the accomplished driver 
will never fail to hit the ear of the horse at which he aims. The rural 
scenery of the country through which they passed was very pleasing. The 
snug little villages clustering under the hill-side, the murmur of some river 
well stocked with trout, the well-kept gardens, the fields of maise, the luxu- 
riant hedges, the miles after miles of good roads, fit for any of the wheeling 
confraternities, with the trees reaching overhead ; are not all these things 
pleasant to see, pleasant to recall to one's mind, pleasant to write about, for 
others to go and enjoy what we have enjoyed ? Now, and again an old 
ruined moorish tower, then a stately farm-house, which in daj^s gone by had 
belonged to some proud grandee, and to day was occupied by some equally 
proud yeoman farmer. And this pleasant ride, brimfull of interest by itself, 
is merely the preface to the Highlands of the Cantabrian range, the antiphon 
to the psalm of the beauty and grandeur of God's creation, which can be read 
by those who can read in the limestone passes of the Asturian mountains," 

The " Northern Postern Gate," as our travellers call it, at Unquera, was 
the pass by which they would penetrate to the highlands. The road pro- 
ceeded alongside the little river Deva, a mild and murmuring stream in the 
summer months but a roaring torrent in the winter season. The grandeur 
and magnificence of the abrupt and stupendous white limestone cliffs which 
tower over this bubbling brook, with the snowy caps of the Spanish Picos in 



i 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 173 



the distance, rising to an elevation of some 9000 feet, are most graphically 
painted by a master's hand. For this we must refer the reader to the volume, 
as also for the description of Unquera, the people, climate, and flora of this 
lovely spot. The great grief of the people is the conscription. 

The observation of our authors that the remarkable formation of the 
limestone cliffs have the appearance of extensive castellated ruins, remind 
one of a similar appearance, of course on a much smaller scale, in the valley 
of the Wye above and below Symond's Yat. You may there picture to 
yourself, ruined keep, round and square towers connected by curtain walls, 
and isolated towers, the white walls peeping through the trailing ivies by 
which they are in places covered. We must, however, hasten on to Tresviso, 
a quaint little village with simple and healthy inhabitants. We are told in 
the last edition of Murray's *' Guide to Spain," that at Tresviso "no wine is 
ever drank," but our authors say that on their arrival when they enquired 
for the taberna they were quickly taken to it, and had a few glasses of 
excellent wine, in the consumption of which they were ably assisted by the 
villagers, and they were told that from time immemorial there had always 
been a wine shop in the village — but they confirmed the further statement 
in Murray that no doctors or apothecaries shops had been known there. The 
mountaineers are a very healthy people, as attested by the great ages to 
which they attain. The account of this mountain village and of its inhabi- 
tants will be read with great interest. 

Potes, the capital of the Picos de Europa, is described as an " unspoilt 
Spanish Town." It seems to be a very primitive and interesting place, and, 
with the exception of the daily mail by coach, is exactly as it was centuries 
ago. Some amusing incidents are given in connection with this place, and 
some legends and folk lore are introduced. From Potes the travellers 
returned again to Unquera, whence they visited the "home of the chamois," 
in the more desolate and wilder heights of the Picos, and some lively sport 
in hunting these active and wary animals is described. In another expedition 
in higher ranges they almost came to grief. They were in great danger of 
being attacked by wolves, which were driven away by imitating the barking 
of a dog. But this was not the worst. A violent snow storm came on and 
it was not without several accidents and much difficulty they found their 
way back to the house of their host. 

The next excursion was to the city of Oviedo, the capital of Asturias, 
of which the population is about 35,000. The cathedral is described as a fine 
cruciform structure in the perpendicular style, built in the latter half of the 
14th century upon the site of an older church erected in the 8th century and 
enlarged in the 9th. This sumptuous structure is described at some length. 
Oviedo we are told *' is a rich treasure store for the ecclesiological student 
and should be much better known than it is. The time at our disposal was 
far too short to enable us to give, in full, descriptions of all the churches of 
interest. The curious in these matters of detail will have to search more 
ambitious works than the " Highlands of Cantabria." Suffice it to say that 
we have pointed the way, and the intelligent scholar of antiquarian lore of 
the ecclesiological and archgeological type will find the work easily himself. 
If he is not satisfied with the study of the cathedral city of Oviedo and its 
suburbs he must be fastidious indeed." 



174 Notices of Recent Ach^ological Publications. 



Thence to Gijon, which is described as a Spanish Cardiff from its having 
in its vicinity some very large coal and iroa works, of the produce of which 
large quantities are annually exported. A large quantity of nuts is also 
shipped from this port for England, where they are sold as ' ' Barcelona 
Nuts," but they are said to be innocent of ever having been at that place. 

We might prolong this notice to any extent and still fail to do justice 
to this interesting volume. But before we conclude we must not omit to 
draw attention to the 25th chapter, which is wholly appropriated to Asturian 
history and folk lore, in which many curious legends and superstitions are 
related. Nor must we fail to refer to the adventures of one of the authors 
in the last expedition made, in which he got lost in the " pathless woods," 
and after much fatigue and many perilous adventures reached home in 
safety. 

The scene of these travels is in what we may call a terra incognita 
though, we may say, close to our own doors. The volume is full of adven- 
tures, and contains a vast amount of useful information respecting the 
products of the country. We can cordially recommend it to readers of all 
classes. It is produced in the well-known attractive style of Messrs. 
Sampson Low & Co. 's firm, and is very liberally illustrated with effective 
photographic views taken by Mr. Mars Ross (though we could wish they 
had been steel engravings which the book well deserves) of the grand and 
romantic scenery of the district visited. 

THE FEUDAL HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF DERBY (chiefly during 
the 11th 12th and 13th centuries). By John Pym Yeatman, Esq. (of 
Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law), formerly of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
and F.R.H.S., &c., and by Sir George R. Sitwell, Bart, M.P,, F.S.A. 
{Joint Editor of the Hundred of Scarsdale) ; and Cecil J. S. Foljambe, Esq., 
M.P., F.S.A. {Joint Editor of the Hundred of High Peak). London : Bemrose 
and Sons, 23, Old Bailey, and Derby ; London and Oxford : Parker & Co. ; 
Chesterfield : Wilfrid Edmunds, Derbyshire Times. 

Mr. Yeatman deserves great credit for the courage and public spirit with 
which he has undertaken the gigantic task of writing a Feudal History of 
Derbyshire. 

The plan which Mr. Yeatman has adopted for the construction of his 
history, in printing, as an Introduction, full extracts from the ^Domesday 
Survey, and from other primary records relating to the county, is, we think, 
a very good one, inasmuch as it will enable his readers, having the data 
before them, to form, as he himself suggests, their own opinions upon the 
correctness of the author's conclusions. The task, however, of interpreting 
ancient records is not an easy one, and must be approached with great care 
and caution. It is a path full of pit-falls into which the rash, unwary and self- 
reliant may easily fall. Mr. Yeatman justly says that all records should be 
read in connection with Domesday, and we would add, in comparison with 
each other. He also writes : *' The great object to be attained in a work of 
this kind is Truth." It has been well said : there are three things which a 
historian should keep constantly in view : the first accuracy — the second, 
ACCURACY — and the third, ACCURACY. To produce a history of any value 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 175 



this should be religiously adhered to, and we doubt not Mr. Yeatman will 
conscientiously endeavour to attain to it. Nothing should be stated except 
upon evidence, authorities being duly quoted, and all extracts from previous 
writers verified. Referring to his proposed history, Mr. Yeatman justly 
recognises it as "a work of great labour and difficulty, but, he truly 
observes, " it possesses intense interest to one versed in these studies, and 
that it is worthy of the effort to accomplish it every candid mind must 
readily acknowledge." 

It is gratifying to know that in this laborious undertaking Mr. Yeatman 
is favoured with the support and assistance of two able coadjutors in Sir 
George Reresby Sitwell and Mr. J. S. Foljambe, and other eminent local 
antiquaries, who will share his labours and responsibilities. 

Mr. Yeatman commences this Introductory volume with a studiously 
written essay upon Domesday. Derbyshire is one of those few English 
counties in the Domesday description of which the term Hide is not found, 
the equivalent term, carucate, being throughout used instead. The other 
counties are Lincoln, Notts, Rutland and York. Mr. Yeatman recognises 
that the term " hide " is not an areal measure, and he uses it in a financial 
sense, as in hiclated instead of gelded, but he does not seem fully to perceive 
that in Domesday there are two parallel systems, one financial and the other 
agricultural, each with its sub-divisions. We are free to admit that in 
Domesday there are some few points of detail upon which antiquaries are not 
quite agreed, but the general principles are pretty well settled, and we are 
unable to accept all Mr. Yeatman's conclusion, e.g., that the measurements 
of the woods as leagues and quarantines, to which he adverts (page 2.3), as 
being mere guesses. We think they are capable of great accuracy. We may 
remark that the dimensions given in the record had no reference to the shape 
of the wood, but only to its area, but we will pass on. Any errors of judg- 
ment the author may have fallen into will, probably, right themselves as he 
progresses with his work. 

Next follow excerpts from the Pipe Rolls of the counties of Nottingham 
and Derby. The accounts for these two counties were returned together by 
the same sheriff, and hence the receipts, &c., are so intermixed as not to be 
easily separated. This series of Roils is almost complete from 2nd Hen. II. 
(1155), to say nothing of the first Roll, which the late Mr. Hunter, Assistant 
Keeper of the Public Records, and a careful and distinguished antiquary, 
assigned to the 31st Hen L, and Mr, Yeatman is quite justified in giving 
these very valuable records the first place after Domesday. They contain a 
vast amount of information of all kinds, and are of incalculable value for 
social, national, territorial, and genealogical purposes, especially during the 
reigns of our early kings, for which period very few records of any kind are 
now extant. We are glad to see that the author proposes to arrange all the 
entries on these rolls relating to the two counties named above, and to 
carefully index them. 

Mr. Yeatman places next in order the Red Book of the Exchequer, the 
contents of which are of great value, though confusedly entered, and a new 
edition is much needed, which, we are glad to know, is in hand by a very 
competent antiquary. Mr. Yeatman treats of this volume very fully, and 
has a just appreciation of its worth. 



176 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



Testa de Nevil follows. The entries in this volume, as in the Red Book, 
are confused and require careful re-arrangement. It is, however, we think, 
of equal authority with the Red Book. In his Introductory remarks on this 
valuable record Mr. Yeatman refers to an edition which he says was printed 
under the direction of the Master of the Rolls in 1833, and he comments 
severely upon the carelessness of the Editor. This edition of the work is 
unknown to us, and we fail to obtain any information concerning it. Mr. 
Yeatman must be labouring under some misapprehension, for the Master of 
the Rolls' Series was proposed only in 1857, the Treasury Minute sanction- 
ing the expenditure, being dated on 9th February, 1858. The only edition 
of " Testa de Nevil," of which we have any knowledge, is the folio volume 
printed in 1807 by the Record Commissioners. 

Several Feodaries, extending from 1198 to 11th Edward II. follow, when 
we come to Kirby's Quest, the authority of which we consider Mr. Yeatman 
greatly underrates. Though most of the original Returns are missing, and 
the omissions are supplied in a handwriting of the 16th century, it has 
always been esteemed by competent antiquaries as second only to Domesday, 
and of equal authority with the Red Book, Testa de Nevil, and other similar 
Records. 

Several Scutage Rolls follow and complete this valuable collection of 
authorities upon which Mr. Yeatman proposes to base his History of Feudal 
Derbyshire, to the progress of which we shall look forward with much 
interest. 



KING EDWARD THE SIXTH, SUPREME HEAD : an Historical Sketch, 
with an Introduction and Notes. By Fked. George Lee, D.D. London : 
Burns and Gates, 1886. 

The short period during which the throne was occupied by King Edward 
the Sixth was one of the most critical in the annals of this country. His 
father. King Henry the Eighth, had, a few years previously, suppressed all 
the Religious Houses and transferred the greater part of their large poses- 
sions to his courtiers and parasites, and in many ways he had made great 
changes in the constitution of the Church of England. He had also renounced 
the supremacy of the Pope, which indeed had never been fully accepted in 
this country, and assumed to himself papal authority; and had, thereby, 
interrupted the union with, though not entirely separated the Church of 
England from the rest of Western Christendom ; but, as regards doctrine he 
had not made any changes, and, had his daughter Mary immediately 
succeeded him probably the reformation of the then existing abuses would 
have been peacefully and gradually carried out and the unity of the 
Western Church maintained to our own times. 

The accession of a child only nine years of age to the throne and 
necessarily under the tutelage of his own relatives who had been large 
participators in the plunder of the Church lands, the possession of which 
they felt to be very insecure, naturally tempted them to carry out great 
changes in doctrine which King Henry had never contemplated, and thereby, 
as far as was in their power, to separate the Church of England from the Church 
Catholic and convert it into a mere Protestant sect like the Calvinists and 
other sectaries on the continent, hoping thereby more fully to secure to them- 
selves their illgotten wealth. The first object was to alter the Ancient Service 

i 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 177 



Books of the Church, and, the bishops, generally, not being in accord -vvith 
them, feeling themselves incompetent to the task, they invited to their 
assistance Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and other members of the foreign 
sects. Upon their advice, and by their assistance, the Old Service Books 
were so altered as greatly to change the doctrine and popular uses of the 
Church of England. The changes were very offensive to the people generally, 
and riots and serious rebellions arose in all part^ of the country, which had 
to be suppressed by the sword and the gallows, and so the party of change 
was for the time triumphant. 

This important and interesting period has been selected by Dr. Lee as the 
subject of his work. The free access now given to all State Papers, and to 
other important historical documents in private collections, by means of the 
Historical Commission Reports, has enabled historical students to acquire 
every full knowledge of the facts of the period, which our forefathers did 
not possess, and thus to correct the partisan, inaccurate, and prejudiced 
statements of Foxe and other writers on the events of that time. 

Dr. Lee has availed himsejf of these opportunities, though we cannot say 
we think he has profited by them. His work is intended to have for its 
object the promotion of the Reunion of Christendom. To promote this 
cause the subject should have been approached without passion or prejudice, 
and all the circumstances should have been stated with a studied moderation 
becoming their magnitude and momentous character, and reasoned out with 
judicial calmness. We, regret, however, to say that Dr. Lee has adopted 
the opposite course. Every point is exaggerated and distorted. He can 
see nothing good but on one side of the question. On the Papal side he can 
see nought but truth and holiness and every virtue, whilst on the side of 
English Church he can see only atheism, heresies, schism, and all manner of 
sins, which tax his very full vocabulary to describe. 

We are not blind to the crimes of the leading Reformers (so called) of 
Edward's reign, nor of their foreign Puritan participators ; nor do we wish 
them concealed. Many of the offenders received their reward. All England, 
however, was not puritan, as was shewn by the welcome given to Queen 
Mary, who, unhappily, by her cruel persecutions forfeited the affections of 
her subjects, and did more to alienate them from the ancient faith than all the 
protestant preachers, Nothing is gained by vituperative and violent lan- 
guage, M^hich violates good taste and becomes offensive to all. We much 
regret that Dr. Lee should, by indiscretion, have spoiled a book which, 
judiciously handled, would have been one of great interest and historical 
value ; and, possibly, might have aided the cause which the author advo- 
cates, but we fear the recent decrees of the Papal Curia will, in all human 
probability, long postpone the event which all good Christians must desire 
—the Unity of the whole Christian Church. 

A LITERARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OR BIBLIOGRAPHI- 
CAL DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS, from the breach 
with Rome in 1534 to the present time. By Joseph Gillow. Vols. 1. and 
II. London : Burns & Gates. 

The progress of time, the advance of education and of general culture have 
had the effect of dispelling much of the bigotry and bitterness which fifty 
Vwl. XI. if. ■ 



178 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



years ago was generally prevalent. Religious asperity has softened down. 
Men are now animated by more liberal and enlarged feelings, with the 
exception of a few ignorant and bigotted fanatics, prejudices against, and 
hatred of, Roman Catholics have, to a great extent, disappeared, and though 
differing more or less, we all agree in the acceptance of the three creeds of 
the primitive church, and consequently in the general piinciples of the 
Christian faith, though we differ, and too often differ very widely, on some 
most important doctrines, especially on the dogmas recently introduced in 
the Roman Communion as de fide. Into these questions it is not our purpose 
to enter. However much each side may accuse the other of being in error, 
each, it is to be hoped, has the magnanimity to recognise that throughout 
these differences of opinion there have been great and good men of high 
attainments and high purposes on both sides, of whom we all, as English- 
men, may be proud ; and we can, therefore, welcome Mr. Gillow's work at 
the head of this notice. 

The two bulky volumes now before the public are the predecessors of 
three others, which will form a set of five. The compilation rests chiefly 
upon Dodd's famous Church History," published in the early part of the 
last century in three volumes folio, but it was continued only to the Revolu- 
tion of 1688. Mr' Gillow, however, has also had recourse to various similar 
works of a more limited character, being restricted to times, or places, or to 
some particular class of persons, e.g., Bishop Challoner's " Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests," the Rev. Mazierre Brady's "Episcopal Succession," 
Brother Foley's " Records of the Society of Jesus," Dr. Oliver's " Collectanea 
S. J.," and " Collections Illustrative of Catholic History in the Six Western 
Counties," &c., &c. It has long been proposed to publish a new edition of 
Dodd's "Church History." An attempt was made by Dr. John Kirk of 
Lichfield in the beginning of the present century, who spent forty years in 
collecting materials, but circumstances deterred him from carrying out the 
design, and he transferred his papers to Canon Tierny, whose attempt also 
proved abortive. In suspending the project in deference to the opinion of 
others. Canon Tierny wrote :— " To me, however, it appears that the interests 
of truth are the interests of each order and body of men. In itself, indeed, 
we have little concern with the conduct of our predecessors. It can neither 
diminish the lustre of our virtues, nor sanctify the course of our proceedings : 
but it can supply a lesson either of encouragement or of warning, and may, 
fortunately, contribute to make us better, for the single reason that it makes 
us wiser men." Mr. Gillow adopts these remarks, and expresses a hope that 
the time has now arrived when all may agree with them, and in this we 
cordially concur. 

The present author, who is a layman, in taking up the work, adopts the 
same principles. He disclaims all partiality, and states his desire to place 
before the public a truthful view of the past. The free access to the State 
Papers and to other valuable manuscripts preserved in the Public Record 
Office, now enjoyed by historical students has given them opportunities of 
correcting, from unquestionable authorities, the errors of their predecessors, 
some of whom had not such a privilege, and of adding further matter. So 
far as we can judge Mr. Gillow has not drawn much, directly, from original 
sources, though his researches in other directions appear to have been very 
extensive. 



i 



Notices op Recent Akch^ological Publications, 179 

The plan of the work is somewhat unusual. It may be said to consist of 
two sections — the Biographical and the Bibliographical — yet they are not 
divided. The Biblical notices in each case follow the biography of the 
subject of the notice. This arrangement is most convenient. 

The biographies are necessarily brief, though longer in the second 
volume than in the first, but though concise they ^re comprehensive. They 
are carefully and well written in a simple and quiet style, marked by great 
moderation of language, ''and by an absence of any vindictive feeling against 
the authorities who were the instruments in carrying out the cruel laws 
under which the author's co-religionists were oppressed and persecuted for 
upwards of two centuries. 

Some of the biographical notices are of special interest, e.g,, those of 
Cardinal William Allen, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; Cardinal Gold- 
well, Bishop of St. Asaph ; Edmund Campion, the Jesuit ; Stephen Gardiner, 
Bishop of Winchester ; Frederick Faber, sometime Rector of Elton, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, and afterwards Superior of the Oratory at Brompton ; and 
Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of 'Gloucester, to the appearance of whose name 
in this list we must take exception. There is no evidence whatever that 
Bishop Goodman joined the Roman Communion. In this case Mr. Gillow 
seems not to have verified his references. The bishop does not in his last 
will, which is dated only two days before his death, make a declaration, as 
stated, " of his firm adherence to the communion of the Church of Rome." 
He declares that he dies in the same faith and doctrine in which he had 
always lived, and it is not pretended that he always lived a Roman Catholic. 
His position is distinctly marked by the fact that he did not bequeath a 
single shilling of his estate to the Roman Communion, whilst his will shews 
him to have been most solicitous for the welfare of the Church of England, 
to the restoration of which he looked forward, and to which all his charitable 
gifts were devoted. Mr. Gillow refers to the gift of the bishop's library to 
Trinity College, Cambridge. This he did in the following words : " The books 
which I did intend to bestow upon Chelsey College (the college being now dis- 
solved) I do bestow upon Trinity College, but with this condition, that if ever 
Chelsey College shall be restored the books shall likewise be restored." This 
is a very remarkable bequest to have been made by an alleged recent convert 
to the Church of Rome, for Chelsea College had been founded by James I. 
for the express purpose of supporting twenty learned Divines for the 
advancement of the Reformed Religion and the defence thereof from the 
attacks of the Church of Rome. 

The Bibliographical addenda must have been a work of great labour and 
research, a labour greatly enhanced by the fact that Roman Catholic authors, 
for their own safety, were compelled to publish their works anonymously, 
and printers even dared not allow their names to appear on the title page or 
colophon. From this and from other causes it is probable that many works 
have been omitted, and the author requests that if any such omissions be 
noticed his attention may be called to the circumstance. The bibliographi- 
cal descriptions are sufficiently full, and in some instances the author has 
added notes of considerable interest. 

The work is primarily intended for Roman Catholic readers, but it is 
one of general interest and of considerable value to the genealogist and 
N 2 



180 Notices of Recent Akch^ological Publications. 



historian, and we trust that Mr. Gillow will receive such encouragement as 
will enable him to carry it to a conclusion upon the plan it is began. 



THE RELIGIOUS HOUSES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, containing 
a short History of every Order and House. Compiled from Official Sources. 
London : Burns & Gates, 1887. 

This interesting little volume will be welcome to members of the Church of 
England as well as to those of the communion for whom, we suppose, it is 
more particularly prepared. It gives a brief history of each of the Chief 
Religious Orders and shews that a very large number of establishments have 
been founded in the United Kingdom since the removal of the religious disa- 
bility of the Roman Catholic body, but it is very defective in not giving the 
number of persons in each of the several communities. There may be a hundred 
members or no more than two or three, or in many instances the establish- 
ment may be no more than nominal. This is to be regretted. The communities 
may be divided into the active and the contemplative. The vows generally 
are much the same and very simple : viz. , poverty, chastity, and obedience, 
though in some cases the subsidiary rules were more austere than in 
others, and in some instances the vow of perseverance was added. The work 
of the active members cannot fail to commend itself to the conscientious 
approval of all christian people. They consist chiefly in nursing the sick 
and afflicted, the care of orphan children, the education of the young, 
mission work and other works generally of mercy and charity. The little 
volume will form a hand-book to those who desire to become readily 
acquainted with the habits " worn " by the respective Religious Orders. 

THE REGISTERS OF PERLETHORPE IN THE COUNTY OF NOT- 
TINGHAM. Edited by George W. Marshal, LL.D. Worksop : Printed 
by Robert Wright. 

The appearance of the name of Dr. Marshall on the title page is a sufficient 
guarantee that the utmost care has been taken in the compilation of the 
work, and this conclusion is justified by the evident exactness which, on 
examination, it displays. 

The little Register under notice is one of the most remarkable in the king- 
dom. Perlethorpe is a small chapelry of the parish of Edwinsthorp, with a 
population at the last census of only 132, and the Register commences as 
early as 1528, ten years before the Injunctions of Crom.well, as Vicar General, 
in which it was ordered that a register should be kept of every wedding, 
christening and burial, were issued. Dr. Marshall remarks that two others 
alone, so far as he has been able to ascertain, viz : those of the adjoining 
chapelry of Carburton and Elmsworth commence as early as 1 528. According 
to the returns of 1831, there are, however, forty in England which have 
entries earlier than 1538, but Dr. Marshall observes that these entries do not 
appear to form a part of the book itself, being probably memoranda which 
have been inserted at a subsequent period. Mr. Burn gives a list of the 
several parishes in the registers of which are entries of earlier date than 
Cromwell's injunctions, and he instances the case of Elmsworth, from which 
he prints seven entries of baptisms in the years 1528 and 1529 in serial order, 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



181 



and mentions that there are six others between the latter date and 1538. 
We think it most probable that on the issue of Cromwell's injunctions all 
previous memoranda were written up, but inasmuch as we believe the early 
portion of the existing registers are all transcripts down to 1597 or 1603 it is 
impossible to form a reliable opinion upon this point. There is nothing very 
remarkable in the Perlethorpe Register except ^Jie date. The entries are 
arranged in three columns, as is not unusual in the earlier registers, and in 
this it agrees with the Register of St. James Garlick Hythe, London, which 
begins in 1535, a specimen of which is printed by Burn. 

The typography of the book before us does great credit to the local 
press. 

THE REGISTERS OF ST. BOTOLPH, BISHOPSGATE. Transcribed 
by A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A. Part I. Privately printed, 1886. 
Those who are acquainted with the admirable manner in which the Parish 
Registers of St. Mary Woolnoth were edited will be glad to welcome the 
commencement of Mr. Kalian's new volume of the Registers of the impor- 
tant London parish of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, which is printed with the 
same excellence, save that the unnecessarily expensive item of a rubricated 
border has been dispensed with. The Registers of the London parishes are 
of special interest. It was a general practice for the younger sons of the 
country gentry to migrate to London and engage in commerce, and they 
established there cadet branches of the old county families. We believe 
that the London apprentices generally were sons of gentlemen. Younger sons 
are missed from their country parishes, but we find them again in the 
metropolis, as in many cases appear in the Heralds' Visitation of London in 
1634 ; and in addition to this country gentlemen and ladies were frequently 
married in London churches. Numerous instances of this appear in the 
Register before us. These City Registers are therefore of great value to 
genealogists. 

The Parish Registers of St. Botolph commence on the accession of 
Queen Elizabeth (1558), and Mr. Hallen proposes to print them verbatim et 
literatim, if sufficiently subscribed for to cover the expense, down to the 
year 1760 ; and full Indexes will be given. It is hoped he will receive the 
support he desires to carry out this valuable work, and to continue his 
labours by printing, as he hopes to do, a volume of the Registers of some 
London Parish annually. Subscriptions to be sent to Rev. A. W. Cornelius 
Hallan, Alloa, KB. 

CHURCH PLATE OF KENT. By the Rev, W. A. Scott Robertson, 
M.A., Honorary Canon of Canterbury and Vicar of Throwley (reprinted from 
ArchcBologia Gantiana. London : Mitchell and Hughes, Wardour Street, 
1886. 

The interest which has lately arisen with respect to altar plate, probably 
created by Mr. Cripp's valuable and interesting work on Old Eriglish Plate, 
is as remarkable as it is gratifying. On the visits of Archeeological Societies 
to ancient parish churches, the registers were often presented by the incum- 
bents for inspection, but the altar plate rarely, if ever ; nor, we believe, did 
the Ecclesiasticar; Authorities in their Visitations, as a rule, make any en- 
quiries on the subject, hence many most valuable pieces have been disposed 
of for a mere trifle, because they were heavy and old-fashioned. The first 



182 KoTicEs or Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



official to take the matter up was, we believe, the Archdeacon of Worcester, 
who, ia 1884, published a descriptive Inventory, with illustrations of the 
Church Plate in his Archdeaconry (noticed in Vol. ix. of our Transactions). 
Since that time, at the instance of the Church Conference of the Dioceses of 
Gloucester and Bristol, the Archdeacons have required returns from the 
parochial clergy of the church plate and registers in their respective parishes, 
which we understand are to form the basis of an Inventory for these dioceses, 
and which we hope will be printed. Canon Scott Robertson, under the 
auspices of the Kent Archaeological Society, has entered upon the subject 
with much zeal and success in the county of Kent, and the first portion of 
his labour and that of his assistants (among whom is our valued member Mr. 
Wilfred Cripps) is now before us, having been reprinted from the Archceologia 
Cantiana. 

Canon Scott Robertson gives a detailed account of the proceedings of 
those engaged in the work, the result of which, after unceasing labour for 
two or three years, has been the acquisition of returns from very nearly every 
parish in the county, and a hope is expressed that the necessary information 
from the defaulting parishes will very soon be obtained. 

The first Part now issued contains a chronological list of all vessels 
respecting which information has been obtained, arranged according to the 
years in which the several pieces were manufactured, but the printing of 
Part II. will be deferred for several months. It will contain the full Inven- 
tory of each parish arranged alphabetically, and embracing any additional 
information which may be obtained, and any corrections necessary before 
that part is issued. 

The results of the enquiry shew that in Kent the whole of the Mediseval 
vessels of the church were thoroughly eliminated during the 16th century. 
Not a single chalice remains, but of Mediseval patens there are two — one at 
Walmer, which it is supposed might not have been used as a paten originally ; 
the other, a very handsome paten, is at St. Helen's Church, Clyffe at Hoo. 
Two very remarkable pieces are mentioned as being at Rochester Cathedral. 
They are described as " two covered gilt alms basons, or patens," and were 
made in the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII. These vessels are wide 
shallow bowls, standing on broad, round feet and short stems ; they are five 
inches high, although their basons are nine inches broad. In fact they are 
very like low tazze. It is suggested that these vessels were originally used 
as pixes or ciboria, to contain the sacred wafers or host. They are richly 
ornamented with repouss^e work, and with good mouldings. There is a 
similar vessel, quite plain, made a few years earlier. It is inscribed in 
capital letters around the bowl : THIS IS THE COMVNION COVP. The letters 
are of a shape used in the reign of Henry VIIL , but it is supposed that they 
were not engraved before the accession of Edward VI., if so early. 

Kent is remarkable for the early introduction of the well known Eliza- 
bethan cup. These cups are usually of the date of 1570 or 1571, but there are 
several in Kent made in 1561 and 1562. It is remarked that Kent preceded 
many other counties in the adoption and use of the Elizabethan Communion 
Cup, and that Gloucestershire seemed to have followed Kent at an interval 
of about a dozen years. There are many Elizabethan cups in Gloucestershire 
of the date of 1571) but we do not know of a single one of earlier date. 

■ * 



Notices or Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



183 



The authority for the substitution of communion cups for the ancient 
chalices has always been, and still is, a great puzzle. Their general uni- 
formity in design and pattern has led to the inference that there must have 
been some general order upon the subject, but no such order can be discovered. 
It has been surmised by some persons that Archbishop Parker's Visitation 
Articles of 1569, in which is the inquiry *' Whether they (the clergy) do 
minister in any prophane cuppes, bowles, dishes, or chalices heretofore used 
at masses, or else in a decent communion cuppe provided and kept for the 
purpose ?" The early dates of some of the Kentish cups are therefore of 
great interest and importance; as shewing that these cups were in use, at 
least in Kent, several years anterior to 1569, and that such cups were in use 
at that date is indicated by Parker's Articles of Inquiry. 

The Kent Archseological Society has rendered a valuable service to the 
church by initiating this enquiry, and we trust its example will be widely 
followed. The publication of Inventories of Ancient Church Plate, Church 
Ornaments of all kinds, Vestments although disused or converted to some 
other purpose than that for which they were intended, is a very suitable and 
useful work for local Archaeological Societies in their several districts. 



THE JUBILEE DATE BOOK. THE REGNAL YEARS OF THE KINGS 
AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND, from William the Conqueror to Victoria. 
By Waleord D. Selby, of H. M. Public Record Office. London : Wyman 
& Sons, Great Queen Street, 1887. 

Messrs. Wyman & Sons have just issued, under the above title, a very 
handy and most useful little book by Mr. Walford D. Selby, the well-known, 
courteous and obliging Principal of the Search Department at the Public 
Record Office. The title states, generally, the subject of which the work 
treats, but, in addition to the Regnal years of our Sovereigns it contains 
other useful information on various points of literary archaeology. We 
may mention a few of the heads : — Perpetual Calendar, Common Saints Days, 
Styles of the Kings of England, The 'Ihree Great Plagues; but above all a 
short account of the use of contractions or abbreviations in ancient records, 
which often form a stumbling block in the way of very learned writers, and 
also, under the head of Record Founts, a list of the contraction forms. 

We cannot do better than close this short notice with the compiler's 
prefatory note, with which we cordially agree : — Although primarily de- 
signed for the assistance of the antiquary and historical student, the infor- 
mation given in this little book, in a concise and handy form, will be found 
useful to a far wider circle. It is, therefore to be hoped that many beside 
the learned " Dryasdust " will feel inclined to enlist this raw recruit by 
means of the " Queen's shilling." 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE PIPE ROLL SOCIETY, Vol. VIL London : 
Wyman and Sons, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 1886. 

The seventh volume of the Pipe Roll Society brings the issues to the 
members down to 1st June, 1886. Consequently there was one volume due to 
the them on 1st December last. In his report the Secretary satisfactorily 
explains the cause of this trifling arrear, and states that by the end of May, 



184 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



1877, the whole of the volumes due to the members will have been supplied 
to them. The report, we are glad to see, gives a very encouraging account 
of the condition and prospects of the Society, and announces a scheme 
which will greatly add to the value of its labours and to its popularity with 
antiquarian scholars. We must remind our readers that the primary object 
of the Society was to print the Pipe Rolls of the reign of Henry 11. , and it 
is now proposed, without in any way delaying this important work, to 
print, in addition, other valuable Public jElecords. It has been decided to 
get into type as soon as practicable a volume of the earliest charters and 
deeds in the Public Record Office, with a critical Introduction to the volume 
by Mr. J. H. Round, M.A. The importance of this step cannot be exag- 
gerated. 

As an Introduction to the volume before us Mr. Hubert Hall, has, in 
compliance with a generally expressed desire of the members, furnished a 
description of what is called the *' Dot " system, anciently practised in the 
Accounts of the Exchequer, in continuation of an essay by him on this subject 
which appeared in the "Antiquary " of May, 1884, to which he also alludes 
in his Introduction on the Exchequer in the third volume of the Pipe Roll 
Society's publications. 

In commencing his present Introduction Mr. Hall remarks on the 
derivation of the name " Exchequer," stating that it is not derived from 
the chequered board on which the accounts were made up, but from 
^ the "Indus scaccorum " sive latrunculorum, "from schach — a dummy or 
counterfeit presentation — in the German, whence coming west, it found its 
way into our vocabulary through the Neo-Latin and official Norman-French, 
adopting, later still, a classical form." These dummies, or counterfeits, are 
represented by the " dots" referred to. This apparently mystical, but, 
when you have the key to it, very simple system of account, which even the 
most ignorant accountant could not fail to understand, and even Sheriffs of 
Counties were often illiterate in the time of our early kings, is made perfectly 
clear in Mr. Hall's little treatise. 

The lateness at which the volume came into our hands, not indeed until 
after the last sheet of this Part of our Transactions was in type, precludes 
us from treating of this, in appearance mystical, though with a knowledge 
of the key to it, very simple, system, but we hope to return to it at a future 
time. 

The volume is got up in the same admirable manner as the former 
volumes, and is in no way inferior, either in type or accuracy, to the 
previous volumes. We may mention that William Pipard was the sheriff 
who rendered the account for Gloucestershire in this 10th year of Henry II. 
It was the first of the seven years during which he held the office. 



i 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 



At the Summer Meeting held at Dursley, 
August, 1886. 



The Annual Summer Meeting of the Society was held at Dursley on the 
3rd, 4th and 5th of August. The arrangements had been carefully made 
by a Local Committee of which General Vizard was Chairman, assisted 
by the following gentlemen r—the Revds. C. C. M. Brown, A. Blomfielp, 
E. M. Farquhar, W. Lett, Canon Madan, A. W. Mayow, T. Philpotts, 
and A. Trewman ; Colonel Bayly, Colonel Forbes, KA., {Hon. Local 
Secretary) Colonel Millman, R,.A. ; Messrs. A. G. Clarke, W. Leigh, F. 
Madan, A. H. Paul, V. R. Perkins, C. Tylee, and W. F. Rogers. 

A room at the The Old Bell Hotel was appropriated as a General 
Reception Room for the use of the members, for writing letters, &c. 

At 12.30 the members and their friends assembled at the Town Hall, 
where they were received by General Vizard and other members of the 
Local Committee. General Vizard, on behalf of himself and colleagues, 
cordially welcomed the Society to the town, and expressed a hope that much 
would be found in the town and neighbourhood worthy the attention of the 
members. Sir Brook Kay {Pi-esident of the Society), returned thanks for the 
hearty welcome given to the Society and for the excellent preparations 
which had been made, and said he had no doubt the members would be 
much gratified in visiting the town and the various places set out in the 
programme. Beside the President there were present Sir William Guise, 
Bart., Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., &c. {the President Elect) Sir John 
Maclean, F.S.A.; Revs. W. Bazeley, {Hon. Sec.) W. S. Davies, J. M. 
Hall, S. E. Bartleet, W. H. P. Harvey, W. Bagnall-Oakeley ; General 
Vizard, Col. Forbes, Col. Bayley, Col. Millman, Surg. -Gen. Hefferman ; 
Messrs. W. Leigh, C. C. M. Brown, W. P. W. Phillimore, A. Le Blanc, 
E. D'Argent, F. Madan, H. D. Skrine, W. Jennings, E. Hartland {Gen. 
Treasurer) W. Mabbett and others, and many ladies. 

Sir Brook Kay, Bart., President, took the Chair, and called upon the 
General Secretary to read the Report of the Council for the past year, which 
he did as follows : — 

Report of Council. 
In presenting its Report for the year 1885-6 to the members of the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society the Council would remind 
them that ten years had passed away since this Society was formed for the 



Vol. XI. 



186 



TRA^sACTIo^*s at Duesley. 



study of local archeology. During this decade many changes have of course 
taken place in the roll of the Society's members. Many who took an active 
part in the foundation of the Society have been taken from our midst. It is 
a source of consolation to us that a record of their labours and researches 
has been preserved in the Society's Transactions. 

During the last year we have lost ten members by death, amongst whom 
we may mention : — 

The Revd. Hexet Thomas Ellacombe, M.A., F.S.A., who died 
on the 30th July, 1885, at the ripe age of 96 years. His chief study was 
Campanology, and in 1881 he published IVie Churcli Bells of Gloucestershire. 
In the same year, and in 1883, he published The History of the Parish of 
Bitton, from materials which he had been collecting for seventy years. 
These two valuable contributions to the history of Gloucestershire this 
Society has acquired by subscription. 

James Herbert Cooke, F.S.A., who died Oct. 20th, 1885, contributed 
six papers to the Society's Transactions, relating for the most part to the 
Lords of Berkeley, their retainers and possessions. It was mainly through 
Mr. Cooke's influence with Lord Fitzhardinge that the Council obtained 
permission to print Symth's Lives of the Berkeley s and The Hundred of 
Berkeley for subscribing members of this Society. Whilst these invaluable 
works were passing through the press, Mr. Cooke gave every assistance in 
his power to the Editor, Sir John Maclean. At the time of his death Mr. 
Cooke was occupied in transcribing for the Society another MS. of Smyth's, 
and the Council has decided to print this in the next volume of the Society's 
Transactions. 

Kedgwi^^ Hoskyns Fryer, w^ho died October 14th, 1885, was a member 
of this Council, and contributed two papers — on the Archives of the City of 
Gloucester, and Lanthony Priory. 

Thomas A. Stoughtox, who died in Aug., 1885, it will be remembered 
received the members of the Society at his very interesting manor house of 
Owlpen at their annual meeting in 1880. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Foester, M.P., who died April 5th, 1886, was a 
member of the Society for three years and a subscriber for the Berkeley 
MSS. 

The office of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which Mr. Forster filled so 
courageously at a time of great danger, is again filled by a member of this 
Society, the Right Hon. Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, M. P. 

The number of members on the Society's list is 416 annual members and 
79 life members, making a total of 495 as against 510 in the corresponding 
period of last year. The general depression in agriculture and trade has no 
doubt aftected the list of the Society's members as it has the list of almost 
every other society, whether literary or charitable ; but it is nevertheless 
a subject for congratulation that the income of the Society for 1885-6 is 
little less than it was at the most prosperous period of the Society's existence. 

The number of subscribing members elected in 1SS5-6 is sixteen. On 
the -Ist April, 1886, the balance at the Society's bankers ^Aas £157 4s. 6d. 
On the 21st April, 1885, it was £165 lis. Id. When the surplus copies of 
the Berkeley MS. in the Society's possession have been sold to the members 



Report of Coukcil. 



this balance will be very largely increased. Besides this balance at the 
bankers this Society has a funded capital of £432 3s. 5d., representing the 
composition fees of the life members. 

There were three Meetings of the Society held in 1885-6 :— 
The annual Summer Meeting, held at Tewkesbury in July, 1885, included 
visits to the Abbey Church and many old houses in the town of Tewkesbury, 
to Ripple, Upton-on-Severn, Hanley Castle, Severn End, Birt's Morton, 
Pendock, Strensham, Pershore, and Bredon. A detailed account of this 
meeting, as also of the others, will appear in the Society's Transactions. 

An Autumn Meeting was held at Newent, and included an excursion to 
Barber's Bridge, Upleadon, Newent, Dymock and Kempley. 

On the 7th of June, 1886, the meeting having been unavoidably post- 
poned on account of the floods in May, the Society visited Deerhurst with a 
special view to inspecting the recently discovered Saxon Chapel. It may be 
well to state what steps have been taken to insure the protection and pre- 
servation of this most interesting relic of early ecclesiastical architecture. 
The chapel, until very lately, formed part of a dwelling-house, known as 
Abbot's Court, belonging to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, a timbered 
house of Tudor date being attached to it on the east and a more modern range 
of buildings on the west. The removal of a tree led to the discovery of a tablet, 
inserted in one of the central walls, recording the dedication of an altar. A 
further search on the part of the Vicar, the Rev. G, Butterworth, and the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners' local architect, Mr. Collins, led to the discovery 
of a Saxon chancel arch and Saxon windows and doorway. A great deal of 
interest has been awakened by communications made to various journals and 
learned societies by Mr. Butterworth, Professor Middleton and others, and a 
committee, consisting of the following gentlemen has been appointed to 
superintend the work thought necessary for the preservation of the chapel : 
Sir William Guise, Bart., President, Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., J. Reginald 
Yorke, Esq., Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, Algernon Strickland, Esq., W. M. 
Baker, Esq., J. T. Agg-Gardner, M.P., Professor J. H. Middleton, Rev. E. J. 
Bower, S. H. Gael, Esq., Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, Rev. G. Butterworth, 
and the Rev. W. Bazeley, General Secretary of this Society. A specification 
has been presented by Mr. T. Collins, of Tewkesbury, for the necessary 
repairs to the chapel, which meets with the approval of the committee, and 
Mr. Collins is prepared to complete the work for £120. The Council has 
issued a notice relating to this Saxon Chapel with the invitation circular for 
the general meeting, and hopes that the members of this Society will con- 
tribute to the fund which has been started with subscriptions of £5 each 
from Sir W. Guise, Bart., and Mr. Butterworth, and £1 Is. each from Mr. 
Parry and Sir John Maclean. Contributions will he received and acknow- 
ledged by Mr. Butterworth, or by any other member of the Deerhurst Saxon 
Chapel committee. 

The visit of the Society to Ashelworth in May, 1885, has led to the 
proposed restoration of the very interesting village cross, fragments of which 
were scattered here and there. The cross, when restored, will be about 13ft. 
6in. high. It will be placed in the village churchyard for greater security. 

O 2 . 



1S8 



Transactions at Bursley. 



Drawings may be seen at the office of Mr. J. P. Moore, architect, of Glouces- 
ter. It is certain that many Gloucestershire village and churchyard crosses, 
besides those which Mr. Pooley has somewhat imperfectly described in The 
Old drosses of Gloucestershire are still extant ; and it is to be desired that 
the example set by the inhabitants of Ashelworth may be followed elsewhere. 
The Ancient Monuments Protection Act, 1882, has given facilities which it 
would be well for this Society to avail itself of. The schedule of the monu- 
ments brought under the Act might be considerably enlarged in Gloucester- 
shire, and it is to be hoped that owners of property on which there are such 
monuments will hasten to place them under the guardianship of the Com- 
missioner of Works. 

The last portion of The Abstracts of the Wills in the Council House, Bristol, 
will be soon in the hands of the members, and the work will be ready for 
binding. The Council is of opinion that the Society should, as a mark of 
appreciation of the Rev. T. P. Wadley's skilful labours, appoint him an 
honorary member of the Society with all the privileges belonging to that 
position. 

The Council has had under consideration the sale of the surplus copies 
of the Berkeley MSS. ; but it has determined to retain these copies for 
such present and future members of the Society as may wish to subscribe 
for them at the increased price of £4 4s. for the three volumes. The Council 
congratulates the Society on the very marked expressions of approval in 
\ literary periodicals which have greeted the issue of the Berkeley MS., and 
hopes that the series may be continued at no very distant date. 

The Society exchanges Transactions with the following societies : — The 
Society of Antiquaries of London, The British Archaeological Association, 
The Royal Archaeological Institute, The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 
The Koyal Institution of Cornwall, The Archaeological Societies of Derby- 
shire, Essex, Kent, Montgomeryshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire, & Yorkshire, 
and the Wm. Salt Archaeological Society of Staffordshire. Besides the 
Reports of these Societies the Council has acquired for the Society's library 
in 1885-6 : — darkens Architectural History of Gloucester, presented by Mr. 
Jacques ; the Annual Volumes of the Proceedings of the Archaeological 
Institute at Winchester, York, Norwich, Lincoln, Salisbury, Bristol, Oxford, 
and Chichester, presented by Sir John Maclean ; The History and Registei's 
of S. Mary Woolnoth <£• ^S'. Mary Woolchurch, presented by the compiler, the 
Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen ; The Visitation of Gloucester, 1623, printed by 
the Harleian Society and edited by two members of this Society, various 
reports and papers of the Associated Architectural Societies, nine volumes 
of the Camden Society's works, two volumes of the Journal of the House of 
Commons in 1843, and a Catalogue of the Museum formed at Gloucester in 
1860, by purchase. The Council has also subscribed for Gloucestershii'e Notes 
and Queries, and for the publications of the Pipe Roll Society. The Council 
has thought fit to order the binding of more than seventy volumes of the 
Archasological Journal, the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 
of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and other works. 

The Council has received from the Society of Antiquaries a memorandum 
on the subject of Court Rolls and other Manorial Records, which, in conse- 
quence of changes in the tenure of lands, forcibly brought under the notice 

i 



Report of Council. 



189 



of the Council of that Society by a Bill brought into Parliament for the 
Compulsory Enfranchisement of Copyholds, and the general tendencj'' in the 
present day in favour of freehold tenure, under which, within a comparatively 
short period it seems probable that manors, with their attendant formalities 
will become things of the past, and the documents relating to them become 
practically valueless for legal purposes, and eveu more liable to heedless 
destruction than they have hitherto been. 

Impressed with the vast amount of light these documents throw upon 
the habits and civilization, the legal and social position of the inhabitants, 
and the great and important historical interest they possess in questions of 
genealogy, and in tracing out the development and gradual growth of those 
institutions under which the country has so long flourished, the Council of the 
Societj'- of Antiquaries is most anxious for their preservation, and requests 
the co-operation of this and other like societies in making an effort to secure 
the safety of any of the documents alluded to, which may hereafter become 
an useless incumbrance to Lords of Manors and their Stewards. And the 
Council of this Society respectfully suggests to those gentlemen that the 
Librarian will gladly receive into the library of the Society any such docu- 
ments as may be placed under his charge for safe custody, with the right 
retained to the owners, if desired, of access to them and of resumption. 

The Royal Historical Society has lately determined to celebrate the 800th 
anniversary of the completion of the Domesday Survey, and has invited the 
co-operation of this Society. The Council heartily approves of the scheme 
but awaits further details before taking any active part. 

The Council, considering the very inconvenient arrangement that has 
existed for some years of dividing the Society's books, recommends the 
following scheme for the foundation of a County Archaeological Library in 
connection with this Society, and invites offers of archaeological and his- 
torical works and donations of money from the members and others. 

I. All the Society's books, antiquities and surplus copies of Transactions 
and Berkeley MSS. to be deposited in the Museum, Gloucester, the books 
and Berkeley MSS. in the Society's two cases, the antiquities in the cases 
of the Museum committee, but labelled with the Society's name, and the 
surplus copies of Transactions, for which there is no room in the Society's 
cases, in boxes to be stored in such dry and convenient place as the 
Council and the Museum Committee may agree upon. 

II. All the Society's books to be placed under the care of an officer of the 
Society — the General Secretary, if he lives in or near Gloucester and is 
willing to undertake the responsibility and work of librarian. 

III. The dutiese of a librarian to be as follows : — 

1. To take charge of the Society's books, keep them under lock and key, 

and see that they are insured against fire. 

2. To make a catalogue of the Society's books, a copy of which shall be 

sent to every member of the Society shewing the cost of postage of 
each book. 

3. To attend in person at the Museum, or provide a suitable deputy, 

every Monday morning from 10.30 to 11.30 for the purpose of issuing 
books to members who may apply for them in person or by post. 



190 



Transactions at Dursley. 



4. To make entries in a book of the loan and return of each volume 

issued. 

5. To receive and acknowledge on a printed form the Transactions of 

other societies which are sent in exchange for the Society's Tran- 
sactions. 

6. To arrange for the binding of volumes at the end of each year. 

7. To make such purchases of back numbers of Transactions and other 

books as the Council may authorize. 

IV. A letter and parcel box to be fixed at the Museum, into which the 
Custodian of the Museum shall place all letters and parcels that may 
arrive for the Society. 

V. The annual sum of £25 to be voted from the Society's funds to be 
expended as follows : — 

£10 a year to be paid to the Librarian. 

£10 a year to be expended in binding the Society's books and purchasing 
such works on History and Archseology as the Council may direct. 

£5 a year to be paid to the Gloucester Museum Committee in consider- 
ation of the accommodation afforded, and also for the privilege 
extended to each member of the Society of entering the Museum 
without payment on such days and times as it is open to the public. 

During the year 1885-6 it was found that owing to illness and other 
causes the Bristol District was inadequately represented at the meetings of 
the Council, whereupon the Council invited the Bristol Local Committee to 
nominate four gentlemen to act on the Council provisionally. The committee 
nominated Messrs. A. T. Martin, P. D. Prankerd, T. S. Pope, and A. E. 
Hudd, and these gentlemen were provisionally appointed, Mr. A. E. Hudd 
was not able to serve on the Council last year, but has kindly consented to 
do so this year if appointed. The other gentlemen assisted at the meetings 
of the council, and it is hoped that they will continue to do so, provisionally, 
until vacancies occur which they will be invited to fill. 

The Council now nominates for re-election the President of Council, Sir 
William Vernon Guise, Bart. ; the Vice-Presidents ; the General Secretary, 
the Rev. William Bazeley ; the Treasurer, Mr. Ernest Hartland ; and the 
Secretaries, sectional and local. The following members of Council retire by 
rotation, but are elegible for re-election : — Messrs. G. B. Witts, Christopher 
Bowley, Thomas Kerslake, S. H. Swayne, I. B. Evans, and Major Fisher. 
There is a vacancy on the Council owing to the lamented death of Mr. K. H. 
Fryer, and Local Secretaries are needed for Winchconibe, Tetbury, Wotton- 
under-Edge, Stroud aad Tewkesbury. The Council nominates the following 
gentlemen : — Mr, A. H, Paul as Local Secretary for Tetbury, Mr, Vincent 
Perkins as Local Secretary for Wotton-under-Edge, and Mr. AUard as Local 
Secretary for Tewkesbury, Li doing so the Council would remind the 
Local Secretaries that they would further the Society's interests in their 
respective localities by interesting their neighbours in the Society's work 
and inducing them to become members, by informing the General Secretary 
of any archaeological discoveries, by assisting him in correcting the list of 
members, by obtainiug papers from members and others on local archteology, 
and suggesting places of interest to be visited at the annual and other 
meetings. < 



Report of Council. 



191 



The Council has held six meetings during the past year — two at Bristol, 
three at Gloucester and one at Dursley, and desires to express its acknow- 
ledgement to the Mayor and Town Clerk of Gloucester for their great cour- 
tesy in permitting the Council to hold its meetings in the Tolzey. 

On the motion of the Rev. W. S. Dayies the report as read was adopted, 
and the gentlemen named therein were requested to accept the respective 
offices. 

Mr. Le Blaxc proposed, and Mr. D'Argent seconded, that the following 
gentlemen : — Major Fisher, Rev. G. B. Witts, Messrs. S. H. Swayne, C. 
Bowley, F. Day, A. E. Hudd, and W. H. Bruton, be appointed members of 
the Council, which was unanimously agreed to. 

It was proposed by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, duly seconded, and unani- 
mously adopted, that the best thanks of the Society be given to Sir Brook 
Kay, Bart., for the efficient, courteous and able manner in which he had 
executed the office of President during the past year. 

Sir Brook Kay suitably replied, and introduced Sir Henry Barkly, 
K.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c., as President for the ensuing year, who, he re- 
marked, was well known not only for his contributions to the Society but 
also throughout Great Britain for the valuable services he had rendered 
to his Queen and the Empire in various parts of the Queen's dominions. 

Sir Henry Barkly, having taken the chair, delivered his 

Inaugural Address, 
which will be printed as a substantive paper. 

On the conclusion of the President's address Sir William Guise proposed 
a vote of thanks to Sir Henry Barkly for the able and instructive address he 
had delivered, to which, he said, he was sure the members present must 
have listened with both pleasure and profit. 

Sir John Maclean said he had great pleasure in seconding the proposal, 
and congratulated the members upon the fact that a gentleman, in every way 
so well qualified, had accepted the office of President of the Society for the 
ensuing year. He said it would be presumption in him to speak of Sir 
Henry's qualifications. He need only refer to the papers which Sir Henry 
had recently contributed to the Transactions of the Society as evidence of 
his persevering and careful research and accuracy. Sir John added that he 
was sure Sir Henry Barkly fully recognised the great value of the mediaeval 
Manor Rolls in their bearing upon the social condition of the country and 
tenure of lands in past times, and also their importance in regard to manorial 
and family history ; and he was very glad Sir Henry had added his personal 
influence to the suggestion in the Report of the Council, that the members 
of this Society should, severally, co-operate, as opportunities occurred, with 
the Society of Antiquaries in the endeavour to preserve, for those purposes, 
such records, now, in consequence of the changes in the tenure of lands, no 
longer of any legal use. 

On the conclusion of the meeting most of the members adjourned to the 
Old Bell Hotel, where lunch had been provided. The President occupied 
the chair, and at 2.30 they assembled at the Parish Church, under the guid- 
ance of the Rector, the Rev. Canon Madan. It is a large building consisting 



192 



Traxsactions at Dursley. 



of a noble chancel, built during the incumbency of the present Rector, nave, 
north and south aisles, south porch, the vaulting of which is particularly- 
good, with a chamber over it, and a western tower of three stages with a 
pierced parapet and pinacles. The structure is striking in appearance, but 
very poor in details. There was a chapel in the eastern bay of the north 
aisle, but this now, as a chapel, has been obliterated. The earliest existing 
portion of the building, with the exception of indications of Early-English 
work in the nave, is found in the north wall of this chapel consisting of 
of a small door and a good window of three lights above it of Decorated 
work. The north door of the nave has been walled up. The eastern portion 
of the south aisle forms a chapel of two bays, and is separated from the aisle 
by an arch. It was carefully inspected by the members. Afterwards Canon 
Madan delivered an address on the History of the Church up to the present 
time. He commenced by referring to a little volume entitled " Dursley and 
its Neighbourhood, &c." by the late Rev. John Henry Blunt, Rector of Bever- 
ston, afterwards D.D. , and a well known author, in which he treats somewhat 
fully of this church and parish. Canon Madan remarked that as Mr. Blunt 
had access to the oldest and best histories of Gloucestershire, and also to the 
old Churchwardens' Registers, ^ which contain many interesting parochial 
records, he thought he could not do better than read a few short extracts from 
Mr. Blunt's work. Mr. Blunt mentions that in medigeval times Dursley 
was one of the livings belonging to the Abbey of Gloucester . . . that in 
1475, by agreement with the Bishop of Worcester, the Archdeacon of Glou- 
cester gave up to the abbey his official residence in Gloucester in exchange for 
all the rights of the abbey in the parish of Dursley. Thus the Archdeacon 
of Gloucester became, ex officio, Rector of Dursley, and this arrangement 
continued until the death of Archdeacon Timbrell in 1865 — a period of 390 
years — in which year it was separated from the archdeaconry under an order 
of the Queen in Council. 

Mr. Blunt was of opinion that the ancient church was not so large as 
the present, and consisted only of the nave with a much lower roof, a chancel, 
probably much smaller than at present, and a western tower surmounted by 
a spire, both of which fell down on Saturday, January 7th, 1698-9. Blunt 
says there might also have been small aisles on either side of the nave, but 
if so they were replaced by the larger ones, now existing, at a period not very 
long before the Reformation. He adds that the two larger aisles were built 
in connection with chantry chapels which occupied their eastern ends, the 
one in the north aisle dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, that in the south to 
the Holy Trinity, but Atkyns says (p. 215) that this chapel was dedicated 
to St. James. Blunt states that it is traditionally known as the foundation 
of Thomas Tanner, a merchant who lived in the middle of the 15th century. 
It was called the " Tanner Chapel " in the churchwardens' accounts in the 
middle of the following century. Mr. Madan remarked that this is perhaps 
the most interesting part of the church. 

1 The Registers here referred to consist of four volumes : I. 1566-1758 ; II. 1758-1805 ; III. 
1805-1850 ; IV. 1840-1886. The last contains minutes of vestries only, and is now filled. The 
first volume was lent to Dr. Blunt when eng-ag-ed in the preparation of his work, and is 
at present unfortunately missing. It is not traced to have been returned, and Dr. Blunt's 
effects were sold on his untimely and lamented death. This volume contains many enti'ies 
which curiously illustrate the course of church feeling during the last three centuries. 

t 



Thk Parish Church. 



193 



Blunt considered that the oldest portion of the church dates from the 
14th century, but this consists only of a single window and small part of the 
wall/ and Mr. Madan remarked that there are now no remains of the more 
ancient church with the exception of a slab of stone incised with a cross, 
portion of a coffin-lid, which would appear to be of 13th century date, lying 
at the foot of the newell-staircase which gives aceess to the room over the 
south porch. Mr. Madan further observed that two points connected with 
the original plan of the church appeared to him to be worthy of notice. 
1 . That the tower was not built centrally with the nave, and though the 
present tower was built in 1707 there is no reason to suppose that it was not 
built on the old foundation. 2. That it does not appear that there ever was 
a chancel arch, no sufficient abutment being found, when the church was 
restored, on either side from which a stone arch could have sprung. The 
extent of the chancel westward was only marked by the projecting stone- 
work of the first pillar of the north arcade, and by the roof, which was of 
a much higher pitch than that of the nave, and rose to a height of 5 or 6 
feet above it. The space between the two roofs was simply filled up with 
lath and plaster. On the south side there was nothing whatever to mark 
the boundary between the chancel and the nave. 

Mr. Madan, referring to the previous statement that the church had a 
tower with a spire, both of which were destroyed in the year 1699, proceeded 
to give some account of this calamity. He said: "It appears from the 
Churchwardens' Accounts that as early as 168S some suspicion existed as to. 
the safety of the structure, for in that year the large sum of 2/6 is charged 
as having been paid for advice about it, and immediately afterwards is 
a charge of £1 10 0 for a piece of timber and drawing it up into the tower." 
As Blunt remarks this temporising with danger gave a sense of security ; 
and in 1694 a charge of £10 10 0 appears for painting the tower and steeple. 
In the year 1698 some extensive repairs were executed on the roof of the 
church. As regards the tower, however, the parishioners had lulled them- 
selves into a false security, for on the 7th January, 1698-9, whilst, according 
to Bigland, a peal was being rung upon the bells the spire and a considerable 
part of the tower fell to the ground and several persons lost their lives. 
Happily it fell outwards, and not to any great extent on the church, so that 
the latter structure was not seriously injured. The damage was estimated 
at .£2000. 

. The inhabitants do not appear to have shewn any willingness to put 
their hands into their own pockets to rebuild their tOM'er. In the following 
March an effort was made to obtain from William III. Letters Patent, 
usually known as aBrief, authorising collections in every parish in the kingdom 
" towards the great charge and pious worke of rebuilding it," but this appli- 
cation was not successful. In 1707, however, a Brief was obtained upon an 
estimate of about £2000. The Brief produced £569 13 9. The inhabitants 
still abstained from taking anything /?-ow their own pockets, and were content 
to expend what they had begged from strangers, which they did in this 
manner. They got the tower built for . . ... 500 0 0 

They bought a treble bell of Rudhall for . . . 36 10 0 

1 This is alUided to above. 



194 



Transactions at DmsLEY. 



A clock and chimes of Thomas Sleight, of Painshaw, with 

carriage from Berkeley, cost . . . . 32 18 0 

And the balance of . . . . . .059 

they put into their own pockets, from which they had not taken 

anything. This account appears in the Register of 1711. 569 13 9 

Mr. Madan went on to say that since he had been in residence in the 
parish he had received two applications for donations towards the restoration 
of churches on the other side of the kingdom, founded upon the fact that 
their respective parishes had made a collection, in obedience to Queen Anne's 
Brief, for rebuilding the tower of this church. Mr. Madan further stated that 
he had found a curious corroboration of the date of rebuilding the tower. In 
1874, when lie took down the greater part of the old rectory house, he found 
a quantity of old moulded stones of church windows, and that in a dark 
attic closet he found, traced in the plaster whilst it was wet, plainly with a 
stick, the date 1709. He also mentioned that there is built into one of the 
walls of the old rectory house an old piscina, or perhaps holy water stoup, 
which, probably came out of the church, — not when the tower was rebuilt, 
but when the chancel was re-edified about 30 years afterwards. 

Of the foundation of the chapel, Mr. Madan said nothing was known 
beyond the tradition that it is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. But the 
sedilia in the north wall is worth inspection. He mentioned a curious 
tradition that there was formerly a public right of way across the church 
through the north and south doors. He said an old man now living, named 
Ephraim Mainstone, told him that he well remembers his grandfather talking 
of it. The people residing on the north-west side of the church used to pass 
through to fetch water from the Broad Well on the south-east side. 

The next event in the history of the church, Mr, Madan remarked, was 
the rebuilding of the chancel which took place in 1738, being the same year 
in which the market house was rebuilt. As this was done at the expense of 
the Rector there is no record of it in the churchwardens' books. The work, 
he said, was executed in a very shabby and debased style, inferior to the 
other parts of the . church, — being a bad specimen of what is commonly 
known as " Churchwardens' Gothic," The walls were not even of "range 
work," but of the commonest " random work," The windows had no cusps 
in the tracery, and the mouldings of the joints and niullions were nothing 
more than simple splays. He added that he distinctly remembers in taking- 
down the old walls many pieces of ancient church windows being found, 

Mr. Madan observed that it was remarkable how early the bad system 
of letting the seats in this church began. As early as 1579 the church- 
wardens received payments for seats, a sufficient evidence that the church 
was pewed at that time. Indeed when the pews were taken away at the 
last restoration in 1867 a quantity of oak pannelled work M'as found used up 
wherever it would be least seen, which must have been part of some earlier 
pewing. The rest of the history of this church, he said, up to the present 
time, is simply the same story which many an other of England's old parish 
churches could tell as well as Diirsley, He said he was anxious, however, to 
mention briefly a few events recorded in the Churchwardens' Register, 
because they will help to shew that in the last restoration, just mentioned, 

i 



The Parish Church. 



195 



nothing was done of which archeeologists could disapprove, indeed the 
architect, Mr. T. G. Jackson was most careful to preserve everything which 
could have the least antiquarian interest consistently with making the 
church suitable for the purpose of the worship of the Almighty God. 

In 1785, an order was given that the roof of, Tanner's Chapel should be 
" sealed." In the same year the ten commandments were " wrote in gold in 
the altar piece." In 1804, a resolution was almost unanimously passed to 
remove the desk and pulpit to the centre of the church, near the entrance 
into the chancel. This, he said, was accordingly done, and the pulpit now 
used was then made, though it stood on a very much longer leg than at 
present, to form the upper storey of the well known "Three-decker." In 
the same year the tower arch was blocked up by a lath-and-plaster partition 
between the belfry and the church, to make the congregation more warm and 
comfortable, and leaving the ringers to amuse themselves as they pleased 
without any danger of being seen. They were also exalted to an upper 
storey about half way or more up the tower-arch, and for their greater con- 
venience a private entrance was made from the outside, with stone steps on 
the north side of the tower to reach it. 

In 1813 a meeting was held with a view to erecting a gallery at the 
west end of the church from north to south. A Mr. Purnell opposed, but 
was at length propitiated by the condition that a certain part of the gallery 
at the south end should be appropriated to his own use and benefit, and in 
the following year a faculty was obtained for the purpose, nevertheless 
some hitch arose, for the gallery was not erected until 1817, and in the same 
year £129 3s, was paid for completing the organ in it. On 11th July, 1828, 
the churchwardens paid Is. 3d. for the carriage of a marble basin from Bristol, 
and in the next year's account there is a charge for an Oak Font, which 
was intended as a stand to hold this basin. Doubtless, Mr. Madan remarked, 
with the best intentions, the then churchwarden conveyed away the ancient 
stone font which now stands at the west end of the north aisle, into his own 
field for a horse-trough. Aboiit twenty years afterwards it was happily 
recovered and restored to the church. In 1832, the whole church was 
repewed by subscription, and the pews were allotted to the chief parishoners 
with the usual result, that the remainder of the parishioners to the number of 
more than two thousand were consequently left without any accommo- 
dation in their parish church. The three decker was not very long lived. 
Greater knowledge and a better feeling began to prevail, and about 1847, in 
the absence of the Rector-Archdeacon, the pulpit was removed to the place 
it had previously occupied. About 1850, a small vestry was built, Mr. Madan 
believed at the expense of the late Mr. Henry Vizard, in the angle formed 
by the south wall of the chancel, and the east wall of Tanner's Chapel. 

And so, Mr. Madan remarked, we come to church as it was when the last 
restoration was undertaken. He stated in detail what was then its exact 
condition, which it will be unnecessary to repeat, inasmuch as from what 
has been said it will readily be pictured to the mind's eye. What we did in 
1866-7, Mr. Madan said, is what you now see. The chancel was rebuilt and 
extended about 25 feet eastward, adding about the same area to the church, 
and a chancel arch was built ranging with the east end of the north aisle, 



196 



Transactions at Dursley. 



a new choir vestry with organ chamber above was built on the south side, 
into which the organ was transferred from the west gallery, which was 
altogether removed. The roof of the nave was raised, repaired, and length- 
ened, and clerestory windows erected on the north and south sides. The 
two arcades were restored exactly as they were before, stone for stone, on 
solid foundations of concrete from 8 to 12 or 13 feet deep. The north and 
east walls of the north aisle were rebuilt (except about 10 feet at the west end 
of the north wall), exactlj'' as it was before. The old roof remains, repaired 
where required, and a boarding substituted for the white plaster. In Tanner's 
Chapel, the white coved ceiling, put up in 1785, was removed, and the timber 
work cleaned and exposed to view. The tower arch was opened out, the 
ringers' floor, set up in 1804, was taken away, and the bell-ropes brought 
down to the floor of the tower. The pews erected in 1832 were replaced by 
the present open benches. 

On the conclusion of Canon Madan's address, Sir John Maclean requested 
permission to say a few words upon one or two subjects to which Canon 
Madan had alluded. With respect to the canopies of the triple niches of 
tabernacle work now afiixed to the north wall of the north, or St. Mary 's,Chapel, 
he said he had no doubt that these formed the canopy of the triple sedilia 
pertaining to the high altar in the ancient chancel, aud that when the chancel 
was rebuilt in 1738 they were removed and placed in their'present position, 
out of the way. They are of about the end of the 14th or beginning of the 
15th century, or of rather late Decorated work, and he believed that the 
piscina, mentioned by Canon Madan as being built into a wall at the Rectory, 
belonged to the same chancel. Although plainer in character it is of the 
same period. It is not a Holy Water Stoup, or Aspersorium, as Canon Madan 
supposed it might be. It possesses a rectangular bason with a drain. The 
Holy Water Stoup, which is a very good one, he was glad to say still remains 
in its original place by the south door. Sir John also asked two or three 
other questions which were satisfactorily explained. 

The Rev. Wm. Bazeley called attention to the bosses in the roofs of the 
south aisle and to the six corbels in the Tanner's Chapel, some of which he 
said were very remarkable on account of the carvings on them. One of the 
bosses bore a shield marked with two lines in saltier and one in pale, and on 
another an angel was represented bearing a shield decorated with the same 
device, which he considered were masons' (? merchants') marks. The two 
western corbels in the Tanner Chapel he considered represented the founder 
and his wife. The lady's hair, he said, is dressed in the style of the 15th 
century, being gathered into a caul on either side over the ear and into a sort 
of crescent over the forehead in what is called the horned or reticulated head- 
dress. The man, he said, wore a cowl, and he supposed him to hav' e retired 
into a monastery before his death — probably the Priory of St. Leonard 
Stanley or the Monastery of St. Peter's, Gloucester. The two heads in the 
middle he suggested were those of King Henry VL, and opposite that of 
Queen Margaret, whilst the easternmost ones, he thought, represented the 
Abbot of Gloucester and the Prior of St. Leonard's, and he remarked that on 
the exterior of the chapel there is a shield, on which there is a cross with a 
letter T on either side of it. 



The Kunnery. 



197 



Sir John Maclean asked Mr. Bazeley to look at outside of the chapel 
again. Sir John said he had examined it, and could see only one T on a small 
shield within a quatrefoil which decorated one of the merlons of the parapet. 
It is a text capital intersected by the stem of a cross-crosslet-fitchee. He 
had not had an opportunity of examining the corbels in the chapel, but he 
did not think the architecture of the chapel could be so early as the time of 
Henry VI., for two others of the merlons to which'he had alluded bore small 
shields charged with the Tudor rose, and the architecture was certainly not 
earlier than the accession of Henry VII. 

The party next proceeded to Broadwell, or Ewelme.^ Mr. Bazeley said 
the first name was given it in consequence of the number of springs which 
arose within a very narrow area, and the second from the " whelming " up 
of the water. These springs were the making of Dursley, and gave it its 
name. The water from this magnificent well became a rapid and powerful 
stream which, lower down, turned the wheels of the machinery of clothing 
and other manufactories. 

The next place visited was an ancient building close to the Broadwell, 
known as the Nunnery, but we do not know that any evidence exists that 
a community of women was ever established at Dursley. The building is of 
the late third-pointed period, and apparently of a domestic character. It 
has some square-headed, two-light mullioned windows. The whole is in a 
very delapidated condition, and now forms the outbuildings of a public house. 
After inspecting a fine swimming bath, lately constructed and supplied with 
beautiful bright water from Ewelme, the party proceeded to the residence 
of the Misses Hodgkin, called the Priory, but in this, as in the case of the 
Nunnery, we believe without any foundation, nor do we know that, notwith- 
standing its name, it has any pretension to have ever been a religious house. 

The first thing which attracted the attention of the visitors was some 
letters in relief, carved in the spandrils of the arch of the entrance door-way. 
In the spandril on the left are the letters E W in Roman characters, apparently 
of about the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. Following 
these letters is a minim resembling a crossed I (5) in use about the same time, 
or this may have been an ornament to fill up the space. In the spandril on 
the right is the Roman letter M and a CC of a late gothic character, with two 
other ornaments or characters similiar to that described as being on the other 
side, though the last of them somewhat resembled a merchant's mark. 
Some of the party wished to read the letters on the right as Roman numerials 
and by turning the C round reading it as CC, making the date 1500. Sir 
John Maclean took exception to this. He said the letter is distinctly a C, 
and that we were not justified in altering it to convert it into a D. It being 
demanded how he would read it, he replied that he understood that at one 

1 Of Ewhelnie, Blunt writes : — In the old English days, of which it is the custom to 
speak as Anglo-Saxon, Dursley was known as "Dirselege" or "Dureslega" ; and though 
injustice is done to it when the town is called scantily watered as I'egards manufacturing- 
power, yet its name is explained as being derived from " Dwr " and " ley " or " lege," which 
are very old English for water and pasture. If such be really its derivation Dursley gives a 
happy illustration, even in its name, of the way of M'hich the ancient Briton and the Saxon 
mingled together to form the great nation of mixed blood : for " ley " is undoubtedly Anglo- 
Saxon, and it is equally certain that brethren across the border would claim "Dwr" for 
Welsh. — Dursley and itn Neighbourhood," p. 3. 



198 



Transactions at 1)ue,sley. 



time a manufactory was carried on in the premises, and possibly the E W and 
M C might have been the initials of the respective partners in the firm, and 
the last figure their trade mark. 

On the east side of the morning room, under the cornice of the ceiling, 
are the following words in very bad Latin, Some letters and one word are 
deficient. Supplying the omissions it may be read as under : — 
FAC : BENE : DVM i [VIVAS] VIV[E]RE POST || MO[R]TEM ; SI i VIS : * FINIS H 
DA : TVA ; DVM i TVA i SVNT |1 POST • MORTEM TVNC (? TVA) NON SVNT 

The whole may be paraphrased somewhat thus : Do good while you 
live if you wish to live after death. There is an end to all things. Give of 
your goods while they are yours, after [death they are then yours no longer. 
They were probably written by the same person who placed the letters in the 
spandrils of the doorway, after the word " vis," there is a character resem- 
bling a square and compas. 

The next object on leaving the priory was to endeavour to discover the 
site of the ancient Castle, and for this purpose Mr,.Bazeley conducted the 
party to the upper part of the " Lower Castle Field." This spot commanded 
a view of a garden in the rear of the National Provincial Bank, which Mr. 
Bazeley supposed to be the castle site, and said there was a tradition to 
that effect. In the first place he observed that his hearers must get rid of 
the impressson that Dursley Castle was a fortress. In his opinion it was 
nothing more than a residence affording some sort of protection in the 
troubled times in which it stood. Leland had stated, he said, that the 
castle site was situated a quarter-of-a-mile from the town. This site, 
however, was within 100 yards of the church and market house. To 
meet this objection, he said that originally the town was situated at the foot 
of the hill, which was about the distance required, and churches were often 
built near the manor house. Mr. Bazeley mentioned two other traditions 
placing the site of the castle elsewhere. On the conclusian of Mr. Bazeley's 
address, 

Sir John Maclean said that in the few observations he was about to 
make he had no intention of supporting a theory of his own, but simply to 
offer a few remarks in the endeavour to elicit the truth. There is some- 
thing, he observed, to be said for Mr. Bazeley's theory, and in support of 
it he would allude to the circumstance which that gentleman had omitted 
to mention. He, Sir John, had yesterday, through the courtesy of the 
tenant, been permitted to examine the interior of the Castle Farm House, 
and in the midst of it he found a wall 10 feet thick. If the castle had stood 
where Mr. Bazeley supposes, this thick wall might well have formed a 
portion of the entrance gate-way. He could not, however, accept Mr. 
Bazeley's theory. Supposing that the original site of the town was formerly 
where the manufactures were carried on down in the little valley, and thus 
approximate to the distance stated by Leland, the direction would not suit 
as the castle would be N.W, of the town instead of S. He believed that the 
market place was always where it now is, at the junction of the three 
principal roads, and this with the church would form the site of the town. 
But apart from this, he remarked that the site referred to would not be 
defensible. Arrows could be easily shot, or even stones could be thrown 
from the spot on which the party stood, into the heart of the fortress. Mr. 



i 



The Annttal t)iNNEK. 



Bazeley had suggested that what was called the castle was not a fortress but 
simply a fortified manor house. He would recall to their recollection that 
the President in his address had read from an ancient record the castle 
was described as a castrum, which surely must mean a regular castle or 
fortress. It must also be borne in mind that when King Henry II. took 
away from Hoger de Berkeley the Baronies of Berkeley and Dursley, grant- 
ing the former to Eobert Fitz Harding he gave again to Roger the Barony of 
Dursley as his own inheritance. It is scarcely therefore to be supposed that 
the Berkeleys of Dursley would have a simple manor house as the Caput of 
their Barony. Sir John further remarked that in the Upper Castle Field 
there was a spot which possessed a favourable appearance as a castle site. 
So far as he knew there was no evidence whatever upon the subject. The 
whole question was involved in darkness. Not a stone of the castle could 
be produced. It was not merely that not one stone had not been left upon 
another but that not a single stone could be found. The whole has entirely 
disappeared as if it had never been. 

Sir Henry Barkly suggested that possibly the two sites forming the 
subject of this discussion might have been occupied as the Berkeley seat. 
That in the Upper Castle Field, by the original castle, and upon the demo- 
lition of that building, a manor house had been erected upon the Bank 
Tump, perhaps using up some of the old materials. This has also now 
disappeared. He mentioned that a slight excavation had been made on the 
supposed site of the castle in the upper field, but not a vestige of building 
stone or of lime could be discovered. 

The meeting now broke up, but some of the members accompanied Sir 
John Maclean to the Rectory to see the piscina which had been mentioned 
in the church, and a remarkably fine chimney-piece in a room in the old 
parsonage house, which he supposed to have been the hall. 

The Annual Dinner. 

The Annual Dinner of the Society took place at the " Old Bell " Hotel 
at 6.30. The President took the Chair. There were present Sir William 
Guise, Bart., Sir Brook Kay, Bart., Sir John Maclean, Major-General 
Vizard, Colonel Forbes, the Rev. Canon Madan, and numerous other clergy- 
men and gentlemen, and many ladies, numbering altogether about 50 persons. 
After dinner, when the health of the Queen and Royal Family had been 
drunk, the President gave the usual toast : " Prosperity to the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archa3ological Society," coupling with it the name of Sir 
William Guise, President of the Council. 

Sir William Guise returned thanks for the Society and for himself, and 
proposed the health of the President, which was very cordially received, 
and Sir Henry Barkly having acknowledged the compliment, the company 
adjourned to the Town Hall for the 

EVENING MEETING. 
After an examination of the few articles collected for the Temporary 
Museum the President took the chair and the reading of the papers was 
commenced. The first paper was read by the Rev. C. C. Murray Brown, 
Rector of Uley with Owlpen, On the Decline and Fall of the Cloth Trade in 
Dursley and its Neighbourhood, as follows : — 



200 



TrANSACTIOJCS at t)UJElSLE\*. 



The Paper which I am about to read is not, strictly speaking, on an Archse- 
ological subject, but I hope it may be of interest at the present time as 
shewing something of the past history of the town and neighbourhood in 
which our Society is holding its present Annual Meeting. It is of interest 
also as shewing how history repeats itself, how the changes and the losses 
which at the present day are affecting trade so seriously are no novelty. 
Trade rose and fell, and removed from place to place, in our fathers' days 
quite as much as in our own, and inasmuch as human nature always remains 
the same, the causes which produced the disastrous results I am about to 
relate in our fathers' time are, in a great measure, the same as in our own. 

An old friend who has lived in this part of the country all his life, and 
who himself recollects the circumstances, in answer to enquiry as to the 
cause of the failure of the Cloth Trade," replied, in one emphatic word — 
*' strikes." So if any one thinks that "strikes" are a mischievous development 
of our own day, he will hear that there is nothing new in them, and that 
they produced terribly disastrous consequences in the same manner, if not 
with the same organized force, 60 or 70 years ago. 

The Cloth Trade in this neighbourhood is believed to have been an 
ancient industry. It existed here in the reign of Edward IV. when the 
ancient cloth '^trade of England was being revived, indeed almost newly 
created, by the introduction of Flemish weavers into this country. From 
that time it was carried on, apparently to a considerable extent, for the 
next 300 years, until it failed about 1830. 

How largely the people were employed in this trade two centuries or so 
ago is shewn by the Parish Kegisters in the neighbourhood, wherein persons 
are frequently designated as " Clothier," " Weaver," " Broadweaver," and 
other such terms, while such local names as Webb and Woolwright are 
supposed to indicate the same thing. Tombstones also tell a similar tale. 
Most of the principal residents were clothiers. In Uley Church there is a 
tablet to the memory of John Eyles, who died in 1731, aged 91 years, who 
is described as " the first that ever made Spanish Cloth in this parish." 

Many large fortunes were realised in those days of unexampled pros- 
perity. There is a tradition that in one mill at Uley £24,000 was made in 
one year. 

It was about the early part of this century that the Cloth Trade in 
Dursley and its vicinity rose to its climax of prosperity. Within the 
memory of persons still living the change that has taken place has been 
enormous. My own knowledge is mostly what I have learned about the 
adjoining parish of Uley, well known to the members of our Society as 
possessing the tumulus just outside the walls of Uley Bury, though probably 
they are not avi^are that Uley has a history of human destitution and misery 
which, perhaps, could not be equalled, if those old walls and ramparts could 
tell the tale of all that has taken place around them since the d?.y they were 
built. 

Living in these green quiet valleys it is strange to think that seventy 
years ago they were full of the smoke of factories — that the gaunt skeletons 
of mills, some of which still exist in Dursley and Uley and Wotton-under- 
Edge, were (with scores that have been pulled down) full of busy life and 
swarming with hundreds of " hands." 



i 



Cloth Trade in Dursley. 201 

The difference in population in Uley alone, between those days and the 
present time sufficiently marks the change that has taken place. Uley 
contained nearly 3000 inhabitants sixty years ago, and at the last census the 
number became reduced to 1043. ^ 

In a letter which I received six weeks ago from my uncle, Mr. Barwick 
Baker, he writes : — 

" I remember my father telling me — about 1830— that he remembered six 
large mills and twelve small ones— all going. In 1830 the six large mills 
were doing very little, the small had all shut up. Five of these six were 
closed while Uley Rates were lowering, and the last failed awfully about 
1834. Strikes were, of course, not the only cause of this great failure of 
trade. The general depression which followed upon the peace at the end of 
the great French wars had a great deal to do with it. Railways did not then 
exist, and there was no water carriage in these Gloucestershire valleys. The 
men refused to work for reduced wages, and the end was that Yorkshire was 
able to undersell us, and the trade went away there. And the people 
starved !" I want you to bear yvith. me a few minutes while I say something 
about the destitution that ensued, and about the measures that were taken, 
happily with much good result, to allay it. It is not strictly an archaeological 
subject, but it has an importance and an interest of its own as it explains 
the history of the immediate neighbourhood. 

In a paper written a few years ago, Mr. Barwick Baker says : "It was 
in 1830, when I had just left Oxford, and become a Justice of my County, 
that my grandfather died and my father came into possession of a small 
property in a very beautiful valley in Gloucestershire, through which ran 

a fine stream of water. This water was employed to turn a large 

number of mills where the finest cloth in England was made. The trade, 
chiefly with Russia, was very profitable for that day. The men earned 40s. a 
week, and, alas ! drank very hard. Wheat cost during the war from 16s. to 
21s. the bushel, but this left enough money to enable the men to drink a good 
deal, though they earnestly longed for the blessings of peace, when they hoped 
to spend less on bread and to spend more on beer. The good time came at 
length, but with it other nations, which had hitherto been engaged in war, 
began to make some cloth for themselves, and the demand for cloth fell. 
The masters then said to the men : Wheat has fallen in price and you 
can work for less wages." The men (the word was not invented in those 
days) struck and refused to work. In those days everyone lived on credit. 
To appear poor was to lose credit. The masters gave way, and for 
a while carried on their business at a loss in hopes of better times. These 
not coming, in a few years, one after another gave up business or broke, and 
the men were kept without work or wages and in fearful distress." 

A pamphlet, written at the time, to give information about the working 
of the poor law— for the case of Uley was brought forward in the Parliamen- 
tary Commission which led to the Poor Law Act of 1834 — describes the then 

1 The population of Uley was in 1801—1724 ; 1811—1912 ; 1821—2655 ; 1831—2641 
1841—1723 ; 1851—1327 ; 1861—1292 ; 1881—1043. The most prosperous period would therefore 
have been from 1811 to 1831, when the population had already slightly fallen off. In the 
Census Returns of 1351 the decrease in the population is attributed to the discontinuance of 
the Woollen Cloth manufacture in the parish.— Eo. 

Vol. XI. p . 



2C2 



Transactions at Dursley. 



condition of things thus : — " The trade fell off by degrees and, in 1830, one 
of the larger and all the smaller ones (mills) had ceased to work, and the work 
at the remainder was vacillating and uncertain. There appeared to be scarcely 
any employment for any but the very best workmen, and not always for 
these. The Poor Rates rose from £1,900 in 1828 to £3,200 in 1829. This 
increase was alarming, and in the spring of 1830 the poor were idle, ill- 
employed, insolvent, and inclined to be turbulent. They were seen standing 
about in groups of eight or ten, and they often abused the parish officers 
and the principal ratepayers, and threatened them increased demands, which 
they claimed as their right. They appeared ripe for riot and mischief of 
any kind. When receiving their pay they once broke into the room where 
the overseer was, and so behaved that it was necessary to obtain the assis- 
tance of a constable."^ 

Well, that was the state of things as described at the time by an eye 
witness. Mr. Barwick Baker continues : — "This was just about 1830, when 
my father took the management of the Parish, and I helped as well as I could. 
I have heard people in latter years complain bitterly of poor rates being 5s. or 
6s. in the £, but ours were then nominally 27s. Of course they were not really 
so. As was the custom of those days, land worth 30s. was rated at 20s., 
but 27s. out of 30s. is equal to IBs. out of 20s., thus, of every 20s. that the 
land was worth 18s. went to the poor and 2s. to the landlord. 

I believe that for two or three years my father (nominally receiving 
£700 a year) paid in rates, private charity, assisting emigration, &c., about 
£1,000 a year." (I may mention that a great deal was done in assisting 
emigration from Uley for a number of years. ) 

Of course Landlords who had no other means were simply ruined. 
But this was not the worst. Of nearly 3000 people in the Parish, the 
greater part were supported wholly by the rates, with the usual sadly 
demoralizing effects. As low payments were given as it was calculated 
they and their families could live on, but the men usually drank half of it, 
and the women and children starved. There were families with several 
children with clothes for only half the number, and half lay in bed by turns 
while the others wore the rags and went out of door. 

After consultation with many people my Father adopted the plan — then 
little known — of refitting the workhouse and taking a few families into it. 
The men when they found that they and their families were sufficiently 
fed but that they got no beer, and were obliged to conform to regular rules, 
soon tired of it, and went out and found work, and were so anxious to avoid 
a return to the workhouse that, though their wages were sadly low, they 
struggled on and maintained their families in a state which, to the very 
poor, was comfort compared with their former wretchedness. 

The rates were lowered in, I think, two years from the nominal 27s. to 
10s. in the £, with which we were, for the time, well satisfied. But that 
was really nothing compared with the improvement in the condition of the 

1 By T. J. LI. Baker, 1834. 

Great distress prevailed also in Bristol about this time. In April, 1827, the magis- 
trates granted a Poor's Kate of £30,000. In the year 1804 it was only £9,000 (Contemporary 
MS. penes Mr. E. F. Eberle, Clifton).— Ed. 



Cloth Trade in Dursley. 



203 



people. They were, it is true, still poor, and wages were often low. The 
trade once so lucrative has passed away, and, I believe, that not a yard of 

cloth has been made in the parish these fifty years This experience 

first led me to the opinion, which every succeeding year has tended to 
strengthen, that if we desire the real good of the poor, the truest means to 
benefit them is to advise them, to encourage them, to assist them, and if 
that be not sufficient, to drive them by a threat, mot of starvation, but of 
discomfort, to take care of themselves." 

There is one correction in the above remarks which I have to make, and 
that is that it is hardly correct to say ' ' not a yard of cloth has been made in 
Uley for the last fifty years." When I came to Uley near twenty years ago, 
there was indeed no cloth-mill in Uley, though plenty of the old mill hands 
were left, and very poor many of them were ; but there were four hand- 
blooms still in work, the remains of a time when, as an old man said to me 
the other day, every house in the parish had its own loom in it. 

There were four, I say, then left — but one of the old men very prudently 
married one of the old women, and another gave up work — and so now there 
is only one left — but he goes on merrily still, whenever he can get any work. 

jNIr. F. Madan, of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, then read a few Notes 
on Dursley and the Neighbourhood. He began by illustrating the last paper 
with evidence of the growth and decay of the cloth trade in Dursley itself, 
from the parish registers of the 17th century. The commonest trades in the 
town were baker, bookbinder, hroadweaver, butcher, carpenter, clothier^ 
mercer, m.illman, scribbler, sheai'man, shoeman and weaver : among the 
occasional ones, apothecary, cordmaher, carrier, chyrurgion, cutter, drawer, 
fiddler, glazier, glovier, hatter, husbandman, malter, mason, matmaker, 
pargiter, silhweaver, tankardmaker, thatcher, victualler, vintner. But even 
when the Government ]3lue-Book on the woollen trade was issued in 1808 
there were many signs of decay, and a great strike afi"ecting the whole Uley 
Valley in about 1840 put an end to all weaving : at the present time the cloth 
mill of Mr, A. B. Winterbotham, M.P., is the only one turned by the Cam. 
The common names in the town between 1640 (when the earliest existing 
register begins), and 1700, were Attwood, Dangerfield, Partridge, Phelps, 
Purnell, Tippetts, Trotman, Vizard, Wallington, Webb. 

The evidence for associating Shakespeare with Dursley was next presented 
in a connected form, although nothing new was adduced. It is — 1. The de- 
scription of Berkeley Castle as seen from the hill, in Rich. IL, Act II., sec. 3. 
2. The mentions of Visor, Woncot and Perkes of the Hill, all suitable to the 
locality, in 2 Hen. IV., Act III., sec. 1. 3. The Shakespeare and Hathway 
entries in the Registers, from 1679 to 1707. 4. " Shakespeare's (or Parry's) 
walk " on the knoll immediately above the Pectory. Mr, Madan only con- 
tended that the convergence of evidence showed that Shakespeare knew the 
place personally. 

The Hermitage was next mentioned, which was certainly in the "Her- 
mitage Wood " immediately above the Broadwell ; and a stone from the 
supposed site exhibited, of octagonal shape and certainly no part of an 
ordinary cottage, 

P 2 • 



204 



TRANSACTIONS AT DURSLEY. 



Lastly, allusion was made to five local customs, which occasioned some 
discussion — 1. The Pancake Bell on Shrove Tuesday, at 1 p.m., undoubtedly, 
as was subsequently suggested, a shriving bell. 2. The Squirrel Hunting 
on Good Friday, to the existence of which in full vigour twenty years ago 
the Rector bore witness, though it hardly now exists. 3. The Muffled Peal 
on the Holy Innocents' Day. 4. The making of " Whiteput " or " Whitepot " 
(a mixture of balm, beer, treacle, etc.,) at Easter time. 5. The Christmas 
Mummers. This last mention evoked some interesting remarks, the Secretary, 
Mr. Bazeley, saying that he had himself acted as mummer in Cornwall with 
the name of " Guise-dancer."? Sir William Guise and Sir John Maclean 
described the varieties which had come under their notice : Mrs. Bagnall- 
Oakeley testified to the practice in Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, where 
one of the boys is dressed as a white horse ; and the Eev. S. E. Bartleet, of 
Gloucester, spoke of the custom in Lancashire under the name " Pace-eggers. " 
It was clear from the scattered remarks that there is a common story in all 
these parts, introducing St. George, the King of Egypt's daughter, a fight and 
a revival from the dead. It is in print in at least two places, Giles's History 
of Bampton, co. Oxon., and among Mr. Hey wood's Penny publications, at 
Manchester, as edited by Mr. Atkinson : and Mr. Madan, expressed a hope 
that he would be able to "edit" the various versions for some Christmas 
number of Notes and Queries. 

Mr. V. C. Perkins followed with a Memoir on Kingswood Abbey, which 
will be printed post. 

WEDNESDAY, 4th August. 

This morning at 9.30., a large party assembled at the " Old Bell " Hotel, 
to take part in a carriage excursion to visit Calcot Barn, Beverston Church 
and Castle, Tetbury, and Weston Birt. 

Many members joined the party this morning who were not present at 
the meeting on the previous day. Among those present, were Sir Henry 
Barkly, President, Sir William Guise, Sir Brook Kay ; General Vizard, 
Colonel Bayly, Colonel Forbes, Dr. Drew ; the Revs. W. Blathwayt, W. T. 
Allen, W. Bagnall-Oakeley, F. E. B. Witts, W. Bazeley, Hon. Sec, S. E. 
Bartleet, F. J. Poynton, W. Lett ; Messrs. V. R. Perkins, A. Le Blanc, 
W. Leigh, E. Hartland, E. A. D'Argent, and W. H. Bruton. 

The first place visited was Calcot Barn, in the parish of Newington 
Bagpath, at which the Rev. A. K. Cornwall acted as guide. According to 
Bigland, this barn is 130 feet long and capable of containing 900 loads of corn, 
Mr. Cornwall said it was built by the Abbot of Kingswood in the reign of 
Edward I. , but an inscription in the interior states that the then barn was 
burnt down by lightening on 9th October, 1728, and was rebuilt at the cost 
of Thomas Estcourt, Esq., by John Pill, carpenter, and finished Oct. 20th, 
1729. Within the doors is a bas-relief which Mr. Cromwell described as 
Baalam and his Ass. It was also suggested that it represented an ox treading 
out corn, and by others that it was a Roman altar. 

The party next proceeded to Beveiston and visited the Castle under the 
guidance of the General Secretary. Previous to entering the ruins he read 
the following notes on the history of the fortress. 



Beverston Castle. 



205 



Beverston Castle, 

The earliest mention I have found of Beverston is in the Saxon 
Chronicle. We have all heard how Eustace the French Count came to 
Gloucester in the year 1051 and craved from his brother-in-law, King Edward 
the Confessor, vengeance on the men of Dover, because they had resented the 
insolence of his Frenchmen and driven them from their town. Then the 
King bade Godwine Earl of Kent go and punish them with fire and sword, 
and he refused. 'No man in his earldom should be punished till he had been 
tried and convicted. Then the king sent for all his witan and they came 
to Gloucester to hear the quarrel between Eustace and Godwine. Godwine 
fearing violence, gathered all his men together, and his two sons Harold 
and Sweyn, Earls of East Anglia and Wessex, gathered all their men 
together at Beverstone, in order that they might go to their royal lord and 
learn from him and from his witan how they might avenge the wrong that 
the Frenchmen had done. As it was, Godwine's army remained on the 
Cotteswolds, and drew no nearer Gloucester than the old Roman camp of 
Kimsbury, now known as Godwine's Camp, that overlooks the plain a mile 
north of Painswick. The witan decreed that every kind of evil should cease, 
and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship to either side. 

Beverston was at that time a portion of the great manor of Berkeley, 
and if the story of Walter Mapes be true, Godwine or his son Sweyn had 
obtained it from the Nuns of Berkeley by the foulest treachery. Rudder 
says, but he does not give his authority, that Godwine and his sons seized 
the castle of Beverston. I have seen no mention of a castle here earlier than 
1225, though when Stephen was King Robert Earl of Gloucester seems to 
have encamped with his relieving followers at this place. 

The year after this gathering of the followers of Godwine and his sons 
at Beverston, Sweyn was outlawed, and died, and his possessions were 
confiscated by the crown. 

The Domesday Survey of 1086 says, " In Berchelai King Edward had five 
hides ... in Beuerstane ten hides." Roger de Berkeley had a fee farm 
of the whole of the royal manor of Berkeley and paid lyO^i in weight of 
lawful money. 

Our President has written a very valuable paper on this Roger de 
Berkeley and his descendants, and has cleared away a good deal of the 
confusion into which our County historians have fallen concerning them. 

These Berkeleys, as we have heard, had their principal seat at Dursley, 
and there is no direct testimony, that I know of, to their having a castle at 
Beverston : though it is not at all unlikely that some kind of fortress at this 
spot had from very early times commanded the road which led from 
Cirencester and Tetbury to Symond's Hall, and from thence through the plain 
to the ford across the Severn at Aust. 

Sir Henry Barkly has told us how five Roger de Berkeleys held Berkeley 
and Beverston in direct succession from father to son, and how at last on the 
accession of Hen. II. the fifth of them was deprived of most of the possessions 
he held from the crown in favour of a foreigner, Robert Fitz Harding, who 
had earned the king's gratitude by loans to carry on hia war with Stephen, 



206 



Transactioks at Bursley. 



Robert Fitzharding who died in ]170, left Beverston to his third son 
Robert, who took the surname of de Weare, which manor was granted to 
him by his father. Robert de Weare left a son Maurice, who took his 
mother's name " De Gaunt," and he it was who has the credit for building 
or re-building, a.d. 1225, the Castle of Beverston. 

In 11th Henry III. Maurice de Gaunt was questioned for building or 
repairing his Castle of Beverston without the King's license, and also for 
fortifying it.^ He seems to have satisfied the King and was allowed to com- 
plete the work. 

Thomas ap Adam, a descendant of Maurice de Gournay, sold Beverston 
in 1331 to Thomas, 8th Lord Berkeley. This was four years after Edw. II. 
was murdered in Berkc^ley Castle, and Lord Berkeley was still lying under 
the suspicion of having instigated the murder. He was not finally acquitted 
until 1338. 

The great antiquary, Leland, writing some 200 years after this event, 
says that " I have been told by olde Sir William (the great, great grandson 
of 8th Lord Berkeley), that this re-building of the Castle was paid for by 
means of the ransoms which Lord Thomas obtained from the prisoners taken 
by him at the battle of Poictiers in 1356." 

This story, as the late Mr. Cooke pointed out, is not quite consistent 
with the fact that Lord Berkeley's eldest son was taken prisoner by the 
French in the same battle, and remained in France till his father's death in 
1361, because the 6000 nobles were not forthcoming which were demanded 
for his ransom. 

Again on the death of Lord Berkeley, Beverston became the patrimony 
of a younger son, Sir John Berkeley, then only nine years old, and his 
descendants held it for 236 years. Sir John Berkeley, the last of the 
Berkeley s of Beverston, sold it in 1597 to Sir John Pointz, and then 
emigrated to Virginia, where he was massacred by the Indians. 

The Beverston estates, according to Fosbroke, changed hands often 
and rapidly. Sir John Pointz sold them to Henry Fleetwood, Master of the 
Court of Wards, and he sold them to Sir Thomas Earstfield. Then Fleet- 
wood bought them back again and resold them to Sir Michael Hicks, 
Knight, a barrister, and secretary to Lord Burleigh. The Hickses held Bever- 
ston till 1842, when it was sold to R. J. Holford, Esq., of Weston Birt. 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach was styled "of Beverston" in his creation as a 
Baronet, and is, of course, still so styled, and were it not for the sale in 
1842 we might expect ere long to see that the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
for his courage and self-denial in accepting the Chief Secretaryship for 
Ireland, is to be created "Baron Beverston." 

Beverston Castle took an important part in the Civil War of the 1 7th 
century. The castle was garrisoned in 1644 by a body of Royal troops, and 
Col. Massey, Military Governor of Gloucester, determined to take it if he 
could, but his first attempt was unsuccessful. Fifty muskateers ran up to 
the gate at noon and fixed a petard which they had fired ; but, although none 
of the garrison were able to hit them with grenades from within, the petard 
did no mischief, and the fifty muskateers ran up to the gates again and 

1 Rot. Glaus. 11th Ilenvy III. mom. 14, Rot. Rat. 13th Hon. III. 

i 



Beverston Castle. 



207 



carried, back the petard. Then the Puritans withdrew. But the next 
attempt was more successful. Othelthorpe, the Governor, had been made 
prisoner whilst off duty, and Massey suddenly appearing before the castle 
demanded its surrender. The garrison, seized with a panic, and deprived of 
their leader, gave up the castle, and were allowed to depart without arms, 
ammunition, bag or baggage. From this time the castle was held hy the 
Puritans. Nevertheless, on Sunday, July 14th, ''1644, Charles I. marched 
by the castle at the head of 2000 troops, resting the night of the 13th at 
Saperton House, the residence of Sir Henry Pool, and on the 14th at Bad- 
minton, then Lord Herbert's of Raglan. ^ 

Bigland says that the castle was burnt down soon after the siege, and 
that a large dwelling house, which was built within its walls, was burnt 
down about 1691, being replaced by the present farm house. 

The earliest view of the castle that is known to exist is among Buck's 
engravings of 1732. The next is in Grose's Antiquities, Vol. V., or supp. 
Vol. I. 1785. There is a view from the Barbican side, No. IV., in Hearne's 
Antiquities of Great Britain. ^ There is a view of the castle, with the church 
beyond, given in Bigland's Gloucestershire, Vol. I., page 175, published in 
1791. (Blunt, p. 147). 

I have exhibited at the Temporary Museum a Gold British Coin found 
some years ago at Beverston, and preserved in the collection of the late 
J. D. Mblett, Esq. 

For a description of Beverston Castle, see Blunt, 107 and 116-119. 

"The lower parts of the Castle are all of the date of" Maurice de 
Gaunt, 1225 "massive Norman piers and groining still remaining in a 
perfect condition, with external walls many feet in thickness." 

"There-construction of the Castle by" Thomas " Lord Berkeley " in 
1356-1361 " left it a fine quadrangular structure.^ 

Sir Hexry Barkly, being called on, said that he had nothing to add 
to the information just given by Mr. Bazeley, but that there were a few 
minor points in it on which he would touch. It was the third, and not the 
Jijth, of the five Roger de Berkeleys who was deprived of Berkeley ; and he 
must add that he thought it rather hard to call Robert Fitz Harding, who 
succeeded him in the possession of the manor, " a foreigner," seeing that 
his father had been "Prepositus" of Bristol, and his grandfather, as now 
generally believed, " Staller " or Master of the Horse to Edward the Con- 
fessor. 

With regard to the present ownership of Beverston, he had not been 
aware previously that it had passed away from the family of Hicks-Beach, 
but as their Baronetcy was styled "of Beverston," he hoped that Sir 
Michael would not be precluded, when the time came, from being summoned 
to the House of Lords by that title. He would detain them no longer 
from visiting the ruins of the castle. 

The members then visited the ruins of the Castle, which they inspected 
with great interest, and afterwards paid a visit to the ancient church close 
by. Time permitted of but a short stay here, when the party proceeded 

1 Symond's Diary, SO, and Iter Car. ii. 434. 

2 Blunt, pp. 116-119— " to liberal taste." 



208 



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to Tetbury, where lunch had been provided at the White Hart Hotel. After 
this repast, at which Sir Henry Barkly presided, a visit was made to the 
Town Hall, under the guidance of Mr. A. H. Paul, who had kindly collected 
a few objects of interest for the inspection of the members. Among these 
were the following : — 

1. Two perspective drawings of the old Parish Church, taken down in 
1777, one of which Mr. Paul obligingly presented to the library of the 
Society. 

2. Manuscript Survey of the Manor and Borough of Tetbury, taken in 
1594, written on parchment, 32 leaves remaining. 

3. An order signed by King Charles I. on his march from Bristol to besiege 
Gloucester, dated 8th August [1643], commanding his troops not to 
plunder Tetbury. This document has been printed in facsimile in Lee's 
History of Tetbury, p. 19. 

4. A manuscript census of the population of Tetbury taken in 1737. This 
is a very interesting and valuable record. It gives the names of all the 
householders, and the numbers of their children, servants, and lodgers, 
and states to what religious community they respectively belonged. The 



number of inhabited houses was 566. 

Householders and their wives . . . . , 970 

Children - - - ... . . - 909 

Servants - - - - 212 1 

Lodgers 125 ^ 

22163 

The num.bers belonging to the several Eeligious Communities : 

Church of England 1918 

Presbytarians - - 235 

Baptists 38 

Quakers ......... 24 

Unaccounted for 1 



Total 2216 

In the MS. the sums are incorrectly cast up, and the inaccurate total 
has been quoted by Rudder and Lee, who give it as 3115. 

Leaving Tetbury, the party commenced their journey towards Weston 
Birt, calling at Doughton to see the old Manor House. 

In a letter dated 26th February, 1849, the Rev. P. W. Huntley, then 
Lord of the Manor of Boxwell, and Rector of the parish, writes that the 
Manors of Upton and Doughton were held by his family from the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth till the Usurpation, when they were sold to meet some 
fines and other political expenditure. " This, he adds, is all I knew about 
them (the manors) till last year. I held several deeds relating to them, 
together with Court Rolls of both manors, but when Holford purchased 
Upton and Charlton, I then gave the Court Rolls to him on the condition 

1 Inclusive of 44 in the house of Mr. Henry Bagnage, who, it was sug-gested, was the 
Master of the Workhouse. 

2 Including 27 at the Grammar School. 

3 The population of Tetbury at the several decennia in the present century was as 
follows:— 1801 = 3524, 1811 = 3560, 1821 = 4106, 1831=^4297, 1841 = 4300, 1851 = 4759, 1861 = 3274. 



DOCTGIITON''. 



that the papers should be searched and that the Court Rolls of Doughton 
should be separated and given to Paul, now Lord of Doughton, &c." 

It is, howev^er, stated in Lee's History of Tetbury (p. 77) that on the 
20th January, 1627, Hichard Talboys, Esq., descended from the Talboys, of 
Whiston, CO. Wilts, bought the Manor of Doughton (which appears to have 
been granted by Letters Patent from Queen Elizabeth) to Edward Alehorne, 
Clerk, and Ann his wife (for which he cites Title ^^eeds). He states further 
that Richard Talboys, grandson of the above Richard, died leaving issue an 
only daughter named Alice, and that in 1729 he devised this estate to his 
nephew Thomas, son of his brother Benjamin. This Thomas died in 1765, 
and left the estate to his kinsman, Thomas son of Charles Talboys. Thomas 
was succeeded in 1802 by his son Thomas, who, in 1818, sold the manor to 
John Paul Paul, Esq., for £25,000.^ From this latter date it descended to 
Walter Matthew Paul, who, in I860, sold it to Colonel E. J. Stracey, and 
the latter, in 1864, sold it to its present owner, Mr. Wm. Hamilton Yatman. 

From this statement it would appear that the Huntleys never had any 
estate in Doughton Manor, though they had some lands in the parish. They 
were, however, owners of Upton, as appears from Fosbroke, who adds, that 
at Doughton the family of Talboys still continue on the original purchase 
of their ancestor. 

This discrepancy is very remarkable, and we hope, at some time, to be 
able to clear it up. 

The Manor House is a fine picturesque gabled mansion consisting of a 
centre and two wings, with mullioned windows. On the gate-posts is the 
date 1641, which is considered to be the date of the present building, but 
we are inclined to think that the house was built somewhat earlier, probably 
immediately after the acquisition of the property by Richard Talboys. In 
a large room on the ground floor, now used as a kitchen, on a fine carved 
mantel-piece, is a shield of the arms of Talboys : a saltier, on a chief three 
escallops. The tinctures are not given, but on the pedigree of Talboys, of 
Tetbury, recorded at the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire in 1682-3, 
it is stated that ' ' these arms are set up in Tetbury Church for Richard 
Talboys, Esq., but better proof must be made. See an entry in C. 17 with- 
out arms." The blazon here given us is : ar. a saltier gu. on a chief of the 
second three escallops of the first. This Richard Talboys was the purchaser of 
Doughton in 1627. He is stated in the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucester- 
shire, 1682-3, to have been Sheriff" of that county. The year is not given, 
and I have been unable to authenticate the statement. He died 6th August, 
1663, having married Elizabeth daughter of Sir William Barrow, of Chaw- 
ford, CO. Hants, Knight. She died in 1650. In an upper room, on another 
mantel-piece two shields of arms occur : viz. , Talboys as before, differenced 
with a crescent, ar., and the other : sa, two swords in saltier ar. pommels 
and hilts or, between four fieurs de lis of the last for Barrow, identifying 
them with the aforesaid Richard Talboys, doubtless the builder of the 
house, and Elizabeth Barrow his wife. 

Since the purchase by Mr. Paul in 1818, the Manor House has been 
occupied by tenant farmers, the Lords of the Manor residing in the neigh- 
bouring house of High Grove built by John Paul Paul in 1796-8. It has 

1 Lee s History of Tetbury, p. 77. , . 



210 



Teansaotioj^s at Burslev. 



been very much pulled about, and is greatly out of repair. There are some 
good rooms lined with fine oak panelling, apparently of somewhat earlier 
date than the house, and inasmuch as it does not quite fit the rooms, it was 
probably brought from elsewhere. 

About three o'clock the party reached Weston Birt, the seat of Mr. R. 
S. Holford, in whose absence they were received by his agent Mr. J). Lindsay. 
After a ramble over the gardens and grounds, by the invitation of Mr. 
Holford, the party partook of refreshments, which had been hospitably 
provided in the great hall, after which they were invited to walk over the 
mansion to inspect the pictures and other works of art and virtu which it 
contains. They were also shewn a stone with a Roman inscription in the 
rectory garden, hitherto unknown, which will be described hereafter. Before 
leaving Weston, the President, on behalf of the Society, requested Mr. 
Lindsay to convey to Mr. Holford the thanks of the Society for the hos- 
pitality the members had received, and for granting them permission to 
inspect the art and archaeological treasures with which the house is stored. 
Mr. Lindsay promised to fulfil the President's request, and assured him that 
it would have afforded Mr. Holford great pleasure to have been present to 
receive the party in person. 

The return journey to Bursley was then made. 

THE CONVERSAZIONE. 
At eight o'clock a Conversazione was held in the Town Hall, when the 
. following papers were read :—A Doubtful Point in the Genealogy of the House 
of Hicks, by the Rev. F. J. Poynton, M.A. On Gloucestershire Local Names, 
by the Rev. W. Lett, B.A. On the Dursley Puff Stone, by the Rev. William 
Bazeley, M.A. This paper created great interest, and gave rise to an 
animated discussion, in which it was mentioned that Puff' Stone was also 
found, and was in process of formation, near Bath, Chalford, and Nailsworth. 
Mr. E. Box lent a very fine specimen to illustrate the lecture, which was cut 
from the quarry at Dursley some 20 years ago, when quite soft. The subject, 
however, was rather of a geological than antiquarian or historical character. 

The following interesting Notes on the Chapel of Worthy, hy Wotton- 
under-Edge, were read by Mr. V. R. Perkins : — 

Wortley is one of the hamlets of the parish of Wotton-under-Edge. It 
was formerly part of the great Berkeley estate, but now the property of 
Major-Gcneral Hale, of Alderley. 

In the fourth year of Edward III., a,d. 1331, Thomas Lord Berkeley 
granted to Walter de Combe and the heirs of his body, a place of land 
called Church Hay, containing 20 perches, at Wortley, to build a " Chappie " 
there in honour of St. John the Baptist, paying one penny rent ; for which he 
faithfully promised that all Chaplens there celebrating should for ever have 
the said Lord Thomas and his heires in memory, in life and death, in all 
masses and orisons in that Chappie. 

In 17th Edward III. Thomas Lord Berkeley (iii) founded four chantries 
in the four villages of Newport, Side, Cambridge, and Wortley, and endowed 
them with possessions competent to the maintenance of a priest at each, 
A messuage and one yard land and 50 shillings rent per annum in Wotton 
were assigned for a Chaplen and his successors, Divina singulis diebus cele- 

1 Berkeley MSS. (Maclean's Edn,), Vol. I., p. 333. 

i 



WoRTLEY Chapel. 



211 



bratura in capella de Wortley licensed by the King and confirmed by 
Wolston Bishop of Worcester ; " and by his charter of foundation appointed 
what kind of masse and prayers should bee said and sunge upon usuall dayes, 
ordinary holidays, and spetiall festivalls, in soe devout and holy a manner, 
That unlesse hee had been a schollar to John Wickleefe (who now lived) 
hee could not have come neerer to the doctrine of these present days in the 
Church of England, forbidding this his preist to take any money of any, or 
to be servant or chaplen to any but God only in spiritualities and to himself 
in honest and necessary temporalities ; and that hee should live chastly and 
honestly and not come to Marketts, Alehouses, or Tavernes, neither should 
frequent plays or unlawful games. In a word hee made this his preist by 
these ordinances, to be one of those honest men whom we mistake and call 
puritanes.i 

In 1468 the advowson of this chantry was vested in Margaret, Countess 
of Shrewesbury, who was grand-daughter of Thomas Lord Berkeley, the 
founder of the chantry, and through her it passed to William Marquess of 
Berkeley, who levied a fine on the advowson of the chapel in 1488, 3rd 
Henry VII. 

Fosbroke tells us Wortley Chapel was repaired in 1506, and in 1514 the 
chantry priests' wages were £6, 

The last incumbent was John Gdbins (Atkyns) John Collins (Rudder) 
and received a pension of £2 16s. in the year 1553 (Willis). 

In the Chantry Certificates, by Sir John Maclean, in Vol. VIII. of the 
Transactions of this Society, we find : — 
t< Worteleye ff"ree Chapell beinge noe pishe Churche 

fi'ounded by lycence of mo'^tmayn for the fyndinge of a Chapleyn there to 
singe and praye for the founders sowlez and all xpen sowlez for ever <& 
the same is dist^unte from the seid pishe Churche about halfe a mile. 

Sir John Collins Incubent there of thage of xl^i yerez whoe ys pson of 
Lytleton & vicar of Oldestone beside^ his stipende in the §uice w^ii ys 



yerelye ..... Jyjs 

The land^ and ten.t-g belonginge to the same are of the yerely value of 

Ixxiiijs wherof 

In reprisez yerely - - - - - xjs 

And so remayneth clere by yere - - - Ixiijs 

Ornament^ thereto belonging - - - - noone 

Two bellg weyeng C weight valued at - - - xx^ 



Henry Lord Berkeley, by deed dated 20th May, 14th Elizabeth, 1567, 
released all his right in those lands in Wortley, late parcell of the Chantry 
of St John the Baptist, in Wortley, and in divers lands in Wortley, called 
the Lampe lands.^ 

All that remains of this chapel at the present time is one buttress at the 
east end ; another similar one was taken down some few years since. The 
chapel itself was long ago converted into a dwelling house, in which the 

1 Berkeley MSS. (Maclean's Edn.), Vol. I. (p. 335, 336. 

2 The grant of the possessions of this Chantry was doubtless acquired by Sir Nicholas 
Poyntz, like the possessions of the Abbey of Kingswood, and with those conveyed to Thomas 
Eivet, with the release of Henry Lord 'Q&vke\ej .— See post under Osleivorth. — Ed. 



Transactions at Bttrsley. 



carpenter to the Alderley estate now lives, This man, now over seventy 
years of age, was born in this house, and he tells me he recollects very well, 
when he was a little boy, the doorway into the chapel, and also two gothic 
windows which were in the sitting room, and the bedroom in which he used 
to sleep was unceiled, showing the timbered roof of the chapel. 

Among relics found at various times was a small gilded statuette of the 
Virgin Mary — this, he says, after lying about his premises for many years, 
was sent up to the Squire's house at Alderley. On my remarking that the 
chapel was dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and that it was singular to 
find a statue of the Virgin, his reply was he believed it to be the Virgin 
Mary, but she had lost her head. This little relic has been discovered. It 
is very weather-worn, and without head or neck, one arm is broken off, the 
other holding the ample folds of the dress, but it still shows traces of some 
colour, which was originally blue and gold. 

THURSDAY, 5th August. 
In the morning at 9.30., the closing meeting of the Society was held at 
the '* Old Bell " Hotel, the President in the chair. There were present : — 
Sir John Maclean, General Vizard, Colonel Bayly, Colonel Forbes ; Mesrss. 
E. Hartland, A. le Blanc ; The Revs. F. J. Poynton, W. Bagnall-Oakeley, 
W. T. Allen, S. E. Bartleet, E. A. D'Argent, Rev. W. Bazeley [Hon. Sec), 
and others. 

The following resolutions were proposed from the chair, and unani- 
» mously adopted : — 

I. The question of the place where the summer meeting for the year 1887 

should be held, was then considered. Seveial places were mentioned, 
e.g : — Wales, Shipton-on-Stour, Stratford-on-Avon, &c., and it was 
finally resolved: — 

II. That the annual meeting next year, shall be held at Stratford-upon- 

Avon, or some other place convenient for visiting the northern part of 
the county, to be determined by the council, and that the choice of 
the President be left to that body. 

III. The Rev. W. T. Allen proposed, that such a number of the volumes 
of the Transactions as could conveniently be spared, be presented to 
the Rev. T. P. Wadley, who had been elected an Honorary Member of 
the Society, in further recognition of the great service he had rendered 
the Society in abstracting the Bristol Wills. This having been duly 
seconded, was unanimously adopted. 

IV. Proposed, seconded, and unanimously adopted, that the hearty thanks 

of the Society be given Sir Henry Barkly, for the great interest he 
had taken in the proceedings of the meeting, and for the courtesy and 
cordiality he had uniformly displayed. 

The Excursion. 

A carriage excursion was then made to Ozleworth, Kingswood, and 
Wotton-under-Edge. There M'^ere present : — Sir Henry Barkly ( The Presi- 
dent), Sir John Maclean, General Vizard, Colonel Forbes, Colonel Bayly ; 
The Revds. S. E. Bartleet, W. T. Allen, F. J. Poynton, W. Letts, W. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, and W. Bazeley ; Messrs. E. Hartland, V. R. Perkins, and 
others, and several ladies. 



The Manor of Ozlewokth. 



213 



After a beautiful drive over the hills, the party reached the very re- 
markable Church of Ozleworth, at which Mr. Perkins acted as guide, and he 
remarked that on the exterior of the chapel there is a shield on which is a 
cross with a letter " T " on either side of it. 

He then read the following Paper on 

The Manok of Ozleworth. 
In Domesday Book we find that King 'Edward the Confessor and 
William the Conqueror had half a hide of land in demesne in Osleuuarde : 
in the E-ed Book of the Exchequer this is spelt Esslewrd, now it is Ozle- 
worth, or, as the inhabitants of the neighbouring parishes call it, Wozzle- 
worth. William the Conqueror granted this manor to Hoger de Berkeley of 
Dursley. 

Roger de Berkeley granted the advowson of the Church of Ozleworth, 
and also that of West Newenton to the Priory of Stanley St. Leonards, 
which was a cell to the great Abbey of St. Peter's, Gloucester. After a writ, 
ad quod damnum dated 10th April, 1307 (35th Edw. I.) and an Inquisition 
thereupon in the same year, it was purchased by the Abbot of Kingswood by 
Wotton-under-Edge, together with the advowson of West Newenton, and 
an acre of land in Bagpath of the Abbot of Gloucester in exchange for 
£10 rent in Hasleden and Culherton : the £10 rent being held of Peter de 
Breouse in yuram eleemosynam. 

In the reign of Henry III. a great deal cf land in Ozleworth was in the 
hands of the family of Rochford, and by them given to the Abbey of Kings- 
wood. 

By deed dated 1272 (56th Hen. III.), Henry de Berkeley, of Dursley, 
received 80 marks of the Abbot and Convent of Kingswood for the Manor 
of Ozleworth, and this manor continued with the Abbey of Kingswood till 
the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540. 

The Priory of Stanley had a portion of 6s. 8d. and Kingswood Abbey 
in great and small tithes, 16s. 8d. In the Valor Ecclesiasticus it is rated at 
£6 10s. 4d. In the 31st Hen. VIII. it was, after the dissolution, granted 
to Sir Nicholas Pointz, yet we find that Sir Robert Pointz, grandfather to 
Sir Nicholas, died seized of it (probably as tenant) in the 12th Hen. VIII. 

Sir Nicholas Pointz, who had the grant of the manor, died on 4th of 
March, and Nicholas Pointz his son had livery of the manor granted him 
the same year. He sold it to Sir Thomas Rivet, alderman of London, and 
from him it was purchased by another London alderman, Sir Gabriel Low.^ 
Sir Thomas Low his son was lord of the manor in 1608. It remained in this 

family until 1722, when it was sold to Harding, and the exors of John 

Harding sold it about the year 1770 to James Clutterbuck, of Claverton 
House, near Bath, and in this family it still remains, J. E. Clutterbuck, M.D., 
being the present lord of the manor. The manor house is situated on the top 
of the hill and commands very extensive views of the country round. It 
was built in the reign of King Edw. VI. (1547-53) by Sir Nicholas Pointz, 
the elder, partly with the stones and timber of the demolished Monastery of 
Kingswood, and partly with the stones pulled from the crosses in the sur- 
rounding parishes. Smyth describes it thus ; ' ' An house whose scituation 



214 



Transactions at Dursley. 



may seeme (with small helpe from the figure hyperbole) to overlook the North 
Pole from whence may be seen the Church and Village of Owselworth seated 
in the depth of a deepe valley where the inhabitants may (if usually they 
do not) cut, make, and cast their billet wood and fagots in at their chimney 
pots to save further carriage. The north and east sides of the house are 
old, but the south front was added by Wyatt early in the present century. 
It was originally called Ozleworth House, and on 20th May, 14th Eliz. (1572) 
at the request of Sir Nicholas Pointz, Henry Lord Berkeley, by deed 
released all his right and interest in the capital messuage called Owselworth 
House, alias the New Buildinge, and in the lands thereto belonginge. This 
dwellinge house called the " new worke " is now *' Newark," from its position 
on an eminence — a scriptural allusion once in fashion, as appears from 
Newark, a house of the Prior of Lanthony of like situation, near Gloucester, 
and other instances gave the seat the same appellation, and Ararat, the name 
of the farm near by, on the brow of the same hill, looking on to the town of 
Wotton underneath. 

The mansion near the church is a modern building, purchased some 
years ago by the late Sir John Rolt, who spent most of liis leisure time in 
this quiet retreat, and died here in 1871. It is now the property of his 
grandson. 

Referring to the Church of Ozleworth, Mr. Perkins observed, it is 
remarkably singular and curiously beautiful in its architectural character. 
It contains many traces of early Norman work. The tower, which before the 
elongation of the nave in 1873, was in the centre of the building, is an irre- 
gular hexagon,^ a form very rarely met with, and is supposed to have been 

1 We can add a few particulars in continuation of what lias been stated by Mr. Perkins. 
Mr. Perkins says he finds that Sir Robert Poyntz, grandfather of Sir Nicholas, died seized 
of the Manor of Ozleworth in 12th Henry VIII. (1520), and suggests that he probably held it 
as tenant, but he omits to cite his authority for this statement. We may remark, however, 
that as an ordinary tenant, or occupier, he would not have been described as seized. Sir 
Robert Poyntz died 5th Nov. 1520, as shewn by the Inquisition taken thereupon at Bristol, 
on 23rd September in the following year, of the messuages and tenements which he held in 
that city (Inq,, p.m. I3th Henry VIII. Exch. No. 5), and in the Inquisition held at Thornbury 
on the 4th November following, of his possessions in the County of Gloucester, no mention is 
made of the Manor of Ozleworth, nor is the manor named in his will dated 19th October, 
1520. The fact is that the Manor of Ozleworth continued parcel of the jjossessions of the 
Abbey of Kingswood until the dissolution of that House, when it fell to the King, who, on 
on the 10th of March, 1538, granted a lease of the whole of the Kingswood estate to Sir 
Nicholas Poyntz, of Iron Acton, for the term of 21 years at the annual rent of 245 8s. 8d., 
the Manor of Osleworth itself being then valued at £19 9s. per annum. (Dugdale'sMonasticon, 
Vol. v., pages 426, 428), and the following year granted the whole to him in fee. This Sir 
Nicholas was the builder of the new house on the hill, "partly," Smyth states, "with 
the stones and timber of the foresaid demolished Monastery of Kingswood, and partly 
with the stones pulled from the crosses in the parishes thereabouts," pp. 426, 428. Sir 
Nicholas died seized in 1557, the exact date is illegible in the Inquisition p.m. 3rd and 
4th Philip and Mary, part 1., No. 51), but his will, dated 26th February, 1555-6, was proved 
8th July, 1557, by it he devised to his wife Dame Johan his new house in Osilworth that 
standeth on the hill, and the park, for her life, with remainder to his son Francis Poyntz for his 
life. This will, as stated above, was proved on Srd July 1557, by Johan Poyntz, the relict, and 
executrix of the deceased. How these bequests were set aside we are unable to state, perhaps 
under some family arrangement, but Nicholas Poyntz, the son and heir, was granted livery of 
seizin in the same j'ear, who sold it to Thomas Rivet, as stated by Mr. Perkins. What 
interest Henry Lord Berkeley could have had in it we are unable to say. Probable it was 
under some mortgage, for from this date the Poyntzs of Iron Acton never flourished.— Ed. 

Berkeley MSS., Maclean's edition, Vol. III., Hund. of Berkeley, p. 307. 

2 Swindon Church, not far from Cheltenham, is another instance of the hexagonal tower, 



The Church of Ozlewokth. 



215 



the original church. It is also said to have been a Mortuary Chapel of the 
Knights' Templars, but upon what authority he said he could not under- 
stand. The present and only entrance to the church is on the south side 
through the porch. Above the doorway is a circular arch, richly ornamented 
with foliage, and is of a most unusual — if not unique — design ; there is said 
to be only one other arch at all like it, and that is in Normandy. The 
capitals of the columns on each side are also sin;iilarly ornamented. There 
was formerly a north door in the nave, now walled up, and against it, on 
the outside, is fastened a very fine old stone coffin, which was dug up many 
years ago. In the interior of the church the nave is divided from the tower 
by a sharp-pointed early English arch, covered with very highly relieved 
zig-zag tracery — "a bold open work of cylinders forming angles with each 
other but of different inclinations and of different planes ; this is also an 
example of rare occurence. The ornamentation of this arch is said to have 
been continued down to the floors, the grooves being left where it has been 
cut away. He called attention to the rood-loft staircase in the wall by the 
chancel arch and to the doorway at the side in the tower above the present 
pulpit leading to the loft. The chancel is of 14th century work, the nave 
and font are early English. The nave was elongated, and the gallery pew at 
the end removed in 1873. This gallery pew belonged to the great house, 
and was entered from the outside by a flight of steps and door leading into 
the pew direct. The Church is a Rectory in the Deanery of Dursley, and 
is dedicated to St. Nicholas. It was given by Roger de Berkeley, of Durs- 
ley (to whom the Manor of Ozleworth was granted by William the Conqueror), 
to the Priory of St. Leonard Stanley,^ which was a cell to the great Abbey 
of St. Peter's, Gloucester. 

The Church of Ozleworth appears in the list of patronage of St. Peter's, 
Gloucester, 1154-1179. 

The existing Registers date only from the year 1698. 

1511. Roger Cawhill, Clerk, was presented the Church of Ozleworth by 
Abbot Newnton in 1511, on the death of Charles Lyce. 

1512. In 1512 Richard Bond was presented on the death of Roger Cawhill. 

1538. The Abbot granted the next presentation to Edward ap Hoel, of 
London. 

Rectoks. 

Name. Date. Patron. 

Augustine Pylsworth - - 1578 - - - Thomas Rivet. 

In looking through the Gloucester Registers I found this note : 
"Queen Elizabeth. A bond for inducting Augustine Pylsworth in Wotton- 
imder-Edge." But I do not find his name among Wotton-under-Edge 
vicars, though in 1571 this baptism is registered : — 
1571. Margaret, d. of Augustine Pylsworth. 

1 Arch. Journal, Vol. I. p. 107. 

2 Rudder has printed in his History of Gloucestershire, Appendix No. xxiv., a Charter 
of Confirmation, by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, of gifts to Priory of St. Leonards 
Stanley, of which the Advowson of Ozleworth was a portion. 



216 



Transactions at Dursley. 



Name. 



Date, 

1607 

1689 

1718 

1743 

1755 

1785 

1789 

1821 

1854 

1884 



Patron, 
Thomas Lowe 
Gabriel Lowe 
Timothy Low 



William Pilsworth - - 
Thomas Gwynn, A.M. . 
Samuel Bennet . . . 
Edward Hill . . . . 
Thomas Clissold, Curate 



Rector 



Lewis Clutterbuek 

Joseph Mayo 

Charles F. Clutterbuek, 



Lewis Clutterbuek 
Lewis Clutterbuek 



Matthew Blagdon Hale was eonsecrated Bishop of Brisbane, and on his 
retirement was presented to the vicarage of Ozle worth, by Mr. James 
Clutterbuek, but on his arrival in England he deelined to accept it. 
Isaac Walton, present Rector . . 1885 .... James Clutterbuek 

Sir Henry Barkly said he must take exception to two points in the 
valuable paper read by Mr. Perkins as to this church. First, to his suppo- 
sition that it was built by the Knights' Templars ; second, that the right of 
presentation to it had passed from the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, to the 
Abbey of Kingswood. As regards the former, I still consider that there is 
not the slightest ground for such a conjecture. A church was certainly in 
in existence at Osleworth early in the 12th century, for it was one of those 
conferred by Roger de Berkely (11), who died in 1130, on his Priory of 
Stanley St. Leonards'. 

The arch above the door into the nave is so plain in style and rude in 
workmanship that it seems to me that it might well have formed part of 
the building, though I observe that Mr. Pettit referred the hexagonal tower 
to the " latest Norman " or " transition " period in consequence of one of the 
arches supporting it being pointed. 

As regards the second question, I find that such conflicting evidence 
is in existence that it is not in the least surprising that Mr. Perkins should 
have come to a different conclusion from that which I entertain. I think, 
however, that a closer examination will confirm my view, es;.^ In 1143 
Archbishop Theobald confirmed the donation of the Church of Oselworth to 
St. Leonard's. — Diigdales Monasticon. 

In 1146 Roger de Berkeley (iii.) transferred Oselworth Church with the 
Priory of St. Leonard's to St. Peter's Abbey. — Cartulary of Gloucester. 

In 1207 Robert de Rochford sued Roger de Berkeley v. , in order to compel 
him to obtain an exchange of the advowson of the Church of Oselworth 
" quam amasit versus Abbotem de Glouc." {amisit, evidently here 
meaning "relinquished freely "). Roger denied that he had given Osel- 
worth to Robert, but is prepared to warrant the Charter wliich he gave 
to Thomas de Rochford (Robert's brother) of the Manor of Oselton.'^ 
Robert withdraws, sine die, by leave of the Court. — Abbr. Flacit. S Joh. 
J\ot. 1 in dorso 

J Is it possible that this was Caldecote ? 



The Church of Ozleworth. 



217 



No doubt it was about this time that Roger de Berkeley (v. ) executed the 
confirmation of Oselworth Church to St. Peter's, " as given by his father and 
his ancestors. " — Cart, dxxxviit. 

In 1242 the Rochfords and De la Beres having given to Kingswood Abbey 
all the lands Roger de Berkeley had given them at Oselworth, the 
monks there laid claim to the advowson of the church also, but John de 
Berkeley of Dursley came forward at the call of the Abbot of St. Peter's, 
Gloucester, to warrant that it had been given to this Abbey by his 
ancestors, and confirmed by his grandfather Roger. — Vide the Berkeley s 
of Dursley in 13th and 14-th centu7-ies, p. 7. 

In 1272 Henry de Berkeley Lord of Dursley, received eighty marks from the 
Abbey of Kingswood for confirmation of the Manor of Oselworth, but 
this, as Smyth explains two pages earlier, was really the Manor of 
Caldecote (now reported to be in Newington parish), " which that abbey 
held and called a manor, or the Manor of Oselworth." — Berkeley MSS. 
Macleaji's edn., Vol. III. Hundred of Berkeley, pp. 306-308. 

In 1306 having thus acquired the whole Parish of Oselworth, the Monks of 
Kingswood renewed their endeavours to get the church, and it appears 
from an Inquisition in 35th Edw. I. that their Abbot purchased of the 
Abbot of Gloucester one acre of land in Bagpath with the advowson of 
the Churches of Oselworth and West Newington, by way of exchange for 
£10 rent in Haseldean and Culberton, given by the Abbot of Kingswood 
to Gloucester, and that the said churches were held by John (ii.), son of 
William de Berkeley, then in ward to the King. — Ihid. 

Either, however,. John refused to assist on coming of age or the arrange- 
ment fell through from some other cause, for 

In 1357 Oselworth Church is included in the list of the churches belonging 
to St. Peter's Abbey at that date (Cartulary Vol. III. p. 31), and this is 
confirmed by the presentations cited by Mr. Perkins, as well as by 
Rudder, who expressly states that 

In 1510 (2 Hen. VIII) the'patronage of Oselworth was vested in that abbey. 
It does not, however, appear among its possessions at the Dissolution. 

Upon leaving the church the party walked across the grounds of the 
mansion, known as The Court House, and resuming their places in the 
brakes, proceeded down the valley, through rich meadows and closely wooded 
lanes, to Kingswood Abbey, Mr. Perkins still acting as guide, to visit the 
remains of the old abbey founded by William Berkeley, of Dursley, in 
1139, passing on the way Wortley Chapel, on which Mr. Perkins had 
read some notes on the Tuesday evening, and to which he directed attention 
in passing. 

Kingswood Abbey. 

All that now remains of this ancient abbey are the entrance gateway 
and the external walls, extending east and west on either side, now forming 
the fronts of ranges of labourers' cottages, as stated by Mr. Perkins in the 
paper he read at Dursley on Tuesday evening, in which he gave a history of 
the Abbey. 



Vol. XI. 



218 



Transactions at Dttrsley. 



Over one of the cottage windows on the eastern side of the gateway is 
inserted a small escutcheon of arms. It would appear to be thus charged : 
Per fess, in chief harry wavy of four, and in hase cJiecquy (but without a 
closer inspection by means of a ladder we are unable to speak with certainty), 
over all a sword in pale point upward. We do not know of any such arms. 
Beneath this is carved on stone in Arabic figures the date 1 1 23. Some of 
those present thought this was a contemporary date, and Sir John Maclean's 
attention being called to it, he pointed out that Arabic numerals were un- 
known in England at the date stated, were not used until centuries later, and 
then in form, he said, they were unlike those on the wall. He said the only 
exampb known to him of the use of Arabic numerals in England, except in 
manuscript, is an escutcheon on the church door at Rendcombe, in this 
county. In that case the figures are doubtful with the exception of the 
la?t three, which are pronounced to be certainly 417, and it is supposed that 
the year 1417 is indicated. Arabic numerals, however, he said, were used 
in writing at a much earlier date. The earliest known to him, personally, 
are to be found in an account at Exeter College, Oxford, sparsely used with 
Roman characters, in the 14th century. He added that the forms of the 
figures at those early dates are very unlike those now in use. Those under 
the escutcheon on the wall appeared to him to be of the 17th century, 
certainly not earlier, and the shape of the shield and its ornamentation are 
of the same date ; and he desired the company to take notice that the fic- 
titious date is not on the same stone as the shield, but on a piece of stone of 
a different character. ^ 

Turning to the Great Gateway, Sir ^John called attention to the details 
of the structure. Alluding to Mr. Perkin's description of it in his paper, he 
said he was disposed to agree with Mr. Perkins in thinking that the upper 
story, in its present condition, was probably later than the lower story, and 
suggested that, possibly, the upper part had been taken down when the 
rest of the abbey was destroyed and afterwards rebuilt, the old materials 
being used.'-^ He considered that the whole was of a later date than that 
attributed to it by Mr. Perkins. He did not think that any portion of it 
was earlier than the end of the 15th century, if so old. Directing attention 
to the details of the niche and the pinnacles, he re(j[uested those present to 
recal to their minds the niches and pinnacles of the church porch at Dursley, 
which resembled these so closely as almost to lead to the conclusion that they 

1 Since the meeting- we have looked a little further into the question of the introduction 
of the Aiabic characters of notation now almost exclusively used. Considering their superior- 
ity over the Roman system, it seems amazing that they were not generally adopted earlier. 
Sir Francis Palgrave, about 40 years ago, brought under notice the use of one Arabic character 
with Roman numerals as early as 1252. It was the representative of the figure 3. In 1850 
the late Mr. Joseph Hunter, of the Public Record Office, laid before the Archaeological 
Institute a warrant from Hugh le Despenser to certain Italian merchants to pay £40, the 
receipt of money being indorsed in Arabic characters. This was in 1325. The indorsement 
was not in the same hand-writing, nor was it written by an Englishman, but it shows that 
Arabic numerals were sometimes used in England in the beginning of the 14th century in 
matters of business. The date of the document at Oxford, mentioned in the text, is 1373. 
In the 15th century examples are more frequently found, but, strange to say, the Arabic 
system of aritlmiical notation, notwithstanding its manifest advantages, did not come into 
general use until the latter end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century, and even now, 
as everyone knows, it has not entirely superseded the simple though cilumsy Roman system. 

2 Mr. Pope docs not concur in this. He thinks that the whole was built at the same 

time. 



Wotton-under'Edge. 



219 



had been built at the same time and by the same man. It was elicited from 
an aged man present that he remembered a somewhat similar gateway half 
way up the street, now removed, and a large building at a place called Cam's 
hole, on the north side, near the water, within the abbey precincts. This is 
also removed. 1 

The site of the old abbey, about a mile distant across the fields, is now 
a farm-house. It has a two-light window of ancient date, but all the rest is 
modern. 

Some few of the members visited the church close by, built in the reign 
of George I., and is as poor and ugly as could be conceived even at that 
period. 

The next place visited was 

Wotton-under-Edge, 
where lunch had been provided at the Swan Hotel. The President took 
the Chair. 

After lunch the party visited the fine, though sadly mutilated. Parish 
Church, under the guidance of the Vicar, the Rev. H. Sewell, who read a 
paper thereon, which will be printed post ; and Mr. Perkins made some 
remarks on the fine Brasses of Sir Thomas Berkeley, Lord Berkeley, the 4th 
of his name, and the tenth of his line, who died in 1417, and of the Lady 
Margaret his wife, sole daughter and heir of Gerard Warren, Lord de Lisle, 
by Alice daughter and heir of Henry Lord Tyes. Lady Berkeley died 20th 
March, 1392-3. A good description of these brasses is given by Mr. Cecil T. 
Davis in his " Brasses in Gloucestershire," and they have been illustrated in 
various works. There is also a magnificent slab, now broken into three 
pieces, which form the matrix of a very handsome cross which commemorated 
Richard de Wotton, Rector of the parish, circa 1320. 

Leaving the church, the party, under the guidance of Mr. Perkins, 
visited several places of interest in the town, and returning to the church- 
yard, a photographer was found there exercising his art, when Col. Forbes 
proposed that the whole party should be photographed. This was generally 
assented to, and the party was grouped for the purpose in front of the 
west door of the church, when the President, with quiet humour, remarked 
that the group consisted of ' ' Barclay Perkins & Co. 

Some members having partaken of afternoon tea, kindly offered by Mrs. 
Thomas at Lisle House, close to the church, the party proceeded to rejoin 
their carriages, and, on the way, at the invitation of Mr. Perkins, some of 
members visited his interesting old Jacobean House, panelled throughout 
with oak. The party then broke up, having enjoyed beautiful weather 
throughout the whole time of the meeting. 

1 Sir Robt. Atkj'ns, in his History of Glouc, p. 493, says of this place : *' The gatehouse 
is still to be seen, and a considerable part of the abbey is yet standing, but divided into several 
tenements. There is carved, and still remaining, over the kitchen chimney of the abbey, 
a tiger, a hart, an ostrich, a mermaid, an ass, and a swan, the first letters of which creatures 
spell Thomas, the name of the Lord Berkeley, who was a considerable benefactor and patron 
to that foundation." Lysons adds : "this was probably Thomas Loid Berkeley, who died 
35th Edw. III., and was a great benefactor to many religious houses, as the building, from the 
style of the architecture, appears to have been erected at that time." The Thomas Lord 
Berkeley who died 34th Ed. III. (not 35th), was the third Lord Berkeley of that name, but we 
do not find that he was in any way a benefactor to Kingswood Abbey, though his relict, the 
Lady Katherine, before her death, gave the abbey a yearly pension of six marks, and when 
she died many rich gifts, and endowed the house with fair possessions of her own purchase, 
which were confirmed by her husband's grandchild. (Berkeley MSS., Vol. I., p. 347). We are 
sorry to add that the remains mentioned by Atkyns are now not to be found. 

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President's Address. 



221 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

OF 

SIR HENRY BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G./&C, as President of the Society. 

When the Council of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society did me the honour of inviting me to become President 
of the Society for the ensuing year and to preside at its Annual 
Meeting to be held in this town, no subject was prescribed for 
my opening address, but conscious that my sole claim to such a 
compliment arose from the circumstance of my having already 
contributed two papers respecting the family of Berkeley of 
Dursley to the Transactions, I felt that I should naturally be 
expected to give my remarks a local colouring, and to include 
any information concerning the place that I might have come 
across in the course of my researches as to its early lords. 

I must own that the theme struck me at first as unpromising, 
not from lack of inherent interest, but because so much had 
already been written upon it. Although it has been declared on 
high authority ^ that a Standard History of Gloucestershire yet 
remains to be published, copious materials for such a work have 
long been in process of accumulation, and the county can boast 
of a list of distinguished authors, the majority its own sons, who 
devoted themselves to the task. Among these may be named in 
the order of publication of their respective books : Sir Robert 
Atkyns in 1712, Rudder in 1779, Bigland in 1791, Lysons in 
1804, Fosbroke in 1807, and lastly, Smyth, whose detailed des- 
cription of the Hundred of Berkeley, though completed in MS. 
so far back as 1639, and accessible in that form to the three 
latest of these writers, has only recently been printed in full, 
under the auspices of this Society. From these various sources 
a fairly comprehensive account of Dursley is to be gathered, but 
one, I feel bound to add, of by no means an authentic character 
as regards its early history, with which we, as archaeologists, are 
alone concerned. The statements made have been summarized, 

^ John Gough Nicholls, in 'The Herald and Genealogist, Vol. I., p. 357. 



222 



Transactions at Dursley. 



and, as to later times, largely supplemented, in a handy little 
volume entitled " Dursley and its Neighbourhood," published by 
the Rev. John Henry Blunt, in 1877, to which, for convenience 
sake, I shall in most cases refer. 

The place is set before our eyes at the epoch of the Norman 
Conquest, as belonging to a Saxon family of Royal lineage, ^ 
resident in a castle in its midst ; ^ and contributing munificently 
to the support of a church, supposed to date from the earliest 
period of British Christianity,^ whilst the town itself had flourished 
so greatly under their protection and partronage as to be counted 
in after ages " one of the five ancient Boroughs of Gloucester- 
shire." * 

I fear that this pleasing picture will not stand being looked 
into. It is not merely a fancy sketch, but quite incorrect in its 
principal features. These I will examine one by one, pointing 
out errors, and adding such particulars in each case as may be 
relied upon. And first as to 

Its Lords. 

It is clear from Domesday that Dursley did not constitute a 
separate lordship "in the time of King Edward," but was only 
one of the subordinate members of the Royal Demesne of Berkeley. 
That great manor passed as " Terra Regis " to the Conqueror, 
who granted it at a fixed money rental to one "Roger," known at 
the date of the Survey by the surname of " de Berkeley " from 
his residence in that town (a proof, by the bye, that it was not at 
Dursley that he lived), but whose christian name sufficiently 
attests his Norman origin. 

The story of his having been "an ancient Saxon Baron of the 
same blood as Edward the Confessor," was like most myths of the 
kind, invented by the monks at a much later period to do honour 
to their patrons. It is traceable no higher than the pedigree 
drawn up by Abbot Newland al)Out the year 1 480. 

Adopted and amplified by Smyth, with whose pre-conceived 
ideas it tallied, it has been, notwithstanding its manifest absurdity, 
accepted as gospel by most subsequent writers. 

1 Blunt's Dursley, p. 4. Ibid. Ibid. pp. 31 & 32. ^ Ibid. p. 18. 



Presidejsit's Address. 



223 



The Castle. 

As to the castle in which these imaginary Saxon Thanes are 
supposed to have dwelt at Dursley, it disappears with them as a 
matter of course. Nor is there the smallest degree of probability 
that Koger de Berkeley of Domesday, of his descendants, erected 
one there, so long as they remained in occupation of that of 
Berkeley only four miles off. Smyth's argument indeed for the 
early existence of a castle at Dursley, rests on the mistaken 
assumption that there was none at Berkeley prior to that built by 
Robert Fitz Harding. It is now, however, generally admitted by 
archaeologists that defensive works crowned the sandstone bluff 
at the latter place before the Conquest,^ and that they must have 
been not long after converted into a spacious stronghold ^ capable 
of accommodating the Royal Courts which William the Conqueror, 
and Henry T. held there as recorded. 

Whether it was before the gates of this castle, or of one more 
recently erected, that the third Roger de Berkeley was so cruelly 
tortured, in order to induce its surrender, as described in the 
" Gesta Regis Stephani," I will not undertake to say, but there 
is not a tittle of evidence to support Smyth's assertion that this 
incident occurred at Dursley. With respect to another gloss, to 
the effect that a few years later, after this Roger's forfeiture of 
Berkeley, Henry II. made it a condition, when arranging that 
Roger's son and daughter should marry the daughter and son of 
Robert Fitz Harding, that Dursley Castle should be restored to 
its original owners, the marriage contract, lately printed by the 
Society, is silent on this important point, providing solely for the 
restoration of lands of certain annual value at Dursley. In all 
probability it was on these lands that a castle for the first time 
arose, designed, in accordance with custom, as the " Caput " of 
the " Honour " or " Barony " of Dursley then created, of which 
we find mention in official documents of later date.^ No notice 

1 Paper by Mr. G. T. Clarke in Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Soc. for 
1876. 

2 Paper by Mr. Alfred Ellis in ditto ditto Vol. VI. for 1879. 
Vide Testa de Neville, p. 77. Inq. p.m. Henry de Berkeley, 15th 

Edw. I., No. 18. 



224 



Transactions at Dursley. 



nevertheless, of the erection of such a structure has been dis- 
covered, and although the absence of any license to crenellate 
or fortify a mansion here, from the Rolls of the 13th century, 
may be regarded as pointing to its existence at a more remote 
period, it is certainly strange that no direct mention of the castle 
occurs in any of the writs, inquisitions, or other instruments 
relating to the family which have been preserved. 

The single exception, if such it can be called, is in an " Extent " 
or valuation of the Manor of Dursley made upon the death of 
Henry de Berkeley (ii) in 15th Edw. I. After the value of the 
" Site of the Manor " with the produce of the garden, as well as 
the value of all other items in demesne, has been set forth, and 
an account given of rents payable by the freemen and burgesses 
of the town, — the word " Castrum " is engrossed in large letters 
in the margin, and opposite thereto follows : " Also there are two 
half Virgates and one quarter Yirgate of land giving for aid " at 
Michaelmas 3s. 9d, and " owing 533 days manual labour for the 
works " ; — an entry evidently referring to services due for the 
maintenance of a Castle."^ 

Whether one stood there at the moment seems doubtful. I 

am aware that the expression " Site of the Manor " is not in 

all cases to be construed literally, but, for reasons which it would 

take me too long to explain on the present occasion, I am disposed 

to think it should be so here. At all events, I have failed hitherto 

to discover any further proof of the existence of the castle in the 

13th century. It is not alluded to even in the writ of of Edw. II. 

in 1322, ordering the restoration to John de Berkeley (ii) of his 

lands and tenements seized for treason, although the usual formula 

of forfeiture in those days included a mandate to the sheriff 

to seize the offender's castle — " if he has one." -This omission 

certainly heightens the probability that the site was still vacant, 

and that it was either this Sir J ohn or his son Sir Nicholas, who, 

in the reign of Edward III., rebuilt the structure alluded to by 

Leland in 1540, as having been pulled down by Nicholas Wykes 

for the purpose of using the materials in constructing a mansion 

1 As the document throws light on the state of the manor six hundred 
years agol annex a copy. — Appendix A. 



President's Address. 



225 



on his estate at Dodington. It seems to me conceivable that the 
shaped stones of a castellated manor house of the 14th century, 
might be worth transporting to such a distance, but that the ruder 
masonry of dilapidated ancient towers could not but be most 
unsuitable. 

On the whole it is a fair inference from the little known about 
Dursley Castle, that it never was a place of such strength as to 
render it of military importance, but rather a somewhat inacess- 
ible retreat, where its lords could take shelter in the midst of their 
dependents in troublous times. 

The Church. 

Instead of affording firmer ground, carries us at once into the 
region of conjecture. ' Mr. Blunt's theory of its British origin 
rests on no foundation whatever. The first thing on record as to 
the ecclesiastical history of the district is, that in the middle of 
the eighth century, not very long after the conversion of the Saxon 
Conquerors of Mercia to Christianity, there existed a monastery 
known as "the family at Berkeley," ^ having inmates of both sexes. 
It perished probably through the attacks of the Danes, but before 
the close of the tenth century, during the reign of Edgar, when 
St. Oswald, the reforming bishop of the diocese, had succeeded in 
enforcing celibacy, a nunnery was established in its stead : to be 
in turn suppressed soon after the accession of Edward the Con- 
fessor. 

From this centre at Berkeley, the gospel had doubtless been 
preached for generations throughout the Lordship, and the saintly 
King seems to have made more liberal provision than ever for the 
purpose, by giving five hides of land to Bernard the Priest, in fee, 
in addition to the small plots in each of the principal villages 
which had been granted to the church " in free alms," probably at 
some antecedent period. Dursley was not one of the villages 
having these " herdacres," as they were called, perhaps from being 
used as pasturage. 

After the Conquest the whole of these lands were vested in 
Boger de Berkeley ^ presumably with the customary obligation of 

1 VVilkins's Concilia, Vol. i. p. 175. 

2 Idem Rogerius tenet terram Bernardi Presbyteri v. hidas. Domesday. 



226 



Transactions at Dursley. 



devoting a sufficient portion of the rental to provide for the 
spiritual welfare of the people. 

The second Roger at any rate recognised this obligation so far 
as to build churches (apparently in concert with the King) in a 
dozen of such villages, which soon became the nuclei of separate 
parishes. Shortly before his death in 1130 he took a further step, 
and conferred several of these churches with their tithes, as well 
as all the lands which had been held by Bernard the chaplain in 
free alms,^ on the prioiy which he founded on his own Manor of 
Stanley St. Leonard's. These donations were confirmed by his 
son, the third Roger, who added others of the churches of 
Berkeley Hernesse, when, in 1146,'^ being a prisoner during the 
Civil war, he constituted that priory a cell to the Abbey of St. 
Peter's, Gloucester. A similar precaution was about the same 
time adopted by Queen Adeliza, Henry the first's widow, who, ever 
anxious for the repose of her late husband's soul, bestowed the 
mother Church of Berkeley itself, with five of those dependent on 
it, which that King had probably joined in erecting, upon Reading- 
Abbey,-^ his burial place. A few years later Robert Fitz Harding, 
on obtaining the Royal Manor, sought to set aside both grants 
and give the whole of its churches to his own Abbey of St. Augus- 
tine's, Bristol.* 

I allude to these facts for the purpose of pointing out that 
in none of the lists is any mention made of a church at Dursley, 
nor, although the Berkeleys added the churches of their own 
manors to the endowments of their priory, does it figure among 
them. 

The inference is plain, that a church did not exist here prior 
to the partition of the Lordship in 1154. 

So far, indeed, as direct evidence goes, I have found no refer- 
ence to Dursley Church until the 1 3th century, the earliest notices 
being on the Assize Rolls of 5th Henry III (1221), where, in two 
cases, criminals are reported to have taken sanctuary therein.^ 

^ Confirmation by Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury. — Dwjdalts 
Monasticon, Vol. iv. p. 470. 

2 Hist, et Cart. Monasterii. S^i Petd, Gloucestrie, Vol. I., p. 113. 

2 Dugdale's Monasticon, Vol. IV., p. 42. 
Dugdale's Monasticon, Vol. IV., p. 42. 

^ Maitland's Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucestf r. 



I ■ 

Pkesident's Addkess. 227 

In all probability, however, Dursley had become a centre of 
considerable ecclesiastical importance at least half a century before 
that date. The controversies which arose between the three 
Abbeys of Gloucester, Reading, and Bristol, in consequence of the 
conflicting grants before alluded to, were after several years 
of litigation settled by an award pronounced by delegates of the 
Apostolical See, between the years 1160 and 1170,i Deeds con- 
nected with the arbitration are contained in the Cartulary of St. 
Augustine's preserved in Berkeley Castle, which it is to be hoped 
will ere long be printed by this Society. They are said by 
Fosbroke to throw much light on the ecclesiastical condition of 
the E-oyal Manor from the conquest until its division into military 
fiefs at the close of Stephen's reign. The old Church of Berkeley 
was, it appears, not so much a parochial as a collegiate establish- 
ment, having attached to it three deans, as they were styled, or 
prebendaries who had prebends varying in annual value from forty 
shillings to sixty shillings, and did duty in the district churches 
or subordinate chapels. These prebends were now finally sup- 
pressed, their deans being pensioned off" by the abbeys ; Walter, 
Dean of Cam, the last of the number receiving twenty shillings a 
year for life ; an arrangement to which Roger, son of Roger de 
Berkeley, appears as a consenting party. ^ 

Henceforth the Deanery of Cam disappears, and we find in 
the earliest reliable Ecclesiastical Returns which are extant, known 
as the taxation of Pope Nicholas in 1291, that Dursley has become 
the seat of one of the eleven rural deaneries of the county, and 
that this deanery includes, not merely its own church and those of 
Cam, of Newington, of Beverston, of Wotton, of Slymbridge, and 
of Coaley, all in Berkeley Hernesse, but the original mother Church 
of Berkeley itself. 

It seems natural to conclude that this arrangement was the 
outcome of the Papal intervention, especially as we find two other 
churches of the Hernesse, which had been confirmed by the award 

» ^ Cartulary of St. Augustine, quoted in Eeport of Commission on Ancient 
MSS., Vol. IV., p. 364 

2 Fosbroke's History of the County of Gloucester, Vol. i. , page 4.38. Also 
Fosbroke's Extracts from Smyth's Lives, p. 49. 



228 



Transactions at Duksley. 



to St. Augustine's, included in the Deanery of Bristol, the remain- 
ing three being in that of Gloucester. 

Whether the Berkeleys parted with the advowson of the 
living of Dursley on that occasion, I know not, but they had 
certainly done so before 1287, as it is not noticed in the Inquisition 
on the death of Henry de Berkeley, though that of St. Leonard's 
is. Apparently it had not then gone to Gloucester Abbey, for it 
was not taxed among its possessions in 1291. Fosbroke, indeed, 
in his History of the City of Gloucester, affirms, on the authority 
of " Prinn's Manuscripts," that " the Rectory of Dursley, before St. 
Peter's Abbey had it, belonged to the Priory of Lanthony," mean- 
ing, it is to be presumed, Lanthony Secunda in that city. It is 
not mentioned, however, either in King J ohn's confirmation of the 
donations to that house, or in the list of churches possessed by it 
in 1291, and the story is otherwise improbable. 

From the taxation of Pope Nicholas the proceeds of the living, 
which amounted to the comparatively small sum of £13 6s. 8d. 
per annum, were divisible equally, it would seem, between the 
Rector of Dursley, and the Archdeacon of Gloucester. Mr. Blunt 
observes vaguely that, " In Mediceval times the Monastic Corpora- 
tion (of St. Peter's) was rector, and served the cure by a vicar or 
a clerical monk acting as curate," but he cites no authority for this. 
In the History and Cartulary of the Abbey, which extends down to 
1412, the Church of Dursley is, strange to say, only once noticed, 
in a list, namely, of Churches belonging to St. Peter's in 1351, and 
its name is there carefully scored through, as if it had been inserted 
by mistake. Probably it was in dispute with the Archdeacons of 
Gloucester, between whom and the abbots a long standing rivalry 
is said to have existed, which was only terminated by a compromise 
in 1475, when Carpenter,^ Bishop of Worcester, arranged that the 
former were to give up their house in Gloucester, and be acknow- 
ledged hereafter in return as ex-officio Rectors of Dursley. 

By whom the church had been rebuilt in the fourteenth century 
does not appear, but the Dursley Berkleys had certainly added a 

^ Blunt says Alcock, but Fosbroke, who says Carpenter, must be right, 
since Bishop Alcock was not translated to Worcester till September, 1476. 



President's Address. 



229 



chantry, as at the Dissolution, the right of their representative, 
Nicholas Wykes, to its endowments was admitted. ^ 

The Borough. 

Fourth^, let us examine the stereotyped assertion of recent writers, 
" That Dursley was one of the five ancient boroughs of Gloucester- 
shire," an assertion which it is my duty, in the cause of truth, to 
prove a modern delusion. 

In Domesday, as already stated, it is spoken of as one of the 
members of the Manor of Berkeley, but the compilers likewise 
apply to it the term " Berewic,^^ derived from the Saxon words, 
Bere — corn, and Wic, a village, clearly denoting its status at that 
date. It may not improbably have become entitled to the usual 
Norman appellation of " Villata " or township, in the succeeding 
century, even before it was made the head of the barony of the 
third Boger de Berkeley ; and after that event it doubtless in- 
creased in wealth and importance, all the more rapidly perhaps 
th'at its Feudal lords were not powerful enough to refuse the con- 
cession of such privileges as its inhabitants might claim. There 
is proof, nevertheless, that it was not incorporated before the first 
year of King Bichard, and so could not be a borough by prescrip- 
tion as asserted. 2 

In these days the test of a borough was, that in legal parlance, 
"it swore for itself " ^ [juravit per se), that is, was represented at 
the County Courts held before the Justices Itinerant, by a jury 
of twelve "legal " men. Now the Assize Bolls of the 5th, 32nd, 
and 53rd Henry III., are still preserved at the Becord Office, and 
we find from them that Dursley never was permitted to do this, 
but always " answered," as the phrase was, through the jurors for 
Berkeley Hundred, of which it is described indeed, on one of these 
Bolls, as being "a liberty," — "accounting for its own fines and 
defaults." An instance of these latter occurs on the Gloucester- 
shire Bipe Boll of 55th Henry III., where the " Yillata de 
Dursley " is said to owe one mark " because it did not come to the 
inquest," that is, I take it, neglected to send three jurors to make 

1 See Ante Vol. VHI., p. 263. 

2 Blunt's Dursley, p. 18. 

^ Maitland's Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester. 



230 



Transactions at Ditrsley. 



up, with a similar number from three adjacent townships, a petty 
jury to hold some enquiry which the justices had ordered. The 
same entry is repeated on the Pipe Rolls of 56th Henry III., and 
of 1st, 2nd and 3rd Edward I., showing that Dursley was still 
only accounted a Villata, nor had it attained the rank of a 
" Burgus " in the 4th year of that King, when the Hundred Rolls 
were compiled, — Bristol, Gloucester, Berkeley, Campden, Newn- 
ham, and Stowe being the only boroughs in respect to the franchises 
of which inquisitions on oath were taken. ^ 

Whence, then, can the belief have arisen that in the 9th Ed. I., 
Dursley was returned by the Sheriff of Gloucestershire as one of 
the jive ancient boroughs of that county % 

The statement will be found to have originated with Rudder 
about a hundred years ago, and as no such Return exists for 9th 
Edward I., there can be very little doubt that he meant to refer 
to the Sheriff's Return of 9th Edward II., but made a mistake in 
the numeral. 2 

The latter document, commonly known as the Nomina Villa- 
rum^^ contains a list of the names of the cities, boroughs, and 
townships in each county, made in pursuance of an Act passed 
at the Parliament of Lincoln in that year, after the defeat of 
Bannockburn, requiring their respective lords to furnish men-at- 
arms for the Scottish War. 

In the Return for the County of Gloucester, five boroughs 
happen to be named, Bristol, Gloucester, Newnham, Berkeley and 
Dursley ; Campden and Stowe on this occasion being classed as 
Vills only, possibly, considering the object in view, with the full 
assent of their lords. None of the number, however, are desig- 
nated ancient, an epithet evolved from Rudder's imagination, and 
which has misled those who followed him. The entry sets forth, 
simply, that " in the Hundred of Berkeley there are two boroughs, 
the Borough of Berkeley, and Thomas de Berkeley is lord of the 

^ Kot. Hundredorum, published by Record Commission, Vol. I. 

- Fosbroke explains that the only copy of this Return then known 
(Harleian MSS. No. 1429) does not specify which of the^se two Kings it was, 
and that the point was in dispute. He cites it himself in his history, in 
some cases, as being of the first, in otliers of the second, Edward. 

^ Record Commission Publications. 



President's Address. 



231 



same borough; and the Borough of Dursley, and John, son of 
William de Berkeley is lord of the same borough." 

How, in the course of the forty years that had elapsed since 
the compilation of the Hundred Rolls, Dursley had thus attained 
the title of borough, there is nothing ;feo show. Its inhabitants 
had, we know, enjoyed certain burgess rights during the greater 
part of the period, since in the extent of 1287 they are set down 
as paying 77s. a year in respect thereof. This amount seems 
trifling according to the present value of money, but it would 
represent payments from as many burgages, reckoning at Is. 
apiece, which was the rate fixed by E-obert, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, in a charter to the latter city in the twefth century. 

Possibly the recognition of Dursley as a borough, by the 
Comitatus, may have been unduly retarded through the jealousy 
of the Barons of Berkeley, and have followed almost as a matter 
of course, as soon as they had expressly renounced all claim to 
free warren in the Vill, as they did before the Commission which 
sat at Gloucester in 15th Edward I., in pursuance of the statue of 
Quo Warranto.^ 

WOODMANCOTE. 

Another cause may have placed obstacles in the way of the muni- 
cipal development of Dursley, the rival pretensions, namely, of 
its suburb of Woodmancote, which constituted a separate manor 
of greater annual value, and containing apparently many more 
freemen than Dursley proper about this period, as we learn from 
the inquisition on the death of Thomas, son of Otto, one of its 
lords, in 1274.2 

A good deal of needless bewilderment has been expressed as to 
the origin of this second manor, which Smyth conjectures to have 
been a special possession of the Nuns, for the singularly weak 
reason that it is not mentioned in Domesday. Everything, how- 
ever, tends to show that it consisted of a portion of the lands of 
Dursley, kept back by Robert Fitz Harding, for the purpose, no 

1 Placita de quo Warranto. — Record Commission Vol. I. 

^ Inq. p. m. 2nd Edward I., No. 12. It contained two carucates, and was 
worth, with £7 7s. from freemen, £25 18s. lO^d. per annum. Dursley was 
only worth £11 10s. 6d. 



232 



Trans ACTioxs at Dijrsley. 



doubt, of retaining in his own hands the right of hunting in the 
adjacent forest, of which the " woodman " was the official keeper. 

We know from the double marriage contract that he only 
restored to Roger de Berkeley (III.) land at Dursley, worth ten 
pounds ten shillings a year.i It is not even described as "the 
Manor of Dursley," although that word is used in the deed with 
regard to other lands. That it was not the whole of Dursley is 
clear, for that contained three hides at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, whereas this E,oger certifies in his Heturn to the King in 
1166 that he holds one hide in Dursley ; a fact corroborated by 
the extent of 1287. 

What, then, can have become of the two hides missing, unless 
they were abstracted in 1154 as above suggested, and formed into 
the Manor of Woodmancote, which contained just that number of 
carucates. 

Nor is evidence wanting to confirm this inference. We find 
Kobert Lord Berkeley — Fitz Harding's grandson- — ^granting right 
of Multure in his Yillenage of Woodmancote to St. Peter's Abbey, 
Gloucester, 2 in the reign of King John. Whilst a little later on, 
Maurice de Gaunt, another grandson, when granting certain rents 
in the Manor of Dursley to the Nuns of Clerk enwell,^ states that 
he retains in his own hands the wood which he had there, and the 
keejjership of the said wood, in other words, the office of woodman. 
He tells us further that he had purchased the rents in question 
from Margaret, his aunt, widow of Otho, and there is other 
evidence to show that this Otho, had held lands there by military 
tenure from the Barony of Berkeley. On the Close Rolls of 18th 
John there is a writ from that King ordering the constable of 
Berkeley to give seisin to Nicholas de Yoland of the land of Wood- 
mancote and Dursley, which belonged to Margaret, daughter of 
Otho, just as he had it before Robert de Berkeley disseised him 
thereof.* The two Margarets were apparently mother and daughter, 

1 " Decern libratas et decern solidatas terrre apnd Dursley." Hundred of 
Berkeley, p. 325. 

" Hist, et Cartulary St. Petri, Gloucestrise. 

^ Dugdale's Monasticon Vol. IV., p. 84, sub Clerkenwell. 

^ Blunt's Dursley, p. 32. 



President's Address. 



23S 



and as the former is described by Maurice de Gaunt as his aunt, 
and we know that she could not possibly have been the sister of 
his mother, Alice de Gaunt, the heiress from whom he derived his 
surname and his consequence, it seems to follow necessarily that 
she must have been the sister of his father, ^ Robert de Weare, and 
daughter therefore of Robert Fitz Harding himself, from whom 
she doubtless received Woodmancote as a marriage portion. 

Before proceeding to enquire who Otho, her husband, was, it 
may be as well to state that no further trace is to be found in the 
Registry of the Priory of St. Mary's, Clerkenwell, of the connec- 
tion of its Nuns with Dursley. It is difficult, however, to refrain 
from a surmise that the Prioress of Dursley alluded to in the 
inquisition on the death of Thomas Lord Berkeley in 1417, was 
in some way connected with Maurice de Gaunt's Endowment. The 
matter deserves further investigation, especially as Smyth states, 
that even in his day there was a place in Dursley known as " The 
Nunnery." 

The Otto Family. 

Smyth confines himself to indicating, in his somewhat confused 
account of Woodmancote,^ that the progenitor of this family in 
England was contemporary with the Conqueror, but in the " Gilda 
Aurifabrorum," (an excellent monograph as to the Goldsmith's 
Company recently published) it is specifically stated that Otto 
" Aurifaber " was a tenant in capite in Essex, at the time of the 
Survey, and that his descendants, who adopted the surname of 
Fitz Otto, continued to be almost hereditary masters of the mint 
for two centuries. These statements are rather misleading : Otto, 
the goldsmith, from his name probably a Lombard who may have 

1 Matertera— the word used in Maurice de Gaunt's grant— means, of 
course in strictness, — maternal aunt, but Ducange points out that it came to 
be used rather indiscriminately (sed aliquando Matertera sumitur improprie 
pro patris sorore,) until superseded by Amita, from which the modern Aunt is 
derived. In like manner Patrmis, a Paternal Uncle, after being loosely 
applied to a Mother's Brother, gave way to Avunculm the origin of Uncle. 

- Hundred of Berkeley, p. 387. 
They held by Serjeantcy the office of Master of the Royal Mints of 
London and Canterbury (Magistratus Cusorum Nostror, Londiui et Cantuar.) 
Close Roll, 8th Edw. I. m. 11. 

Vol. XL R 



234 



Transactions at Ditrsley. 



accompanied the Queen from Flanders, is merely named in Domes- 
day among " Invaders of the King's rights," ^ having three houses 
at Barking, on land conferred on Matilda for which he paid no 
rates ; whilst Fitz Otto was not adopted as a surname, or rather 
sire-name, by his immediate descendants, who, down to a late 
period, were distinguished as " Otto, son of William," or " William, 
son of Otto," as the case might be.^ The former was, in fact, the 
full appellation of the first of the family who acquired a footing 
in Gloucestershire by marrying, as I imagine, Robert Fitz Harding's 
daughter, in the reign of Henry II. There is nothing improbable 
in such a match between the daughter of one of the richest capital- 
ists of that day, and the son of the King's goldsmith, a man of so 
much consideration as to be permitted later on to purchase the 
Shrievalty of Essex and Hertfordshire, as we learn from the Pipe 
Roll of 3rd Richard 1. 

This Otto was dead before 9th Richard I. (1198), for on the 
Essex Pipe Roll of that year "William, son of Otto," appears as 
paying the balance of 100 marks which his father owed for having 
the Shrievalty. William in turn died before 1220, when another 
" Otto, son of William," is named on the Gloucestershire Assize 
Roll of 5th Henry III., as " pledge," together with Adam, the 
prepositus of the Yillata of Woodmancote, for an offender belong- 
ing to that township. 

As he is styled "Dominus Otto filius Willielmi " when witness 
to grants made by Thomas (I.) Lord Berkeley about the same date,^ 
he was evidently of knightly degree. " William, son of Otto," his 
successor, was goldsmith to Henry III., during the greater part 
of his long reign, which indicates that he was a very skilful crafts- 
man, that monarch's taste in all branches of art never having been 
disputed. 

On this William's death, according to Smyth, " Thomas, son of 
Otto," succeeded to Woodmancote,"* but in the List of Masters of 

1 " Invasiones Super Regem "- '* Otto Aurifaber III., dom'^ (j[ue jacent etc 
et reddebant consuetudinem Regi, et. nunc non reddunt— et hac est terra 
reghiEe. 

^ Vide Appendix B. 

8 Smyth's Hundred of Berkeley, pp. 182-183. 
* Hundred of Berkeley, p. 387. 



President's Address. 



235 



the Mint, given in the Gilda Aurifabroriim, " Edmund son of Otto " 
precedes him, Thomas following in 1265. 

It seems not improbable, however, that as the fortunes of this 
interesting family had by this time so greatly prospered that its 
head held manors in five different coui^ties,^ the Mastership of 
the Mint may have passed to a junior branch, which would explain 
the fact that although the same christian names occur, the lives 
of their bearers cannot be made to synchronise. This branch, 
which apparently bore the fixed surname of Fitz Otto, became 
extinct not long after the failure of the main line. 

To return to Woodmancote, the successor of " William son of 
Otto," Henry the third's goldsmith, in that estate, was, I conjecture, 
in reality the " Odo son of William," against whom, in conjunction 
with Thomas de Berkeley, probably his overlord there, a writ of 
disseisin was brought by Jordan de Newenton in 53rd Hen III., 
as noted on the Gloucestershire Assize Rolls of that date. Thomas 
son of Otto " mentioned by Smyth, presumably his son, died, as 
we know from his writ of "diem clausit extremum " in 1274, 
six years later, leaving by his wife Beatrice, dau. of William de 
Beauchamp, lord of Bedford, a son named Otto, only nine years old, 
and three daughters. The son did not live to come of age, and 
Matilda, the second daughter, eventually succeeded to Woodman- 
cote in 1282, and having married John Botetourte joined him in 
settling it in 14th Edw. II. (1320) upon their son John, whom fail- 
ing, on her own right heirs. Two years later, however, this son 
being presumably dead, they sold the manor at York for one 
hundred silver marks to Robert de Swynburne.'* 

This intermediate tenancy of John Botetourte and his wife 
escaped the notice of Smyth, who gives no explanation of the way 
in which Woodmancote passed from the infant heir male of the 
Ottos to the Swynburns. The oversight is the more strange because 
a pedigree of Botetourte is given in the " Lives " to shew how 

1 In Essex, Huntingdon, Bedfordshire, Worcestershire and Grloucester- 
shire.— Inq. p.m. 2nd Edw. I. n. 51 and 62. 

- William Fitz Otto is given as Master of the Mint in 1294. 
^ Gloueester shire Feet of Fines, 14th Edw. II. No. 
^ Gloucestershire Fines, 16th Edw. II. No. 2f 3. 

R 2 ' 



^36 



Transactions at Dursley. 



that Barony came in 8th Hen. IV. to the Berkeleys of Uley, from 
whom it went to the present holders the Dukes of Beaufort. The 
connection of the first baron with Woodmancote serves to explain 
why he purchased the wardship of J ohn de Berkeley, of Durseley, 
in 29th Edw. I. from that king. 

Robert de Swynburne, who was of the old Northumbrian 
family of that name, died in 19th Edward II., ^ leaving Wood- 
mancote to his son Thomas, who in the following year settled it 
on Robert de Swynburne (ii) (most likely a younger brother) and 
his heirs male,^ but despite this last proviso it was possessed after 
his death by his daughter Margaret. This probably caused the 
disputes which ensued upon her decease in 16th Edw. III., when 
Warine fitz Warine " crept into the possession thereof," to use 
Smyth's phrase, but was compelled after five years litigation, to 
join with Thomas his brother, and Katharine their sister, in re- 
leasing all their interest to a third Robert de Swynburne, the 
rightful male heir it may be presumed of the elder House, — who, 
preferring to reside on his ancestral possessions in the north, sold 
Woodmancote to its overlord Thomas Lord Berkeley in 25th 
Edward III. 

The latter at once entailed it, along with Beverston and many 
other manors which he had purchased, on his second wife, and her 
infant sons in succession, and under this entail Sir J ohn Berkeley, 
of Beverston, inherited on his mother's death in 9th Richard II. 

His posterity retained Woodmancote nearly two hundred 
years, selling it in 9th Elizabeth, at about the same time, strange 
to say, that Dursley itself was for the first time since the Conquest 
alienated. 

The circumstance of these two adjacent manors in Dursley 
being both possessed for a time by families of the name of Berkeley, 
has occasioned much confusion in County Histories, as may be 
seen by the way in which Sir Robert Atkyns mixes up their 
records ; and he has been as usual blindly folloAved by later 
writers. 

1 Inq. p. mort. 19th Edw. II. No. 81. 
Gloucestershire Fines, 1st E(lvv\ III, No. 4. 



Peesident'.s Addkess. 



•237 



Conclusion. 

The lesson to be drawn from what 1 have said amounts to this, 
that the field of local antiquariaiif research has been by no means 
yet exhausted, but tliat on the contrary ample work still remains 
to be done by such associations as the Brj^stol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society, not so much perhaps through occasional 
meetings or brief visits to particular places, as by systematic study 
and careful enquiry on the part of individual members resident 
on the spot. 

I trust for instance that the proofs adduced of our own com- 
parative ignorance of the early history of this town may stimulate 
some of its inhabitants to further investigation. It is by no means 
improbable that materials for elucidating some of the doubtful 
points on which I have touched could still be discovered. Is it 
certain for example that the Court Rolls of the Manor of Dursley 
have perished 1 That manor has for upwards of three hundred 
years remained in the possession of the collateral heirs of Sir 
Thomas Escourt, an eminent lawyer of ancient Gloucestershire 
lineage, who purchased it in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Was 
not such a man as that sure to obtain from his predecessors, 
the Wykes, all docuQients connected with the manorial rights, and 
may not these Holls, or others equally interesting, be preserved in 
the repositories of the Escourt family, and yet be forthcoming in 
response to the appeal recently addressed by the Society of 
Antiquaries, as referred to in the Report of the Council. It is 
hoped that all w^ho may chance to be the possessors of such 
stores of mediaeval information will entrust them to the care of 
the Librarian of this Society on the conditions mentioned. 

Appendix A. 

Gloucestr 

Extenta Maneriorum de Deresl et Newenton que fuerunt 
dmni Henr de Berkeleye defuncti facta ibidem die dominico in 
fesfco Sc*® Margarete Virginis, Anno regni regis E. xv p sacram 
xij proborum et legalium hominum de visneto de Derset et 
Newenton — videlicet p Walterum Passelewe, Nicholaum de New- 
enton, Robertum de Herseleye, Johannem de Kyneleye, Maui" 
de Camme, Nich^^ Oset, Will™ de Bernewode, Tho™ Werney, 



238 



Transactions at Dursley. 



Will"^ de Symondeshal, Ric^^ Palmer, Nich"^ Gillewethar, et 
Tho"^ Trend. Qui dicunt sup sacr sua qd dictus Henf tenuit 
^da Maneria de Derest et Newenton et Stan! eye de dn*^ Rege in 
Oapite p duobus feod militum. 

Dersel. dicunt qd Sit^ Man" cu fructu et herbigio gardinii de 
Derest valet p ami. xiii^ iiij*^ — est unm Columbarium qd valet 
iij^ It sunt in dnico cxv acr ter^ arabi p aca v^ Summa 
xlvii^ xi**. It vj acr prati p. acr xviii<^ sum* ix^ It pastura 
que valet p an iij^ vi^. It fulboscus valet p an. sine vasto 
vis viij^. ------- Summa iiij'^ iii^ vi^. 

Item est ibid de redd liberorum et burgensium ad iiij anni 
terminos Ixxvij^ ob - - - - - Summa Ixxvij^ ob. 

Castrum. It sunt ibid ij dim virgatar et quarta pars unius 
virgate ter^*^ dantes ad auxilium ad festu Sc^ Mich^ iij^ ix^. It 
debent a festo S''^ Mich^ usq. gula Augusti ^ dxxxiij opa manualia 
p. op^^ one ob. ----- - Summa xij^ ii'* 

Allocate eisd^ Sept et diebus ferialibus. 

It™ debent p tempus predictum xli aruras p arare iii'^ s. x^ iii**. 

XX 

It debent a festo gule Augusti usque festu S" Mich^ viij viij 
opa manualia p op^ 1'^ q^ sum xvii^ vi^. - Summa liij^ viii*^ o'^ 
It°^ pita et perquisita valent per anri xiij^ iiij^ Tol sc' Merc^ ii^ 

Summa xv^ iiij^ 

Item dicunt qd Wills fil et heres dicti Heni^ erit p viij dies 
ante festu Omnium Sanct' Anno r. r E xv a3tat^ ^^iij annoi^. 
Summa Valorum tocius Manerii - xi^^ ix^ vi^ 

Newenton qd fuit dicti Heni^ extenta p pdt°^ Jui^ die suprdict. 
Et dicunt qd mes cu gardino valet p annum vi^ etcetera. In 
cujus rei testimoii present] cedule sigill sua app'. 

Summa valorum ejusd Manerii - . iiij'^ xviii^ vij'^ ob' 

Extenta Man" de Stanleye S'ci Leonardi facta ibid die Sab' 
prox'^ ante festu Sc^'^ Mar^ Magdal*^ an. r. r Edwardi xv p sacr xij 
proboi^ et legal hominum de Visneto de Stanleye videlicet p Ric"' 
de Halvey, Joh'" de Stonliouse, Nich. le Archer, tfec, &c. Qui 

^ Gula August! is the feast St, Peter ad vincula held on 1st August. — 
Bond's Handi/ Book, Edti. 1SG9.— Ed, 

i 



President's Address. 



239 



dicunt sup sacr sua qd Henr de Berkeleye tenuit pdm Man^ 
de Dno Rege in Capite sicut quarta pars unius feod. militis 
tenend — et ptinet ad Baroniam de Derest in eod Comitu. 

Et dicunt qd capitale mes, cu gardino adjacente valet p ann. 

vis yii^d QQj^a. Qj^ (jQ^a 

Summa valor totius Man" - - xi^^ iij® (f 
Appendix A — Translation. 

Gloitcester shire. 

Extent of the Manors of Dursley and Newington, which were 
Sir Henry Berkeley's, deceased, made at the (former) place on 
Sunday, the Feast of St. Margaret Virgin (20th July), in the 
fifteenth year of the reign of King Edward, on the oaths of 
twelve good and legal men of the vicinity of Dursley and 
Newington, namely, by Walter Passelwe, Nicholas of Newington, 
Robert of Horseley, John of Kinley, Maurice of Cam, Nicholas 
Oset,^ William of Barnwood, Thomas Warney, William of 
Simondshale, Richard Palmer, Nicholas Gilleweathers, and 
Thomas Friend, who say upon their oaths that the said Henry 
held the said Manors of Dursley and Newington and Stanley 
of the Lord the King in Chief as two Knights' Fees, 

Dursley, and they say that the site of the Manor, with the 
fruit and herbage of the garden of Dursley, is of the value of 
13s. 4d. There is a dovecote worth 3s. Also there are in 
demesne 115 acres of arable land at 5d. per acre ; total 47s. lid. 
Also six acres of meadow at 18d. per acre, 9s. Also pasture 
of the value of 3s. 6d.- a year. Also underwood worth, without 
impeachment of waste, 6s. 8d. a year, 

Sum total (of demesne) _ _ _ £4 3 6^ 

Also there is from rents of Freemen and Burgesses, at the 
four terms of the year, 77s. O^d, ; total £3 17s. 0|d. 

The Gastle. Also there are there two half virgates and one 
quarter virgate of land, giving as an Aid at Michaelmas, 3s. 9d. 
Also they owe between Michaelmas and the opening of August, 

1 Probably Osleworth. - The figures gis^en show this to be 5d. 



240 



Transactions at Dursley. 



533 days manual labour for the works, at ^d. a day. Sum 
total, 22s. 2dJ. (allowed to the same Holy week and holidays). 
Also they owe during the period aforesaid 4i ploughings, value 
per ploughing, 3d. ; total 10s, 3d, Also they owe from thfe Feast 
of the opening of August up to Michaelmas, 8 score and 8 days 
manual labour for the works, at l^d. ; total 17s. 6d, 

Sum total (for Castle) - - - £2 13 8 

Also the Pleas and Perquisites are worth 13s. 4d, a year; 
and the Market Toll, 2s, ; total, 15s. 4d. 

Also they say that William, son and heir of the said Henry, 
will be 18 years of age on the 8th day before the Feast of 
All Saints, in the 15th year of King Edward. 

Total of the values of the entire Manor £119 6 

Newington was valued by the same Jurors on the same day 
at £4 18s, 7Jd, 

Stanley St. Leonard's, by another Jury, at a different date, 
at £11 4s, OJd., and is declared to pertain to the Barony of 
Dursley. 



1086. ^ Otto the Goldsmith held three house of Queen Matilda. 
1090. 2 Otto the elder, Goldsmith to William II. 
1101-7 3 Otto the young received from Henry I, grant of his 
father's office, 

1124-6 ^ Otto the Goldsmith received grant from Henry T, of the 
land of Benflet, 

1130 ^ William, son of Otto the Goldsmith, engraver to the 



^ Edward, son of Otto the Goldsmith, Heirs of Otto the 
Goldsmith, 

1162 7 William, son of Otto. Writ from Henry II. for 10s. 
1175 ^ William the Goldsmith, renders account to Sheriff. 



Appendix B. — The Otto Family. 



mint. 



1 Domesday, Vol. II. 106^ 
3 Rymer's Fcedera, p, 2, 

Gilda Aurifabrorum. 
' Pipe Holl, 8 Hen. If. London. 



^ Rymer's Fcedera, p. 3, 
6 Ibid, p, 40. 

? Pipe Roll, 21 Hen. II. Somerset, 



Gilda Aurifabrorum. 



i 



President's Address. 



241 



1190 1 Otto,^ son of William, purchased from Richard 1. Shrie- 
valty of Essex and Herts. 

1193 2 Otto, son of William, renders account of £4: for a fee 
held of Robert de Setvans. 

1198 3 William, son of Otto, owes £^3 5s. for his father's debt 
of the 100 marks for Shrievalty. 

1203 4 William, son of Otto, owes £23 and one mark for fine of 

his lands. 

1204 ^ William, son of Otto, accounts for five marks for a Fee 

of the Honour of Gloucester. 

1205 ^ William, son of Otto, Goldsmith and Engraver of the 

Mint in 6th John. 
1220 Otto, son of William. Pledge for offender in Woodman- 
cote. 

1220 ^ Otto, son of William. Witness with Henry de Berkeley 

to grant by Thomas Lord Berkeley. 
1243 ^ William, son of Otto, goldsmith to Henry III. 

1268 10 Otto, son of William, defendant with Thos. de Berkeley 
in a suit. 

1274 11 Thomas, son of William, died seized of Woodmancote 

and other manors. 
1282 12 Otto, aged nine on his father's death — dies and is sue- 

ceeded by three daughters of Thomas. 
1319 1^ Matilda (2nd dau.), and her husband John de Botetourte 

settle Woodmancote. 
1321 Matilda and John de Botetourte sell Woodmancote to 



Note. (») This Otto is the one who married Margaret, with whom he got 
Woodmancote. 



Robert de Swynburn. 



I Ibid. 1 Rich I. Essex. 
3 Ibid. 9 Rich. I. Essex. 
5 Ibid. 5 John. 

7 Assize Roll, 5 Hen. III. 
^ Gilda Aurifabrorum. 

II Escheat, 2 Edw. I. No. 12. 
Pedes Fin. Glouc, 14 Edw, II, 



8 Smyth. 

10 Assize Roll, 53 Hen. III. 
12 Escheat, 10 Edw. I. No. 19. 
" Ibid. 16 Edw. II. 



2 Ibid. 4 Rich. I. Essex. 
^ Ibid. 4 John, Essex. 
^ Gilda Aurifabrorum. 



242 



Transactions at Duksley. 



According to the Gilda Aurifabroritm, William, son of Otto, 
goldsmith to Hen III., was succeeded as Engraver and Master of 
the Mint, not by Otto, but by Edmund, son of Otto (or Fitz Otto). 
In 

1265 Thomas Fitz Otto held those offices. 
1280 iHugh Fitz Otto do. 
1290 Thomas Fitz Otto do. 
1294 William Fitz Otto do. 

The hereditary succession terminating with the last about the 
year 1300, when the family became extinct. 

It is obvious that this line was distinct from that of the Lords 
of Woodmancote, the last of whom, Thomas, died in 1274. 

I conjecture that Edmund was a younger son of William the 
Goldsmith of Henry III., and that the office of Master of the 
Mint was created in his favour. 

Hugh, son of Otto, was one of the witnesses to the charter by 
which King Edward I. in the 3rd year of his reign (1275) freed 
the citizens of Bath of toll," and he died in the 11th of Edw. I. 
seised of lands in Essex and Suffolk. 

1 Brother of Thomas, appointed after his brother's death in consequence 
of the infancy of Otto, his nephew. — Close Roll, 8th Edw. I. m. 11. 
- Municipal Records of Bath, Appendix II. 



Plate IT 





Tanner's CnArEL. 



243 



NOTES ON TANNER'S CHAPEL 1^ DURSLEY CHURCH. 

By sir JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

Being unable, through indisposition, to take part in the excursion 
on Wednesday, 4th August, we embraced the opportunity to make 
a careful examination of the chapel called " Tanner's Chapel." We 
say " called," because in the Chantry Certificates, 2nd Ed.VI. it is 
described as Trynyte Service, and stated to have been " Founded 
by dyuerce psons nott Knowen." This was not more than about 
sixty years after the chapel was built. From this it would seem 
that no tradition as to the founder existed in Feb. 1547-8. Never- 
theless, the fact that on one of the merlons of the parapet, on a 
shield, within a quartrefoil, appears, a text ^ pierced by a cross- 
crosslet fitche, in the form of a merchant's mark, would seem to 
indica^te that some person of whose surname this was the initial 
letter, was one of the chief founders ; and it is very probable that 
it was Thomas Tanner. But then this difficulty arises. The 
tradition which assigns it to him states that he died in the reign 
of Henry YL, whilst the chapel was certainly not erected until 
after, and probably some years after, the accession of Henry YIL, 
for on two of the merlons of the parapet the Tudor rose appears, 
and the details of the architecture are late third pointed, though 
good for the period. The gurgoils are very fine {See Plate XI.). 
There is no evidence that the cadaverous effigy attributed to 
Thomas Tanner, now in the chapel, but not in situ, is correctly 
assigned to him, though, supposing him to have been one of the 
founders, it may represent him. Mr. Blunt states that this effigy 
formerly lay on a table tomb, surmounted by a canopy of four 
arches, which were used as memorials in the 15th and earlier half 
of the 1 6th century. It is now headless. It was probably removed 
irom some other part of the church. There is a similar effigy at 
Westbury-on-Trym of John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, who 
died in 1443. 



244 



Tka.nsactio.ns at Duksley. 



The most curious part of this case, however, is that though 
the chapel was not built earlier than towards the end of the 15th 
century, the carved corbels which support the roof are of the 
first pointed period, and can scarcely be later than 1325, and may 
be attributed to the last quarter of the 13th century. There are 
some carved heads in some respects very closely resembling them 
on the north side of the chancel arch of the Church of Cogenhoe, 
county Northants, in work certainly of the 1 3th century, for the 
portion of the church where these heads exist was doubtless built 
by Sir Nicholas de Cogenhoe, who died in 1280 (^See Plate XII ) 
The Dursley corbels therefore afford evidence that a much earlier 
church than the present building existed here, of which almost 
all traces have perished, though Mr. Pope detects indications of 
first pointed work in the piers. In the various alterations of the 
church which occurred in mediaeval times, these corbels, which 
probably supported the roof of the chancel, were cast aside, per- 
haps when the second-pointed chancel was built, and the founders 
of the Chapel of the Holy Trinity utilised them in that structure. 
This chapel consists of two bays, and is 26 ft- long by 13 ft. wide. 

The incumbent of Trynity Service, when the property of the 
chantries was seized, was one Sir John Coderyngton, of the age 
of 80 years, and having no other^ living than in the said service, 
which amounted to £6 13s. 4d. The altar plate, &c., seized 
weighed 17 ozs,, and was valued at 70s. lOd. = 4s. 2d. per oz. On 
the roll is the following : — M'^ that parcel of the possessions 
appertaining to the abovesaid Service of the Trynity, being of the 
yearly value of 40s. is claimed by one William Austen, alias 
Kerner, who brought before us a deed indented of bargain and sale, 
dated the last of Sept. in the 6th year of the reign of our late 
sovereign lord King Henry VIII., wherein it appeared that one 
William Austen, alias Kerner, father to the said William, bought 
the premises of one Morice Gilmyii, gent., and Henry, his son and 
heir apparent, for the sum of £60, by him to them paid, and the 
said deed by them both under their seals to him delivered, by 
virtue whereof tne said Kerner now clainjeth the same. The 
parishioners had no evidence to show, nor could declare unto us, 
how the same land came first to the use of the said Service. 



i 



Tanner's Chapel. 



245 



The incumbent of the Chantry of Our Lady M^as one Richard 
Bevye, aged 58 years, having a yearly stipend of 58s., also in the 
free Chapel of Tokyngton, in the parish of Olveston, of which 
Sir William Berkeley, Knt., was patron. The stipend here was 
£6 13s. 4d. 



246 



Transactions at Dursley. 



ANCIENT 

CHURCH EMBROIDERY IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
By MARY ELLEN BAGJVALL-OAKELEY. 
From the very earliest ages embroidery, or needlework has been 
used for decorative purposes, and more especially as suited to 
adorn the House of God, or to beautify the vestments of His 
ministers. When the Almighty gave to Moses a minute description 
of the manner in which he was to erect the tabernacle, we find 
this order, " Thou shalt make the Tabernacle with ten curtains of 
fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet : with cheru- 
bims of cunning work shalt thou make them."^ And again, " Thou 
shalt make a hanging for the door of the tent . . . wrought with 
needlework."^ And in that magnificent allegorical description 
of the majesty and graces of Christ's Church in the xlv. Psalm, 
we read : " The King's daughter is all glorious within : her cloth- 
ing is of wrought gold. She shall be brought unto the King 
in raiment of needlework." With these, and other passages of the 
Bible before them, it is no wonder that the workers of the early, 
and middle ages spent so much of their time on Church em- 
broidery ; no wonder, that moved by the purest zeal for Christ's 
Church on earth, and aided by the offerings of the wealthy, they 
produced such marvellous combinations of design and colour as 
have never been surpassed by the embroiderers of any age. Though 
some very fine vestments are known to have been the work of 
monks f most of the magnificent needlework of the middle ages 
was executed by women, and shut up as they were within the mas- 
sive walls of a castle, or immured in the narrow cell of a convent, 
embroidery must have been to them a never ceasing occupation, 
amusement, and solace. Secluded from the noisy and tumultuous 
1 Ex. xxvi. , V. i. - V. 36. 

3 Abbot Wygniore, 14th century, was a proficient embroiderer, and the 
brethren at Woolsthorpe, in the 16th century, wrought most excellent 
needlework, p. 66. 



i 



AxciENT Church Embroidery. 247 

world around them, the abbess^ and her nuns spent many hours of 
the day in silence and solitude, poring over the tissues of gold and 
silver, the velvets and silks of costly stuff; and while they made 
each fabric resplendent with gold and embroidery, they en- 
deavoured to bring before the mind^. of the beholders the 
mysteries of the Faith to which they themselves so fondly clung. 
!N'or was it to the recluse only a source of pleasure, or an aid in 
devotion : the more refined and educated amongst the women 
whose lives were passed in the dreary fortresses of the middle ages 
must have turned to their embroidery frames for relaxation 
and relief, and either occupied themselves in working offerings 
for some favourite shrine, or in depicting upon canvass the heroic 
deeds of their absent lords. The most celebrated piece of needle- 
work of the latter kind is the Bayeux tapestry, which, though not 
mentioned till 1369, is supposed to have been worked by Matilda 
the wife of William of Normandy, and her companions, as a record 
of his victory over the Saxon Harold ; and though very rude in 
execution, it has preserved the dresses, the weapons, and indeed 
all the details of the great struggle for the crown of England. ^ 

"We may conclude that this Norman lady, who spent so many 
hours in depicting the prowess of her absent lord, was also a great 
Church embroideress, for one of the earliest historical allusions to 
this subject is made by Ordericus Yitalis, who, though of Saxon 
parentage, was educated in Normandy. He mentions that " Queen 
Matilda placed upon the altar of the church at St. Evroult a rich 
mitre and cope for divine service, and £100 of Rouen currency to 
build the refectory." ^ She further gave to St. Evroult a chasuble 
enriched with gold and jewels, and an elegant cope for the 
chanter, and promised other offerings if she lived, but her death 

1 We know that an abbess did not disdain to embroider, for when 
Robert, Abbot of St. Alban's, visited Pope Adrian IV., he made him a 
present of three mitres and a pair of sandals of admirable work, which were 
embroidered by Christina, Abbess of Markgate. — Countess of Wilton in Art 
of Needlcioork. 

^ It has amongst the figures one representing Stigand, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in full eucharistic vestments, and it is interesting to notice the 
Norman form of the chasuble, which is short and very stiff, and so differs 
from the Anglo-Saxon vestment, which is soft and flowing, as can be seen on 
Alfred's work. 

Ordericus, Vol. I., p. 468. 



248 Transactions at Dciislew 

prevented her fulfilling it.^ At her death, she left by will to the 
Abbey of the Holy Trinity, which she had founded at Caen " a 
chesible worked at Winchester by the wife of Aldaret, and a 
cloak worked in gold, made for a cope, and another vestment 
wrought in England." ^ 

So early as the 6th century there was a school of embroidery 
in England. An Anglo-Saxon lady named ^delswitha, living at 
Whitby, collected a number of young girls, and taught them the 
mysteries of the art, and many admirable embroideries were 
executed by them for the benefit of St. Hilda's Abbey at Whitby ^ 
Probably there were many other workers even at this early date ; 
for by the 7th century the women of England had attained to 
great perfection in needlework, and a few years later were con- 
sidered to surpass all others in this art. There are still preserved 
at Durham a very ancient stole, and a maniple of woven material, 
with places for the embroidered portions, these are most ex- 
quisitely worked in opus anglicum in separate pieces, and then 
sewn into their places; they were found on the body of St. 
Cuthbert when his tomb was opened in 1827, and are described 
and beautifully illustrated by Raine. They were worked in the 
10th century by the Saxon Queen, ^Iflsed, wife of Edward 
the Elder. On the reverses of the ends of both the stole and the 
maniple are worked the following legends : 

^LFFL^D FIERI PREEEPIT 
and PIO EPISEOPO FRIDESTANO. 

When William 1. returned to Normandy, after his conquest 
of England, we are told that he had infinite pleasure in displaying 
to Matilda, and to his courtiers the costly stuffs, and spoils he had 
brought from that country. Chief among these were the rich 
embroidered garments wrought by the skilful hands of the Anglo- 
Saxon ladies. Even then they were called by distinction, Opus 
Anglicum," and were inestimably precious all over Europe.'* 

It was this Opus Anglicum, or Broderie Anglaise, which became 
the glory of English embroiderers ; it was English in design and 
execution, and in such estimation was it held, that John, Bishop 
of Marseilles, in his testament, 1345, made a special bequest to 

1 Ordericus, Vol. II., p. 259. 
This testament is printed in extenso in Arch. Journal, Vol. IV., p. 292. 

'■' Rock's Church of oar Fathers, page 273. William of Poitou. 



Ancient Church Embroidery. 



249 



his Church of his " alb that was wrought with English Orfrais." 

Matthew Paris informs us that Pope Innocent IV. (1246) 
observing on the Copes and Infulse of certain ecclesiastics some 
very desirable Orfrais, he enquired where they were made, and 
being answered in England, he exclaimed, " Truly England is 
our garden of delight, in sooth it is a well inexhaustible, and where 
there is a great abundance, from thence may much be extracted," 
Accordingly His Holiness dispatched his official letters to all the 
Cistercian abbots in the country ; to the prayers of whom he had 
just been committing himself in the Chapter house of their Order. 
In these letters he urged them to procure for his choir for nothing^ 
if they could manage it so, but at all events to purchase things 
so estimable." The chronicler adds : " this was an order sufficiently 
pleasing to the merchants, but the cause of many persons detesting 
him for his covetousness." ^ 

There is a great uncertainty as to what constituted the 
peculiarity of Opus Anglicum. Some authorities consider it 
a term to describe any very beautiful embroidery executed in 
England, others consider it refers only to a peculiar stitch, and 
Dr. Bock, of Aix-la-Chapelle, suggests that it was bead work. 
The stitch which has been generally considered as described by 
this name is a kind of chain-stitch, which was principally used for 
the draperies of figures, the face and hands being worked in 
circular lines from the centre, which gradually fell off into the 
form of the outline ; when finished, the worker took a heated iron 
knob which was placed under certain parts of the figure, par- 
ticularly the cheeks, and by this means it became permanently 
raised. A fine example of this work is the Syon Cope in the 
South Kensington Museum. 

In the 13th and 14th centuries the embroidery produced in 
this country was very beautiful, and had reached its greatest 
perfection ; after this it began to decline. During the Wars of 
the Roses the work became less carefully executed, and though 
some of the patterns were extremely effective, and the use of gold 
1 Matt. Paris Hist. Angl. p. 473, Edit. Paris, 1644. (He does not explain 
how these Cistercian abbeys became possessed of. these splendid vestments, 
for by the express order of Abbot Stephen Harding, a.d. 1114, no Cistercian 
house was allowed to use vestments made of richer material than fustian 
or plain linen. 

Vol. XI. s 



250 



Transactions at Dursley. 



and silver " passing " ^ had heightened the light and shade, yet it 
never regained its former perfection, and the events which occurred 
in the 1 6th century put an end to embroidery as a pious work, 
and turned adrift its most skilful workers. When the Reformation 
in England had substituted a plain alb for the gorgeous vestments 
hitherto in use, the far-famed English embroidery came to an end ; 
and the fanaticism of the period caused the destruction of most 
of the costly examples which are described in the long inventories 
of Church goods, which have come down to our time. Many of 
these vestments were destroyed for the sake of the gold and jewels 
they contained, many were sold to continental Churches, and some 
were converted into ornaments for ordinary dwelling houses, A 
few only remain to shew the marvellous beauty of the work of the 
middle ages, and most of these are copes, for by the second prayer 
book of Edw. YI. they were still allowed to be worn, w^hereas the 
Eucharistic vestments were at once done away with. A few good 
examples of old embroidery remain in some of the Churches in 
Gloucestershire, and are described at the end of this paper, but 
many of them have been mutilated in a manner which makes it 
difficult to describe them with accuracy. The specimens at Chipping 
Campden and Buckland are amongst some of the most celebrated 
of their kind, and are in fact very store-houses of information to 
the embroiderers of the present day. 

Early in the 17th century a new kind of raised work became 
general, in which the figures and flowers were padded with some 
soft material, which raised them above the ground of the work. 
The Royal arms were a frequent decoration, sometimes surrounded 
by mutilated floral designs, while, occasionally, diminutive human 
figures are introduced, with gigantic grubs and butterflies disport- 
ing themselves amongst impossible flowers and fruit. This work was 
often used to cov^er large books and boxes, and a good example of 
the latter is preserved in a glass case at Severn-end. It was, of 
course, utterly unsuitable for vestments, but there is a Cope in 
Durham Cathedral which is said to have been the gift of Chas. I., 
which is embroidered in this manner with the Royal arms. 

When needle- work had reached such a style as this, it can be 
called an art no longer. It had degenerated into mere stitchery. 

- Gold and silver tambour (passe) sewn on with tine silk. 



Ancient Church Embroidery. 



251 



The elevating influences were gone — the Church no longer encour- 
aged the art — the days of chivalry were over, the idleness and 
intrigues of court life were utterly unsuited to its developement, 
and it only required the so-called Berlin- work of the Germans to 
extinguish it altogether. . 

During the best days of embroidery several stitches were in 
use in addition to the chain-stitch, usually known as Opus Angli- 
cum, and as early as the 13th century they were described by 
their technical names in Church inventories. There is an inven- 
tory of the vestments of the Church of St. Paul's, London, made 
in A.D, 1295, in which we read of " Opus plumarium,''^ or feather 
stitch ; " Opus pectineum,''^ or comb work ; " Gpus jmlvinarium,^' 
or cushion work ; and " Opios consutum de serico,'' or cut work. 
The first of these, " Optos phcmarmm,'' is so called because the 
stitches are laid long-wise, like a bird's feathers, and is the stitch 
which is generally meant when speaking of embroidery ; it is in 
fact the one in which nearly all ancient specimens of church-work 
now remaining are executed. 

Though " Opus pectineum " is mentioned in this inventory of 
1295, it is not really embroidery at all, but a woven imitation of 
it, done with a comb-like instrument; hence its name. The 
effect was produced by employing the threads of the tissue so as 
to make the various designs, and was generally used on linen 
material. It is very rarely seen in England, and is in fact a kind 
of tapestry. The " Op us pulvinarimn " is like what we now call 
cross-stitch, and as it was generally used to ornament the covers 
of the cushions which held the mass books, it has been called 
cushion work. It was frequently used for heraldic designs, being 
particularly suited for this purpose, and the emblazoned Orphreys 
on the Syon Cope, before referred to, are in this stitch, and are of 
a rather later date than the cope itself. The last kind of work 
mentioned in the inventory is " Consutum de serico,^' or applique, 
or cut work, and this includes all those embroideries where the 
figure, flowers or fruit having been first worked upon a separate 
piece of material are cut out, and then sewn upon the vestments or 
hangings ; hence it is known as applique. It was a style much 
s 2 



252 



Transactions at Dursley. 



used for hangings and curtains, and there are some splendid 
examples of vestments worked in this way. Sometimes the niches 
where the saints stand are made in a loom, and a spare place left 
for the figure, which being worked by hand, is then sewn into the 
space. Sometimes the face only is worked, and joined to the figure 
by the beard falling over the stitches. The edges of this applique 
are often framed, as it were, by a silken or gold thread being sewn 
round the joinings.^ 

Besides these embroideries we sometime find a reference to 
" Opus filatoriiom, or net work, which, though known as early as 
1295, when St. Paul's first possessed a cushion of this work, was 
not generally used till the 14th century. It consisted of a netted 
ground made of linen, on which was darned or worked some 
pattern, and is more nearly allied to the lace known as "punto a 
maglia " than to true embroidery. There are many varieties of 
these stitches to be met with at different periods, and in late 
embroidery there is also a kind of button-hole stitch, which is used 
in the raised figures and foliage, which are peculiar to that period. 

It is a matter of surprise that the skilful workers of the middle 
ages seem to have had so little originality as to designs, for we 
see the same patterns repeated over and over again, and where a 
new device occurs, it is nearly always heraldic. No doubt all 
patterns had originally a meaning, and sacred symbols were used 
to convey their holy lessons to the beholders, and were often 
repeated with this object — but amongst the merely historic patterns 
this same repetition occurs, and at last the form is so altered that 
all meaning is lost, and nothing remains but the conventional 
form. Thus it is with a design called the " pine apple," which is 
often used as a powdering. It could not have been intended 
originally for that fruit, for it was not known in Europe till the 
15th century, and it was not till a century later that the anana, 
or pine apple, was introduced into the south of Europe from Peru. 
Probably it was meant for a pomegranate fruit with the leaves of 

^ It is often difficult to know whether work was originally applique, or 
if it has been cut from some older vestment and remounted. If it is possible 
to get at the back of the work, some pieces of the original ground may often 
be found. 



i 



PlatEeXI. 



TmdjUioiULLbf saJA to h& the/ worh of 
. KaJbtvervrw of drcugorv. 




Pomegranate from Winchcombe. 



The uncolouped part supplied from a 
Chasuble belonging feo G CateyEsq. 



1 



Ancient Church Embroidery, 



253 



the artichoke (See PL XIII.), and was copied from some old Spanish 
work, or imported into England from Flanders, which at the time 
was an ally of Spain. The pomegranate was anciently considered 
to be the emblem of deceit and treachery, and when Ferdinand the 
Great (1035 A.D.), King of Castile by right of his mother Elvira, 
and King of Leon by right of his wife Sancha, was deceived by a 
nobleman of Granada, he took this fruit ^ as his device, with the 
motto " Yos mentis," alluding to the perfidy. It was added to the 
shield of Spain in a.d. 1492, and when Ferdinand the Catholic, 
(1572)^King of Arragon, married Isabella of Castile, and conquered 
Granada and Navarre, the kingdoms of the peninsula were united, 
and the device of the pomegranate became very popular. Probably 
it was used in England when the good and gentle Eleanor of 
Castile and Leon became the wife of Edw. I. ; and when Katherine 
of Arragon became Queen of England, the pomegranate was a 
favourite device, and was often embroidered by her own hands. 

The eagle displayed having one or two heads is another of 
these historical devices, which often occurs on old work. This bird 
is always considered a representative of empire and the double- 
headed eagle as an empire, which had a two fold sovereignty. In 
A.D. 1274 it occurs in a Roll of Arms as a shield of the 
" Emperor of Germany " and the King of Germany, which are 
severally blazoned as : Or, a7i eagle displayed having two heads 
sa., and, Or, an eagle displayed sable, the German sovereigns 
having no doubt adopted the eagle as their heraldic device, in 
support of their claim to be successors to the Roman Caesars — 
whose rule extended to the eastern and western empires. 

It was probably introduced into England on some German 
vestments, and afterwards copied by English embroiderers without 
reference to its original meaning. 

In the beginning of the 11th century, Cnute and his second 
Queen Emma presented to the Abbeys of Croyland, and Romsey 
altar cloths, which had been worked by his first wife, and vest- 
ments covered with golden eagles. In 1277 Exeter Cathedral 
reckoned among her treasures several vestments decorated with 

2 Porno Granada, 



254 



Transactions at Dursley. 



this pattern, one of which was given to the Church by Richard, 
King of the E-omans, brother to Henry III. This was a cope of 
black baudekin ^ with eagles in gold figured upon it. There is 
still at Worcester an ancient pall with double-headed golden 
eagles, and the remains of the cope at Minster worth has a border 
of these birds, which were probably part of the powdering of the 
cope, before it was arranged in its present forra.^ 

Cherubim, with more or fewer wings, standing on wheels, are 
often used as part of the powderings of vestments, and the remains 
of the cope at Cirencester has several, some of which are carrying 
scrolls — this pattern is said to be peculiar to English work, and is 
found on very early examples." 

There are a few other patterns which are mentioned by Lady 
Marian Alford as used only in England, viz : twisted pillars of 
vine stems, often bearing leaves and branches, and the vase of 
lilies, emblematic of the Blessed Virgin. She also mentions that 
figures of our Lord, and the saints are generally represented in 
English work with the upper lip, and round the mouth shaven ; 
whereas in continental work the beard is allowed to surround the 
mouth and join the moustache. 

The specimens of ancient embroidery still preserved in the 
Churches of Gloucestershire are as follows : — 

Cirencester. 

In this Church there is a pulpit cloth, no longer used, which has 
been made from an ancient cope of blue velvet. It has been cut 
into strips, and then sewn into its present shape. The ground is 
powdered with the pattern usually called the pine apple (sec Plate 
XIV)^ and with scrolls and spangles. At equal distances are cheru- 
bim standing on wheels, each having eight wings. One of these 

^ So named from being originally made at Baklack. It is a costly silk, 
shot with gold. 

- The earliest known representation of the double-headed eagle is at 
Eyuk, near Boghaz Kem, in ancient Cappadocia, where it occurs among 
a number of Hittite sculptures, and is engraved in " Explorations Archeolo- 
giques de la Galatie and de la Bithyne — par M. M. Perrot and Guillanme. 

^ See Cirencester Cope Plate. XIV. 

■* Needlework as an Art. 



i 



PlateSr 




iAVAPS 51 BRQAi i' 9RIST0L 



Ancient Church Embroidery. 



255 



cherubs holds a shield of armorial bearings, Argent on a chevron 
sable, three roses, or. Under this is a scroll with the words " Orate 
pro anima domini Radulphi Parsons," and other scrolls bear the 
words, "Gloria tibi Trinitas." Over the pomegranates in the 
corners are the words, "Da gloriam Deo." Near the entrance to 
the chancel of this Church is the memorial brass of a priest, bear- 
ing the chalice and paten, who appears to have been the donor of 
this vestment, for the inscription runs thus, " Orate pro anima 
domini Radulphi Parsons quondam Capellani perpetuse cantarise 
Sanctse Trinitatis in hac Ecclesia fundata qui obiit 29 die Augusti 
Anno Domini 1478 cujus animse propitietur deus. Amen." From 
this it seems probable that the vestment was left by Kalph Parsons 
for the use of the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, which would give the 
date of the embroidery as late in the 15th century. The chapel 
was founded before 1478, though the present building was made 
at the expense of Richard Ruthal, Bishop of Durham, a native of 
Cirencester, in the reign of Henry YIII. There is some reason to 
suppose that the monks of Cirencester grew, and prepared their own 
silk for embroidery, as Alexander Neckham, Abbot of Cirencester, 
in A.D., 1213, wrote a book explaining the habits of the silkworms 
and the way to keep them profitably. This work, " De Natura 
Rerum," has lately been reprinted in the Master of the RoUs's 
Series. 

BUCKLAND. 

At the Rectoryin this parish is a very fine bl ue velvet cope, 
at the back of which is a group of figures representing our Lord 
upon the cross with the figures of the Blessed Virgin and St. 
John on either side. The powderings of the ground are composed 
of sprays, flowers, and pomegranates showing their seeds [See Plate 
XV.) There are also two curious representations of Churches upon 
it, and a device with the letters "WHY; these probably refer to 
William Whychurch, who was Abbot of Hayles, near Buckland, in 
1470. The orphreys contain figures of saints under canopies of 
leaves and small flowers, and in one part this has been repaired 
with a piece cut from another and older vestment of red velvet. 
The whole of the embroidery is of opus plumarium. Buckland 
Church was in the gift of the Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, 



256 



Transactions at Bursley. 



Gloucester, and Thomas Parker, brother of the last Abbot, was 
Vicar of Buckland from 1512 to 1515, probably it was through 
him that the cope was presented to the Church, though the work 
is of an earlier date. 

Chipping Campden. 

At this place there are two hangings of cream coloured damask 
(holosericus), beautifully embroidered, having in the centre a re- 
presentation of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and the 
ground powdered with flowers of a conventional pattern. One 
of these hangings measures 12 ft. 6 in. long, and 4 ft. deep. The 
other is 10 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. 

William Bradbury, of Chipping Campden, who made his will 
June 6th, 1481, directed that his body should be buried in the 
parish church, and bequeathed to every altar " A chesible of white 
damask, and also vestments." Probably these are part of his 
bequest ; the chesible, as usual, having disappeared. 

There is also a cope of crimson velvet, embroidered with crowns, 
stars of Bethlehem, and conventional flowers. 

WiNCHCOMBE. 

In the keeping of the Vicar of this parish is an old square 
table cover, used until a few years ago upon the Communion 
table, which stood some little distance from the east wall of the 
chancel, the communicants kneeling all round it. This table- 
cloth contains the remains of two ancient vestments, probably 
copes, the embroidery of which has been cut out and re-mounted 
on canvass, without the slightest attempt to arrange it in any 
way. In this confused mass are the remains of cherubim stand- 
ing on wheels, pomegranates and fleurs-de-lis, which formed the 
powderings, and the flgures of saints which ornamented the ophreys 
of the vestments of different dates. Local tradition says it was 
the work of Katherine of Aragon,^ and amongst the later em- 
broidery is a very peculiar representation of her badge, the 

^ Queen Katherine of Aragon was a great worker, and in her happiest 
days, when writing to Henry VIII., then absent in France, slie describes 
the preparation she was making to repel an invasion of England by the Scots, 
but even this great event did not hinder her love of needlework, for she says: 
" I am horrible busy with making standards, banners, and badges." This 
letter is dated 13tli August, 1513. When the hapless Queen was separated 



Ancient Church Embkoideky. 



257 



pomegranate, but the earlier portion is at least a century older 
than her time. Most of the work is in opus plumarium, but 
amongst the saints are some which are applique, the spaces in the 
niches having been left, and the figures added afterwards. The 
attempt at perspective in the canopies of these niches shows them 
to belong to the later work. 

The centre of this cloth is worked in a peculiar stitch, which 
has somewhat the appearance of woven braid. The work and the 
re-arrangement of the border are old, and probably were done at 
the time when the altar was moved from the wall, and required a 
square cover. 

MiNSTERWORTH. 

In this parish is an old altar frontal, made from a cope of fine 
red velvet. It was originally powdered with six winged cherubim 
standing on wheels, fleurs-de-lis, conventional flowers, and double- 
headed eagles. The remains of the Orphreys are used as a kind 
of cross in the middle of the frontal, and they are embroidered 
with the usual figures of saints in niches. The embroidery is in a 
decayed condition, but enough remains to show that it was not 
very finely executed, and is probably of late workmanship. This 
vestment is supposed to have originally belonged to St. Peter's 
Abbey, Gloucester, and to have been given to Minsterworth at the 
Dissolution. 

LiTTLEDEAN. 

In this parish is a large Communion table cover or pulpit 
hanging, made from two chasubles, which are very cleverly adapted 
to their altered use without injuring the embroidery. The ground 
of both vestments is gold-coloured velvet, powdered with con- 
ventional flowers : the orphreys are very wide, and contain the 
figures of saints under floriated arches : the ground work of the 
Orphreys is peculiarly rich and artistic, being worked with alter- 
nate threads of gold and silver, which are arranged in a diapered 

from the King, and living at Bugden, her occupations are thus described by 
Harpsfiekl : — " Queen Katherine spent her solitary life in much prayer, great 
alms, and abstinence, and when she was not in this way occupied, then was 
she and her gentlewomen working with their own hands something wrought 
in needlework, costly and artificially, which she intended to the honour of 
God, to bestow on one of the churches," — Miss Strickland in Lives of 
Queens of England, Vol. II. p. 161. Edition 1884. 



258 



Transactions at Dfrsley. 



pattern and slightly raised. The emhroidery is in opus plumarium 
of very beautiful workmanship. The mixture of gold and silver 
thread in the ground, and on the reverse side of the foliage is 
unusual. The vestments were probably some of the spoils from 
Flaxley Abbey, which is only a short distance from Littledean. 
A red velvet cope was also formerly at this place, but is now lost. 
Some good drawings of the conventional flowers in the embroidery 
have been lent me by Mr. Butterfield. 

BiTTON. 

There is in this place an old altar cloth, which is a rare ex- 
ample of such a Church ornament executed in the 1 7th century. 
It is thus described by Canon Ellacombe : — 

" The altar cover is of blue cloth, and round it an inscription 
in silver (or it niay be faded gold) thread, " the gift of Colonell 
John Seymour to the Church of Bitton, in the County of Glou- 
cester, for the Communion Table, in remembrance of his dear 
Grandfather, S^. John Seymour who dyed, and was interred in y® 
middle of this holy Square Nov. 17, 1663." 

At each corner is the Seymour crest, originally in colours, and 
in the centre of the cloth (not of the front), is I. H. S. with the 
heart and three nails beneath, all within a rayed circle. The 
cloth is in good preservation, and was in constant use till about 
35 years ago. 

NORTHLEACH. 

On the altar of this church is a frontal, made a few years ago 
from two handsome copes, which till then had escaped destruction. 
These vestments were not embroidered at all, but woven, and are 
only mentioned in this list because they are often referred to as 
specimens of embroidery. 

No. 1 was of the finest dark blue cut velvet of Florence, the 
ground being trailed all over with fruit-bearing boughs of bold 
type in gold, while the velvet itself is freckled all over with gold 
thread, sprouting up like loops, this particular kind of ground was 
peculiar to the 16th century, and was succeeded by small dots of 
solid gold, sewn on with a needle. 



Ancient Church Embroidery. 



25S 



No. 2 was composed of gold tissue with the sacred monogram, 
that of the Blessed Virgin, and a device with the inscription 
" Salva Nos," in red velvet. The whole ground is worked into 
a pattern of flowers in baskets, &c., in the renaissence style of 
decoration. 

St, Briavels. 

This church also possesses an ancient woven altar frontal, which 
is thus described by Rev. W.T. Allen : " The only remaining relic of 
pre-Reformation days^ is an ancient altar frontal, probably for 
ferial use. Age has faded the original colour (green), but the 
colours of the ornamental wreathed work in floss silks are as bright 
and fresh as when the cloth was woven." ^ 

1 I think this is of later date than 16th century.— M. E. B.-O. 

2 Trans. G. and B., Vol. IX. p. 76. 



260 



Transactions at DursLey. 



A DOUBTFUL POINT IN THE GENEALOGY OF 
HICKS OF BEYERSTON, 
As it appears in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 
By the rev. FRANCIS J. POYNTON, M.A. 
The few remarks which I am about to offer refer to the only 
daughter of Sir Michael Hicks, of Beverston, Knight, in the early 
years of the last century. 

Sir Michael was the younger brother of Sir William Hicks, 
the second baronet, who died in 1703. He married Susan, youngest 
daughter of Sir Richard Howe, of Surrey, Knight ; and when he 
died in 1710 he left her surviving; he also left a son, Howe 
Hicks, and an only daughter Alice. 

It is with the marriage of Alice Hicks that I have to do. 
The account given of the family in Barkers Peerage and Baronetage, 
under " Hicks-Beach," makes Alice to be the wife of William 
Somerford of Wilts, Esq. Now I have looked in vain for the 
family of " Somerford," of Wiltshire, in any books or registers of 
that county that I could command for reference. But it hap- 
pened about two years ago, when I was engaged in some researches 
on the families of Thorner, and of White of Wiltshire, that I was 
favoured by the Rector of Little Somerford in that county with 
the following extract from one of his parish register books : 

" Memorandum." 
Susannah the daughter of William and Alice White was born 
"August the 6th and baptized August the 23rd, 1713, at 
" Widcombe, Gloucestershire." 

Here, then, was a noteworthy circumstance, that the child of 
a gentleman and lady, who were residents of Somerford Parva in 
Wilts (I ask you especially to notice the word Somerford), was 
born and baptized at Widcombe or Witcombe, in Gloucestershire, 
and that the event should be deemed of sufficient importance to be 
entered by special memorandum in the Somerford Register. This 



Hicks of Beverston. 



261 



circumstance attracted my attention, and wishing to ascertain the 
maiden name of Alice White, I tried to find out more about the 
parish of Witcombe and its inhabitants of old. I soon discovered 
that the parish was rich in memorials of the House of Hicks, and 
that Susannah and Alice were names occuring in its genealogy. 
I had reason to believe that Susannah, daughter of William and 
Alice White, was a first born child, indeed an only child, so, 
putting all things together, I now began to suspect that Alice, 
the mother, was a lady connected ancestrally with Witcombe; 
had repaired to her parental home for her confinement, and was 
not improbably a daughter of the house of Hicks. Application 
was then made to the Clergyman of Witcombe for further evidence 
from his Registers. But, unfortunately, the early books of that 
parish were found to be missing. Failing such direct proof, there 
seemed to me, notwithstanding the failure, little doubt that the 
wife of William White, Esq., of Somerford Parva, was really the 
Alice, only daughter of Sir Michael Hicks, by the Lady Susan, 
his wife, and that the entry now to be found in " Burke " relating 
to Alice Hicks' marriage ought to be amended by the insertion 
of William White's name as her husband, and that the word 
" Somerford," which stands in it, should be made applicable to a 
Place, and not to a Person. 

Sir Michael Hicks, in his will dated 26th Jan., 1709-10, and 
proved by his relict, the Lady Susan, on the 5th of Dec. 1710, speaks 
of his daughter Alice by her maiden name. She was, therefore, 
not married at that date ; but the birth of Susannah, daughter of 
Alice White, takes place at Witcombe in August, 1713. Her 
marriage might well hav^e taken place shortly after Sir Michael, 
her father's, decease, (say in 1711 or 12); and such a marriage 
would fit in very well with the presumption that William White 
was the husband of Alice Hicks, and the father of Susannah, 
" born and baptized at Witcombe." 

If the marriage licence of William White, and Alice his wife, 
could be found our conjecture could be reduced to a certainty. But 
if not the alternation of Susannah and Alice as christian names in 
this case ; the associations of the Hicks family with Great Witcombe 



262 



Transactions at Dfrsley. 



at the period ; the concurrence of dates, and the evidently good 
social stginding of the two families (for William White, in his 
will, bequeaths to his wife Alice all such rings, watches and 
plate, as were hers before marriage) : all these circumstances 
lead to a strong presumption, that the correction of Burke's 
account ought to be made as above indicated. 

The point I have raised, though not of great importance, is 
one which is rendered interesting to us at this moment, both as 
bearing on the family of the present Chief Secretary for Ireland, 
and as having some reference to Beverston Castle, one of the 
places set down for the Society to visit in its excursion of to- 
morrow. The attention I have invited to this genealogical 
question, may, I hope, lead to the discovery of the fact one way 
or other ! Is " Burke " right, or am I 



Supplement shewing how the Hicks Problem was solved. 



The preceding matter formed the substance of the paper which I 
was permitted to read at the Evening Meeting of our Society at 
Dursley, on Tuesday, August 3rd, 1886. Time went on, the 
point at issue received no solution. No one communicated with 
me on the subject : — The Inscriptions of Hicks of Great 
Witcombe," printed in Vol. III. of "The Genealogist," edited 
by Dr. Marshall, did not supply the information wanted. So my 
paper was passing into the hands of our Society's printer in the 
month of December. When, to my gratification, I received the 
following communication from a Genealogical friend (not one of 
our Society's members, but one to whom I had expressed a wish 
that I could settle the Hicks question) : — ^"I have been at last to 
Lambeth, after longer delay than I liked, and now send you the 
result of my search on your question : and it seems to me to be 
highly satisfactory on your side." — 



Hicks of Beverston. 



263 



"Vicar General's Office, Lambeth, 22th Feby. 1711-12, ap- 
peared AVilliam White, of Little Somerford, Wilts, Esq^\ setat: 23, 
Bachelor, and alleged that he intended to marry Miss Alice Hicks, 
of St. Peter's, Paul's Wharf, London, aged 18, spinster, with 
consent of her mother. Dame Sus*^ Hicks q,i the same, widow, and 
prayed for license to marry in the Parish Church of St. Bennett's, 
Paul's Wharf, London. 

(L.S.) William White. 

Eodem die. 

" The aforesaid Dame Sus'^^ Hicks, of the Parish of St. Peter's, 
Paul's Wharf, London, widow, made oath &c., that she was lawful 
mother of the above Miss Alice Hicks, and consents, &c., &c. 

(L. S.) S. Hickes. 

Upon the receipt of this intelligence, I felt all doubt was at 
an end as to " who was the husband of Alice Hicks." I at once 
communicated with Sir J ohn Maclean, in whose hands my original 
paper was placed, and in reply received the expression of his wish, 
that I would add to the original any additional matter I had 
collected about the Hicks family in my researches, and especially 
the details of the marriage allegation just received, which settled 
the doubtful point. It is in compliance with this wish that I now 
send to the Transactions of the Society this account of " how the 
Hicks problem was solved " and a tabular pedigree illustrative 
of the whole matter. 



264 



Transactions at Dursley. 



A GENEALOGICAL TABLE ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 



Sir William Hicks, 1st Bart., of Beverston, =FMargaret, daughter of Wm. 



Glouc, eldest son of Sir Michael Hicks, 
Knt., who purchased Beverston. Created a 
Baronet, 21st July, 1619 (17th Jas. I.) Died 
1680. 



Lord Paget 



Sir William, 2nd 
Bart., died 1703. 



A 

This line supplied the 
3rd, 4th and 5th Barts. 



Sir Michael Hicks, Knt. 
2nd son, of Great Witcombe. Died 4th May, 1710, 
^tatis suee 65. Will dated 26th Jan. 1709-10 
prob. 5th Deer, following. M. I. in chancel 
of Witcombe Church. Adminis. " de Bonis non,' 
14th May, 1725, Lady Susan being then dead, 
and a further adminis. 2 1st Nov. 1743 (P.C.C. 265 
Smith). 



Michael was 3rd 
son. Died an 
infant (accord- 
ing to M.I. in 
Witcombe Ch. 



— ^ 

2nd son, 
name un- 
discovered. 



Howe Hicks, Esq.= 
of Great Witcombe. 
Born 1690. Died 12 
Feb. 1727-8, aged 
38. Bur. at Great 
Witcombe, with 
M.L Will dated 7 
Jany. 1724. Cod. 
29 August 1726. 
Prob. 18 March, 
1727-8 (P.C.C. 8 
Brook). 



=Mary, daur. of JefFry 
Watts, of Much Leys, 
CO. Essex, Esq. Marr. 
articles, 1720. Died 6 
August, 1728, aged 36. 
Bur. at Witcombe, with 
M.I. Her will dated 21 
Mar. 1727. Cod. 25th 
July, 1728. Prob. 24th 
Jan. following. (P.C.C. 
12 Abbott). 



Sir Howe Hicks, = 
6th Bart. Died 9th April, 1801, 
aged 78. M.I. at Witcombe. 



^Martha, dau. of John Browne, 
Clerk, Rector of Coberley. 
Died 4th May, 1802, aged 86. 
M.I. at Witcombe. 



Sir William Hicks, 7th Bart. 
Born in 1754. Was twice married, but 
died s.p.m. (see Burke) 23rd Oct. 1834, 
aged 80. 



Michael Hicks, Esq.,- 
of Beverston Castle, assumed the 
additional surname of Beach. Died 
1830. 



Michael Hicks-Beach, Esq,,=i=Caroline Jane, eldest daur. of William 



born 22nd Oct. 1780. 
Sept, 1815, vita patris. 



Died 27th 



Mount, Esq., co. Berks. Married 26th 
Jan. 1809. 



Sir Michael Hicks-Beach succeeded his great uncle on his decease in 1834, 
and was the father of the present (1887) Chief Secretary for Ireland, The 
Right Hon. Sir Michael Edward Hicks-Beach. Born 1837. 



Hicks of Beverston. 



265 



PRECEDING LETTERPRESS ON HICKS. 



Susanna, youngest daughter of Sir Richard Howe, Letitia, wife of Arthur, 

of CO. Surrey, Knt. Proved her husband's will. Earl of Donegal, ac- 

1710. Died in Nov, 1724. No will found. Her cording to Burke's 

M.I. in chancel of Witcombe Church. Peerage. 



William White/ 
of Little Somerford, co. Wilts, Esq. 
Buried 18th April, 1722, at Somerford. 
Will dated 18th Feb. 1719-20, to be buried 
at Somerford. Admin, granted to Alice 
his relict, the ex\ having renounced, in 
the Archd. of Wilts, 9th June, 1724, 
Records now removed to London. 



=Alice, only daur. named in father's 
will. Marriage allegation dated 
29th Feb. 1711-12, Vicar General's 
office. Died 1731. Adminis. of 
her estate granted to William R. 
Earle, Esq., husband and guardian 
of Susanna, her daughter being a 
minor, 9th April, 1731. 



William Rawlinson Earle, of^Susanna White, only child. Born 



East Court, Parish of Crud- 
well, Esq., M. P. for Malmes- 
bury, 1721. 



6th, and bap, at Great Witcombe, 
23rd August, 1713. Married at 
Malmesbury Abbey, 30th Dec. 1 730. 



Henrietta Maria Martha=John Pettat, Clerk, 

only daur. of Alice —Thomas Lefield, Esq. 

Wm. Beach, Esq. Ann =James King, Esq., of Stanton, co. Hereford. 

of Nether Avon. Susanna Elizabeth, died June l7th, 1747, aged I year and 

Died 18th Oct. 23 days. 

1837. Mary, died 30th July, 1758, in the 15th year of her age. 



William, ^1826, Jane Henrietta, daur. of John 
of Oakley Hall, Hants, and of | Brown, Esq., of Salperton. 
Keevil, Wilts, Esq. A 



Vol. XI. T 



266 



Transactions at Dursley. 



ON THREE SKULLS 
Found near the London Koad, Gloucester. 

By JOHN BEDDOE, M.D., F.KS. 

A FEW weeks ago Mr. John Bellows sent me three skulls which 
had been found at Gloucester in the course of some excavations. 
He also kindly supplied me with the following facts relating to 
them : — 

The skeletons to which they belonged were all found at one 
spot, about three-quarters of a mile from the City Cross, and on 
the east side of the London Road, which is the old Roman Road. 
They all lay with their feet to the east, at a depth of about 4 feet 
below the surface ; and no objects whatever, such as weapons, 
ornaments, or remains of coffins, &c., appear to have been found 
with them. 

They lay, as has already been stated, near the Roman Road ; 
but there is nothing else in the circumstances to indicate that 
they were Roman or Romano-British. The orientation makes it 
probable that they had been interred since the advent of Chris- 
tianity. 

The three skulls are all masculine. I have no other bones 
wherefrom to conjecture their age ; but Nos. 1 and 2 are probably 
those of men in the prime of life, while No. 3 may have belonged 
to a man of middle age. The teeth in all are perfect, though 
a little worn by attrition ; in No. 3 only is there a sign of com- 
mencing caries. 

In all three the back-head is full and rounded, and the palate 
more round than oval ; and in all three the nasal aperture has 
probably been long and the nasal bones probably prominent. 

No. 1 is remarkably brachycephalic for an English skull ; and 
I do not think that this is due to the posthumous deformation 



On Three Skulls. 



267 



which, however, undoubtedly exists. The norma verticalis is a 
broad ellipse : the norma occipitalis rounded : the sutures generally 
open. The fulness of the anterior temporal region is remarkable : 
this is a Roman feature, not common in any of our British races. 
There are two cuts on the frontal, not penetrating, which may 
have been received during life. 

No. 2 is ovo-elliptic in the norma verticalis : it has a frontal 
suture, but is not in other respects at all remarkable : though 
somewhat broad, it belongs to a type pretty common among 
" Saxon " Englishmen. There is a little postparietal flattening, 
but no "absatzung" of the occiput. 

No, 3 is the least perfect of the three calvaria : the forehead 
is narrow, and the norma verticalis is pyriform, the norma occi- 
pitalis being rounded. 

It seems probable that these are the remains of soldiers, buried 
where they fell in some skirmish but as to their date and attri- 
bution I remain in doubt. There was a good deal of fat unctuous 
earth inside No. 3, and I was at first disposed, on that account, 
to think the date not very remote : that of the siege of Gloucester 
by Charles I. occured to me ; and Mr. Bellows had nothing to 
allege against the notion. But after thorough cleaning the bones 
did not confirm my first impression of their recency. They may be 
no older than the Parliamentary war ; but I think it possible they 
may be very much older. Perhaps some subsequent discovery 
may throw more light on the matter than I have been able to 
elicit. 



T 2 



268 



TliA:NS ACTIONS AT DURSLEY. 



Table of Measurements of Skulls from London Road, 
Gloucester. 





Lengths. 


Brkadths. 




Glab-Max. 






Oph-Max. 


















Front-Inii 


Glab-Ini£ 


Front M: 


m 


o 

>^ 
N 


Auric. 


Max. 


CD 


Aster. 


1 


7-1 


6-9 


7 


6-9 


3-9 


4-6 


5-2? 


4-8 


6 


5-2 


4-7 


2 


7-4 


7-3 


7 


7-4 


4-2 


4-8 




4-8 


5-9 


5 


4-2 


3 


7-3 




7-1 




3-9? 




5-2 


4-6 


5-7 


5 


4-25 


Av. 


7-26 


7-2 


7-03 


7-15 


4- 


4-7 


5-2 


4-73 


5-86 


5-07 


4-38 




Heights. 


GiRCUMFERENCE. 


Arcs. 


Lengths. 




Bas. Breg. 


Bas. Max. 


Max. 


Front-Inial. 


Glab-Inial. 


Oph-Inial. 


1— 1 

xn 


Trans. 


Cereb. 


Foreamen. 


Naso-bas. 


1 


5-4 


5-5 


20-2 


20-3 


20-1 


20-3 


12-6 


13-2 


1-6 


1.5 


41 


2 


5-4 


5-5 


21 


21 


20-9 


21- 


13-2 


12-8 


1-8 


1-5 


4 


3 


5-5 


5-5 














1-8 


1-6 


41 


Av. 


5-43 


5-5 


20-6 


20-6 


20-5 


20-6 


12-9 


13 


1-73 


1-53 


407 






Br. 


CiRCUM. 


Orbit, 


Face. 


Indices. 






-ans. Bas. 






Breadth. 


eight. 


mgth. 








c5 






H 


< 


O 

Am 


w 






< 


O 






1 


4-9 


10-3 


9-9 


1.50 


1-26 


2-87 


84-5 


76-0 


84 


56-9 




2 


5-0 


10-5 


10-5 








79-73 


72-97 








3 








1-53 


1-30 


3-00 


78-08 


75-34 


84 


57-1 


Av. 


4-95 


10-4 


10-2 


1-51 


1-28 


2-93 


80-77 


74-77 


84 


55-5 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglicana. 



269 



COUET EOLL OF THE , 
MANOR OF BICKNOR ANGLICANA, Co. GLOUCESTER. 



Communicated by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

The transcript of the following Court Roll was kindly sent to me by 
Mr. H. J. F. Swayne, of Wilton, co. Wilts, and is printed just as I received 
it, save that the contracted Latin words have been extended. 

Recordes of a Court of Survey held for the lord of the manor of 
English Bicknor By Gardyner gent, stewarde there 



Manerii sui de Bicknor Anglicana predict! ibidem tenta 
Sccundo die Januarii Anno Regni Domini nostri Caroli Dei 
gracia Anglie, Scotie, ffrancie, et Hibernie, Regis, fidei Defensoris 
etc. decimo quarto : Coram Willielmo Gardyner generoso senes- 
callo ibidem. 



2° die Januarii 1638 



Manerium de 
Bicknor Anglicana 



scilicet 



Curia Barronis una cum Curia 
Supervisoris Benedict! Hall Armigeri 



Georgius Wyrrall, Armiger Willielmus Godwyn 
Willielmus Monmouth senior, Johannes Marshall 



generosus 



J ohannes ffisher "1 f J ohannes Potter 

Benedictus Jorden Johannes Hanys 

Willielmus Browne Georgius Mason 

Willielmus Godwyn Ricardus Grymes 




Willielmus Marshall Willielmus Mason 

Willielmus Croose ^ J ohannes Clarke 

Thomas Mowsell ^ Thomas Tench 



1 « J 

Ricardus Bougham j | " Jacobus Godwyn 
Ricardus Morse ^ Ricardus Machyn, 




generosus 




Ricardus W^ensley, 
generosus 



junior, generosus 
Willielmus Gardyner 



J 



270 



Transactions at Dursley. 



Qui Jurati et onerati per seneschallum predictum Ad 
Inquirendum ex parte Domini Manerii predicti de qui- 
busdam Articulis concernentibus perambulacionem pre- 
cincti bondis [sic] et circuitus Manerii predicti, Ac 
concernentibus liberorum Reddituum, E/elevium ac herie- 
tum accidentibus Domino Manerii predicti, Ac debitis 
Domino predicto, Ac eciam concernentibus diversis aliis 
Consuetudinibus Manerii predicti super sacramentum 
suum Dicunt et presentant ut sequitur videlicet : — 

its vi^ |» Quod super quamlibet Alienacionem cuiuslibet terre 
qualibet sive Tenementi infra Manerium predictum (sive plus 
alienacione aut '^minus) Accidit Domino de E-eleevio E-evercionis 

Alienacionis Duos Solidos et sex Denarios. 
Herieta Item dicunt et presentant quod accidit Domino post 
mortem cuiuslibet liberi Tenentis Manerii predicti qui 
obiit seisiti de uno Mesuagio infra Manerium predictum 
unum herietum secundum Consuetudinem Manerii pre- 
dicti. 

vnum her- Item dicunt et presentant quod si aliquis Tenens 
ietum pro Manerii predicti plura liabet Mesuagia quam unum tem- 
diversis pore mortis sue Dominus habere debet nisi unum herie- 
messuagiis tum etc. 

Cottagia Item dicunt et presentant quod unum Cottagium edi- 
ficatum est super vastum Domini prope quendam locum 
vocatum Coleivall in quo Johanna Jenkyn inhabitat Et 
unum alium Cottagium edificatum super solum Domini 
in Ludbrooke Inter fFabricum fFerrarium Anglice the 
fforge^ et molendinum ibidem : In quo Cottagio quidam 
Willielmus Powell, et Willielmus Frees modo Inhabi- 
tant, Et unum alium cottagium edificatum super solum 
Domini iuxta terras Richardi Machyn, generosi. In quo 
Henricus Godwyn et Perina Brace modo inhabitant. 

Vasta Item dicant et presentant quod Vastum vocatum Slteeps- 
ties(jrove, et Vastum vocatum " The Coirion Grove," 
et Terra Vasta iuxta Oollewall, sunt Terne Vastte et 
solum Domini Manerii predicti, Et quod Tenentes domini 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglicana. 



271 



Manerii predicti habent Communem pasture ibidem Ac 
libertatem accipiendi Spinet Anglice Tynnet^ ibidem. 

Item dicunt et presentant quod piscaria, Anglice the 
ffyshing in Rivo de Wye pertinens Domino Manerii 
predicti, Extendit a Rivulo currente prope pomarium 
sive parcellam terre heredum Henrici Dowle defuncti 
ex opposito loci vocati the hoxe hush vsque ad quod- 
dam Saxum in Rivo de Wye predicta J uxta qu en- 
dam locum vocatum the Dead Poole^ Apud vel iuxta 
Superiorem partem cuiusdam parcelle terre vocate tlie 
Greate Wearefield^ Et ab inde per Kivum predictum 
usque ad quoddam Saxum vocatum A Meere Stone 
Juxta Ripas de Wye subtus locum vocatum Hollowe 
hroolce videlicet medietem Rivi de Wye predicta. 

Advocacio Item dicunt et presentant quod Advocacio Ecclesie de 
Bicknor predicta de Jure spectat domino Manerii 
predicti. 

Redditus Item dicunt et presentant quod Georgius Wyrrall Armi- 
liberorum ger Tenet Tria Mesuagia, vnde unum in quo Inhabitat 
tenentium vocatum Brooces Secundum vocatum P hilly es,isiGens iuxta 
Yedfords Crosse tertium vocatum Wades Ruinatum iacet 
iuxta predictum Capitale Mesuagium cum diversis terris, 
Ss lid predictis Tribus Mesuagiis adiacentibus per Redditum, 
per annum 8^ 11^. Et sectam Curie etc. 

Et quod Richardus Maciiyn generosus Tenet unum 
Mesuagium vocatum Eshach Courte cum diversis Terris 
xxiijs eidem Mesuagio spectantibus per Redditum per Annum 
xxiij^ 

Et quod predictus Ricardus Macliyn tenet unum alium 
V" Mesuagium vocatum Wurgans cum diversis terris eidem 

Mesuagio spectantibus Jacentibus apud Esbacli Brooke 
nuper in tenura Johannis Gardyner defuncti per Red- 
ditum per Annum Quinque Solidorum. 
Et quod Johannes ffisher tenet unum Mesuagium voca- 
tum Mongeys. Et quasdam terras eidem Mesuagio 
^ " Tynnet " is brush-wood of thorn used for repairing fences. 



272 



Transactions at Dursley. 



xij^ i'i spectantes nunc in tenura Thome Harffield generosi 
per E-edditum per Annum xii^ i^. 

Et quod predictus Johannes ffisher Tenet unum alium 
Mesuagium Rumatum vocatum Pooleway, Jacens in 
vs vi^ Esbach iuxta vicura ibidem per Redditum per Annum 

Et quod predictus Johannes ffisher tenet unum alium 
ii^ Mesuagium in Ludbrooke et quasdam terras nunc in 

tenura Richardi Morse per Redditum per Annum ii^. 

Et quod predictus Johannes ffisher tenet unum pratum 
yi^ vocatum Sailers meadowe continens per estimacionem 

duas acras quondam Wallwynes per Redditum per 
Annum vi*^ 

vii^ Et quod Willielmus Monmouth Junior generosus Tenet 

unum Mesuagium in Bicknor Streete, vocatum Awnells 
Juxta Crucem In quo nunc inhabitat, cum diversi 
terris eidem Mesuagio spectantibus per Redditum per 
Annum vi^^ 

vii^ Et quod predictus Willielmus Monmouth tenet unum 

alium Mesuagium vocatum Fillsons, in Bicknor streete 
nunc in tenura Henrici Phellps, cum quibusdam terris, 
eidem Mesuagio spectantibus per Redditum per Annum 
vii^. 

ii'^ Et quod predictus Willielmus Monmouth tenet unam 

acram terre de C/mrcheland per redditum per Annum 

nf Et quod Willielmus Browne Tenet duo Mesuagia in 

Bicknor, unum in quo inhabitat vocatum Ledgebrooke, 
Et alter Ruinatum vocatum Reades, ex opposito domi 
Mancionalis Benedicti J orden, cum diversis terris eisdem 
Messuagiis spectantibus per Redditum per Annum iij*^ j^. 

iiijs iiijd quod predictus Willielmus Browne tenet Triginta 

acras terre in Bicknor predicta, quondam terram Walteri 
Ely per Redditum per Annum iiij'^ iiij''. 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglicana. 



273 



Et quod predictus Willielmus Browne tenet unam par- 
cellam prati sive pasture vocatum tlie Sinderhill iuxta 
horreum predict! Willielmi per Redditum per Annum 
xviij^. 

Et quod predictus Willielmus ^tenet duas acras de 
Churcheland per redditum per Annum ii'^. 
Et quod predictus Willielmus tenet unum Clausum 
prati in Bicknor Streete iuxta horreum suum, et unam 
parcellam terre vocatam Bettrice plecke per Redditum 
per Annum xviij^. 

Et quod E/icardus Morse tenet unum Mesuagium in 
Stowfield vocatum Millins, quondam terram Johannis 
Morse patris siii et diversas terras per redditum per 
Annum 

Et quod Willielmus Gardyner Tenet unum Mesuagium 
in Esbatcli vocatum Lmieshoicse, quondam Morgans per 
Redditum per Annum viij®. 

Et quod predictus Willielmus Gardyner tenet unum 
Mesuagium in Esbatcli vocatum Griffits per Redditum 
per Annum xii^. 

Et quod predictus Willielmus tenet unum Mesuagium 
in Bicknor vocatum Base Bullen nunc in tenura Johannis 
Godwyn iuxta Crucem etc. per Redditum per Annum 
vijd 

Et quod idem Willielmus tenet unam acram terre 
vocatum Curies Orchard in Esbatch per Redditum per 
Annum vi^ 

Et quod idem tenet duas acras de Clmrcheland per 
Redditum per Annum viii^. 

Et quod idem tenet unam parcellam terre vocatam 
Hintells apud Stowfield per Redditum per Annum iiij^ 
quondam Marshalls 

Memorandum quod Totum Redditum predicti Willielmi 
Gardyner pro omnibus terris et tenementis suis in 
Bicknor predicta in toto attingit ad Quindecim solidos 



274 Transactions at Dursley. 

et duos denarios. Sed ubi terre particulariter iacent 

unde Kedditum predictum exire debit, nescitur. 
xij= Et quod Benedictus Jorden tenet unum Mesuagium in 

Bicknor in quo inhabitat, et quasdam terras per Red- 

ditum per Annum xij^. 
ii** Et quod Jacobus Godwyn tenet unum Mesuagium 

vocatum Ctcrtes, cum quibusdam terris situatis in Esbatch. 

per Kedditum per Annum ii^. 
iiij*^ Et quod Suzanna Dowle vidua uxor Henrici Dowle 

defuncti Tenet unum Mesuagium Et quasdam terras in 

Ludbrooke per redditum per annum iiij'^. 
xij^ Et quod Jacobus Gardyner filius Rogeri Gardyner 

defuncti tenet unum Mesuagium in Bicknor streete 

vocatum Blackhowse per Redditum per Annum xii^ 

iiij*^ Et quod idem tenet duas acras terre nuper Churclces 

per Redditum per Annum iiij*^. 
ii^ Et quod Thomas Mowsell tenet unum Cottagium et 

unam acram terre apud Hitlers land per Redditum per 

Annum ii^. 

vi^ Et quod idem tenet quatuor acras terre quondam par- 

cel) as de Marshalls land per Redditum per Annum vi*^. 

xix^ Et quod Willielmus Yerworth tenet unum Mesuagium 
et quasdam terras in Esbatch per Redditum per Annum 
xix^. 

xvi^ Et quod Johannes Williams tenet unum Mesuagium in 
Ludbrooke quondam Hides, nunc in tenura Johannis 
Long, et unam parcellam terre per Redditum per 
Annum xvi^. 

ii^ Et quod Willielmus Marshall tenet unum Mesuagium 
vocatum Coioleys in quo inhabitat, et quasdam terras 
quondam parcellam Tenementorum Henrici Marshall 
decessi per Redditum per Annum iii« ii^^ 
Et quod Phillipus Marshall tenet duas parcellas terre 
vocatas the Uj^per field and Lyme pit grove^ nuper 
parcellas de Marshalls lands per Redditum per Annum 



i 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglicana. 



275 



ii^ Et quod Thomas Batchler tenet unum Mesuagium 

in Bicknor streete in quo inhabitat, nuper Henrici 
Marshall, per Redditum per Annum ii®. . 

vi^ Et quod Willielmus Croose tenet unum Tenementum in 

quo inhabitat, et parcellam teri?e nuper Marshalls per 
Redd it um per Annum vi*^. 

xii<i Et quod [blank] Butler tenet quasdam terras vocatas 

Cleypits, nuper Marshalls per Redditum per Annum xii^^ 
iiii^ Et quod Ricardus Boughan tenet duas parcellas terre 

e 

in Whorkmorefield nuper Marshalls per Redditum per 
Annum iiii^. 

viis iiijd Et quod Anna Jorden vidua nuper uxor Edmondi 
J orden senioris decessi Tenet duo Mesuagia in Bicknor 
unum in quo inhabitat per E-edditum iiij^ ij^ Alterum 
ex opposito predicti Messuagii cum diversis terris per 
Redditum per Annum iij^ ij^. In toto vij^ iiij^. 

Nota Nota, unde Jana Beeche solvit pro parcella premis- 
sorum apud Hillers land. Ricardus Bougham solvit pro 
domo suo Mancionale viij^ et Johannes Hey ward pro 
uno Cottagio apud Hillers land vi^. 

xvi<i Georgius Godwyn tenet unum Mesuagium vocatum 
Huntley s, iacens apud Yedfords lane et quasdam terras 
per Redditum per Annum xvi*^. 

xviijs yd Elianora Gardyner vidua tenet unum Messuagium 
vocatum Skyuidi^, et quasdem terras in Bicknor predicta 
Ac triginta acras de Churche lande, et alias terras per 

Kota Redditum per Annum xviij^ v^. Unde Ricardus Gar- 
dyner de Civitate de Bristoll solvere debet iiij^ vi^ pro 
messuagio et terra vocata Churchehouse in Bicknor 
streete. 

xv» iiijd quod heredes Johannis Gardyner de Ludbrooke 

tenent duo messuagia ibidem, unum in Ludbrooke streete 
vocatum Br actons, alterum vocatum Shepcot place juxta 
horreum nuper predicti Johannis per viam ducentem a 
Ludbrooke versus Esbatch, et quasdam terras ibidem, 



276 



Transactions at Duesley. 



et unam aliaiu parcellam terre vocatam Lovelyns, et 
unam parcellam terre continentem unam acram niiper 
Whites, et quondam Wallwynes nunc aqua Cooperta apud 
le lowest fforge, et quasdam terras nuper Ryvesland 
per Redditum per Annum in toto xv^ iiij^ 

xvij« Et quod heredes Thome Yervvorth de Esbatch decessi 
tenent Tria Mesuagia in Esbatcli et diversas terras etc 
unde unum est Capitale Messnagiiim in quo predictus 
Thomas nuper inhabitabat, alterum existens Messu- 
agium Kuinatum vocatur [sic] Mongeys, Jacens in Clauso 
vocato the WeUes, Et Tertium Ruinatum vocatum Jesse 
Mese iacens iuxta Crucem in Esbatch per Redditum per 
Annum xvii^. 

vi^ of this is abated foreland iv^^^ Hall bought. 
lidem tenebant Decem acras quondam Walhoynes per 
Redditum per Annum xx^ unde Dominus perquisivit 
quinque acras ideo Redditus mittigatur ad x^. 

iij*^ Et quod Ricardus Tyrrel tenet unam parcellam terre 

vocatam Withiv galls nuper Yenvorths continentem per 
estimacionem duas acras per Redditum per Annum iij*^. 
Juratores dicunt quod Dominus perquisivit unum Mes- 
suagium et quasdam terras apud Stowfield quondam 
tenementum Walteri Nurse, unde Redditus fiiit xvi^ iiij"^ 
Ideo Redditus extinctus est. 

iiij^ Et quod Willielmus Carpender generosus Tenet unum 

Messuagium et diversas terras in Stowheld per Reddi- 
tum per Annum iiij^. 

viij^ Et quod idem tenet tres parcellas terre in Stowfield 
nuper Yeiosland per re dditum per Annum viii^^ 

iiij^ Et quod idem tenet duas acras terre in Stowfield nuper 

terrain Willielmi Stevens decessi quondam Walkvyns 
land iaceiitem iuxta Voiie^' meadow per Redditum iiij^^ 

v*^ Et quod Willielmus Monmouth generosus tenet quasdam 

terras vocatas Collam ineadow et Collavi field per Red- 
ditum per annum v^^ 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglicana. 



277 



White Cleeve. 

ysviij^ Et quod Arthurus Ricketes tenet quasdam terras in 
parochia de Newland per Annualum E-edditum viij'^ 
ad festum Sancti Michaelis Archangeli tantum, Et non 
f acere Sectum Curie. ' 

viij^ Et quod Jacobus J orden et Robertus Jorden Tenebant 
Certas terras ibidem per Annualem Redditum viij'^ ad 
festum predictum Tantum, et non facere sectam Curie. 
Ben Hall Armiger Dominus Manerii predicti tenet 
terram ibidem per Redditum xii*^, modo extinctum et 
etiam perquisivit certas terras ibidem nuper Roberti 
Yersley, Et quod predictus Robertus et Dorothea Marsh 
vidua decessi solvere deberent pro terris ibidem nuper 
Bells land et M or rails land iiij^ Sed non facere sectam 
Curie. Quere de purparte quam predicta Dorothea 
tenuit quis modo tenet et quo modo. 
Redditus exeuntes e Manerio predicto scilicet : — 

Ballivus Manerii predicti solvit annuatim Domino Regi 
ad Castrum de Sancto Briavello xv^ 
pro Molendino in Ludbrooke iij^ iiij^ Abathie de fflax- 
ley, Vf viijd 

Sumna exeunta xxv^. per W^" Gardyner Senescallum 
ibidem Et quoad perambulacionem precincti et Cir- 
cuitus, ac Bondis Manerii predicti Juratores predicti 
veredictum suum Reddunt in his Anglicanis verbis 
sequentibus scilicet : — 
Manerium The Presentment of the jurie made at the Court Barron 
de Bicknor and Survey of Benedict Hall Esquire Lord of the seyd 
Anglicana Mannor, the Twentie Eighth dale of fFebuarie in the 
in Com. fowertenth yeare of the Reigne of our Most Gracious 
Glouc. Soveraigne Lord Charles by the Grace of God, King of 
England Scotland fFrance and Ireland Defender of the 
fFayth &c., before William Gardyner gent. Steward there. 

Herrlott€ Imprimis — Wee doe present and finde one herriott to be 
due unto the Lord of the sayd Mannor upon the death 
of everie free Tenant dyeing seized of a messuage accord- 



278 



Transactions at Dursley. 



ing to the Custome of the said Mannor. Item. Wee 
present and finde that if any free Tenant have more 
Mesuages than one We fiynde but one heriott due for 
all. 

Alyena- Item We present and finde that upon everie alienacon 
cons. of Mesuages or lands soe alienated being according to the 
Custome of the seyd Mannor, iij^ vi^ to be payd to the 
Lord of the Mannor by the purchaser. 

Cottages. Item — Wee present and finde standing & being built on 
the Lords waste one cottage wherein Johan Jenkin liveth 
neere unto a place called Coldwall, and one Cottage in 
Ludbrooke where William Powell and William Prees 
liveth lyeing betweene the fForge and the mill, One cot- 
tage wherein liveth Henry Godwyn and Perin Brace 
neere unto the land of Richard Machyn, gent. 

Boiindes. Item — Wee doe present and finde the Boundes of the 
Mannor and parish to be according to the same delivered 
into the courte. 

Rents and Item. — Wee doe present and finde as it is expressed in 
Services. Court concerning the rents and services. 

Commons Item. — Wee doe present and finde Shepsties Grove and 
and the Common Grove neere unto Coldwall To be the waste 
Wastes, land and Soyle of the Lord of this Mannor ; and that the 
Lords' Tenants have liberty of Common therein for 
Tynnet 

ffishing. Item. — Wee doe present and finde that the ffishinge of 
the Biver of Wye Doeth extend from the Brooke that 
runneth neere unto an orcharde or plott of grounde of 
the heires of Henry Dowle deceased, over against the 
Boxebush Downe to a long Stone in the Biver of Wye 
above Dead poole, att the upper end of a piece of land 
called the greate Wearefield, and from thence downe the 
sayd Biver to a Meere Stone att Wyeside below Hallow 
Brooke, the one halfe of the water along. 



Court Roll of Bicknor Anglioana. 



279 



mcroacn- -j-^^^^ Incroachments. 
ments. 

Advowson. Item Wee fynde the Advowson of the Church to be 
belonging to the Lord of the Mannor. 

Copia vera Examinat per me Willig,m Browne, decimo 
septimo die Novembris Anno Dni 1652 et Concordat cum 
original i. 



280 



Trai^sactions at Dursley. 



FURTHER NOTE ON THE SAXON CHAPEL AT 
DEERHURST, 
By the Rev. GEORGE BUTTERWORTH, M. A. 

In my Paper on the Saxon Chapel brought to light at Deerhurst, 
(ante page 105), I raised the question whether it was possible 
that Earl Odda, whose connexion with the chapel as founder 
seemed to be demonstrated, had any part in bestowing the large 
Manor of Deerhurst on the Abbey of Westminster. I alluded 
to the existence of an undated English or Saxon Charter, which 
appeared to show that the manor was convej^ed to Westminster 
previously to the signing of the great Latin Charter of 28th Dec, 
1065. Since my Paper was printed, a friend who has been 
able to consult one of the later editions of the Monasticon, 
which I do not possess, has had the kindness to inform me that 
in the undated charter King Edward makes known to Wulfstan, 
Bishop of Worcester, and other great men, that he has given to 
Westminster, Pershore and Deerhurst. Now, as an announce- 
ment of the kind would naturally have been of something tolerably 
recent, and Wulfstan was appointed to the See only in September 
1062, whilst Odda died just six years before that event, it seems 
altogether improbable that in this particular bestowal of the 
estates in question Odda had any sliare. 



Some Notes on Wresden. 



281 



SOME NOTES ON WRESDEN, ULEY. 
* By W. p. W. PHILLIMORE, M.A., B.C-L. 

The parish of Uley, which adjoins Darsley, is remarkable for the 
number of hamlets and homesteads within its confines which 
possess very distinctive names. Whitecourt, Shadwell, Crawley, 
Ludgershall, Bencombe, E-ockstowes, Angeston, Stoutshill, Cold 
Harbour, Cat's Castle and Wresden, all have interest for the 
local historian. Some of them are doubtless of an antiquity equal 
to, perhaps even greater than that of Uley itself, for though it 
may not be possible to trace them to any early period by docu- 
mentary evidence, still their designations shew that they are 
settlements of no modern date. 

It is with the last mentioned of these places that we propose 
to deal in the present paper. It is of some antiquarian interest, 
being, not only the spot where " Spanish cloth" was first manu- 
factured in the parish, but, probably by reason of its inaccessible 
position, also one of the few ancient houses which survived the 
prosperity of Uley as a "clothing centre." It would be difficult 
to define what Wresden is. Perhaps we may style it a hamlet, 
for although there are now but three houses bearing the name, 
the time has not long passed by when there were five or six 
cottages, in addition to the houses now standing. The etymology 
of Wresden must be left for the students of place names to deter- 
mine. It was known by that name in 1566, but is frequently 
corrupted by the villagers into Wresdown and Hesdown, while the 
first Ordnance Survey marks it under the grotesque form of Rest 
Down. In situation, scarcely a mile from the town of Dursley, it 
is in the middle of what once was Uley West-field, but which long 
ago was enclosed, most of it, probably in the 1 7th century. It lies 
on the slope of land which extends from the southern side of the 
picturesque hill, known as Down ham, to the brook or river 
Ewelme. A little away on the north-west is the farm called 
" Cold Harbour," a name which at once reminds us that we are 
close to the Roman encampment of Uley-Bury, while on its 

Vol. XI. u 



282 



Transactions at Dursley. 



eastern side Wresden has for a neighbour the cottage and small 
holding quaintly known as Cat's Castle. Though very near to 
the boundary line of Uley and Dursley none of the fields belong- 
ing to Wresden adjoin the latter parish. Perhaps thes6 border 
fields were, until a comparatively recent date, commonable lands, or 
more probably waste ground, forming a kind of " no man's land " 
between the two parishes. Even at the present day some parts 
of the boundary between Uley and Dursley in the fields near 
Wresden, are still undefined. Formerly, no doubt, the folks living 
at Wresden w^ere able to take their cattle and other produce across 
this waste to Dursley, only three-quarters of a mile away, but 
with the enclosure this convenience ceased, and though a right of 
foot way was always retained, their only other means of egress, 
until recent years, was the Wresden lane, almost impassable at 
the best of times, and quite so in winter, which led to the village 
of Uley, and necessitated a very long detour if the town of 
Dursley was the traveller's destination. 

The hamlet, if it may be so styled, of Wresden consists, or 
rather consisted, of two groups of houses, the one close to the 
lane, the other mid-way between it and the river Ewelme. It is 
the latter, now known as Wresden Farm, which is the only one 
possessing any interest to the antiquary, though it is just possible 
from the fact of its proximity to the road, and from some obscure 
reference to " Great Wresden," that in very early times the former 
may have been the more important of the two. At the same time 
it may be that " Wresden " is really a field name, in which case 
Great Wresden would merely indicate an inclosure of somewhat 
larger area than was usual, The description of the place in 15G6 
it will be seen somewhat favours this view. Rising out of Down- 
ham Hill is a streamlet which runs tlirough the lower Wresden, 
and was called Silverstream, so old villagers have stated, adding 
also that Wresden itself was known by the same name, though 
the accuracy of their recollection is open to question. Wresden 
does not possess any remarkable architectural features. It is 
built of rubble and roofed with the stone tile of the district, and 
it is evident from the weather mouldings on the chimneys that at 
one time it must have been thatched. In plan it consists of a 



Some Notes on Wresden. 



283 



dwelling house, fronting the south, with a dairy and "cellars" 
to the east, at the end of which is a large barn projecting south- 
wards, thus forming the letter L. On the north-west lies what 
is evident] y the " backhouse " mentioned in Richard Barkeley's 
conveyance. It was once detached, but the'space between it and 
the farm house was built up some fifty or sixty years ago, and it 
now forms another dwelling. Part of it appears on the right 
hand in the sketch of the north side of the farm house, which is 
here re-produced by permission of the proprietors of the Pictorial 
World ( See fig. 1.) The dairy, cellar, and barn are evidently coeval, 




and probably date back to the 16th century, perhaps even earlier, 
though it is difficult to form any exact opinion since they do 
not possess anything more distinctive than one or two windows 
with plain chamfered dripstones and mullions. The front of the 
dwelling-house may have been rebuilt at a later date, for it is of 
the roughest description, and does not possess even mullions or 
stone dressings to the windows. On the north side a very interest- 
ing porch was added in the ITth century, pargeted in imitation 
of brickwork, with the, initials ^ f upon a heart. Both on the 
outside and in the little room over the porch is a small decorated 
panel, which is probably intended for the pargeter's trademark. 
The sides of the porch have open baluster work, and within the last 

twenty years one of the shutters thereto still remained. During 
u 2 



284 



Transactions at Dursley. 



some repairs in 1869 a finely moulded stone mantel shelf was 
destroyed, and the unsightly pent house shewn in the sketch was 
built against the porch. On a gable end is a stone with the initials 

IE 

and dates y | the last one indicating when it was rebuilt. A 

] 845 ' 

portion of an old iron fire back has been preserved with part of 
the initials and date still remaining. In one of the bedrooms is 
a very fine Jacobean bedstead, with back and canopy most 
elaborately carved, but somewhat injured in effect by the loss of 
the posts at the foot. At the head are small figures of angels and 
two niches, which evidently have been utilised by former tenants 
for placing candlesticks in. 

Mention should be made of the fine group of yew trees in the 
two gardens, which were evidently planted some three or four 
centuries ago to indicate the boundary of the property, a duty 
which they still fulfil. 

Beyond the fact that Wresden formed part of that manor of 
Uley called Whitecourt nothing is known of its early history. 
This manor belonged to the Berkeley s of Stoke Gifford, and was 
parcelled out by E^ichard Berkeley, Esq., afterwards Sir Richard 
Berkeley, in 1566, amongst thirteen feoffees, to whom he also 
allotted proportionate parts of the lordship of Uley. John 
Smyth of Nibley, in his Hundred of Berkeley, gives an account of 
this transaction, and tells us that chief rents were reserved amount- 
ing to a gross sum of £40, being a greater amount than Sir Rich. 
Berkeley had hitherto received from the tenants of the manor, and 
that provision also was made for a reeve to collect the rents. It fell 
to the purchaser of Wresden to " electe, choyse and apoynte ane 
reve or balyfe," to collect the chief rents payable by the various 
freeholders in Uley, although it was a duty which had been long 
obsolete when the Wresden chief rent was commuted in 1854. 
The conveyance executed by Richard Berkeley is still extant, 
with his seal attached, on which are his initials R. B. It is dated 
5th Sept., in the 8th year of Queen Elizabeth, 1566, and purports 
to be made between " Richarde Barkeley of .... in the 
Countie of Gloucestre, Esquyer," and Gyles Brownynge of . . 
in the Countie of Glocestre . . . . " The grant was made in 



Some Notes on Wrespen. 



285 



consideration of a " certeyne somme " of money, and of the annual 
chief rent of eight shillings payable quarterly. The premises 
then conveyed were described as " All that messuage or tent* 
with thappurtenaunces nowe or late in the teanure or occupacon 
of the said Gyles Browninge, with a other 'house called the back- 
house or kychen with an orchard a backsyde and a gardeyne 
by estimacon a farundell and one cloce of pasture called Wresden 
by estimacon thre acres shutinge upon grete wresden and shut- 
inge alonge by the oversyde of William Samfordes leese called the 
Moores And one acre of meade by estimacon lyinge in the nether 
feilde next Robarte Bassettes meade called the wolpens cloce, 
lyinge on the east side of yt and lurgurshales lande on the west 
side of yt And one cloce of pasture lyinge in hollowe eln' shuting 
alonge by Elmnes lane by estimacon thre acres One farundell of 
pasture lying at the lynche shutinge alonge by Elmnes lane and 
the linche leese headdinge yt And one meade lyinge at Banchwell 
by estimacon a farundell lyinge betwene banchewell streame and 
Carvers grounde. And thre halfe acres of lande by estimacon 
lyinge at Oammes Broke shuting upon the Broke at the nether 
end. And one acre of lande by estymacon lying at Long thorne 
over the over syde of Daunceys lande and one pece of lande at 
Crawles sharde by estimacon on acre shutinge upon Crawles grene 
And two halfe acres of lande by estimacon lyinge at banchewell 
shutinge upon the waye that goeth towardes wresden at the over 
ende And halfe an acre of lande by estymacon lyinge on Shiples 
broke at the nether ende And one acre of lande by estimacon lyinge 
in Birkem betwene daunses two landes And a farrundell of lande 
by estimacon lyinge in the nether feilde on the over syde of 
William Domes lande And a farundell of lande by estimacon 
lyinge in Uley under the Clyffe betwene the Clyffe and Thomas 
Domes lande Also all the common and fredomme with the lord- 
shippe of Uley As much as dothe belonge to a farundell of 
grounde." 

It is impossible now to satisfactorily identify the various 
parcels, but we may guess that Wresden is part of a field at 
present known as Dry Leaze, and Moores belonging to William 
Samford, are perhaps the field now belonging to Mr. Yizard, 



28.6 



Transactions at Dursley. 



which adjoins the Ewelme on the south side of Wresden, Grete 
Wresden seems to be the arable ground in front of the cottage 
before mentioned. The particulars are remarkable as shewing how 
very scattered the fields belonging to the farm were in former times. 
The cause of this is clearly the ancient system of common fields. 
In the present case the lands were scattered all over the parish, 
and this is probably due to the existence of more than one com- 
mon field in the parish, for we have evidence in the deed above of 
at least two, Uley west field and the Nether field. Wolpen's 
Close and Lurgershales must have been quite a couple of miles 
from Wresden, and the same remark will apply to Crawle's sharde, 
which doubtless is close to the present hamlet of Crawley. Banch- 
well may be identified with Barnwell stream, traditionally pointed 
out as the spring from which the garrison of the great camp on 
Uley-Bury obtained their water supply. Shiples broke must be 
the ancient form of Shibley, which is the name given to land lying 
between Rockstowes and Angeston. The inconvenience of a farm 
being thus sub-divided into strips of land a mile or two apart must 
have been very great, and it is difficult to realise it in these days of 
of " ring fences." As late as 1851 one of these outlying parcels of 
land, known as Newbrook or Angeston, was sold to the late Mr. 
T. B. L. Baker, and that referred to above as " halfe an acre lyinge 
on Shiples broke," seems to have been disposed of a few years 
before. Even at the present time the "tyning " and " Uley field " 
are separated from the rest of the farm by several fields. 

From the time of Gyles Browninge for upwards of a century 
the title deeds have disappeared, though there is reason to believe 
that they were in existence not very many years ago. 

Smyth's History of the Hundred of Berheley renders little assist- 
ance, for his account of Ewley is evidently incomplete, but as he 
mentions that when he wrote one Bichard Browning held some of 
the land which had been parcelled out by Richard Barkely in 
1566, we may assume that Wresden continued for many years in 
possession of the family of Gyles Browninge. 

By 1665 it is evident that Wresden had come into the 
possession of John Eyles, but whether by descent or purchase 



Some Notes on Wresden. 



287 



there is no evidence to show. In 1684 he put in an iron fire back, 
and was evidently then married, as his wife's initials appears 
thereon, as they do also upon the porch already alluded to, which 
he built three years later. This J ohn Eyles distinguished himself 
by introducing the manufacture of " Spatiish cloth " or kersey- 
mere. It is of course impossible to say when cloth was first 
woven at Wresden, and the date of its discontinuance is also 
doubtful, but weavers were certainly living at the cottages at 
the time of the downfall of the Uley cloth trade, and within 
living memory woad was grown in the neighbouring fields. It 
is singular that no trace of John Eyles can be discovered in 
the parish register and nothing is known of his family. But 
his monument with his cloth mark still exists in Uley Church. 
It formerly was against the south wall but on the rebuilding of 
^}he church in 1858 was placed in the tower. It has already 
been printed, but a more accurate copy is given below : 



Behind this wall lyes the 
Body of John Eyles aged 91 

e 

years and y first that ever 
made Spanish Cloath in y Psh. 
To whose Grateful! Memory 



this Monument was Erected 



by IVBayley Gent, of Wreisden 



1731 



I E 




The peculiar device following the inscription is of some interest, 
as it is a late instance of the survival of the ancient merchant's 
mark. An old Uley weaver, living a few years ago, suggested 



Traxsactioxs at Dttkslet. 



that the device was intended to represent a " swift " or reel on 
which to wind yarn. 

The date 1731 indicates the time when the monument was 
erected and not the death of John Eyles, for that must have 
occurred earlier than 1722. No record of his burial can be 
found, and this is evidently due to the inaccurate way in which 
the register was kept in the early part of the last century. 

By indenture, dated 20th January, 1693, John Eles of the 
parish of Uley, clothier, and Elizabeth, his wife, in consideration 
of the intended marriage of Michael Bayly of Uley, clothier, 
nephew of the said John Eles and Elizabeth, his wife, with 
Elizabeth Rowdon, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Rowdon of 
Almeby, Hereford, gent., granted to Edward Morse of Dursley, 
gent., and the said Thomas Rowdon, as trustees, the messuage 
wherein the said John Eles and Elizabeth his wife did then 
inhabit commonly known as Wresden, Michael Bayly, who 
thus became interested in Wresden, evidently carried on the 
business of a clothier there for some years. In 1731 he, how- 
ever, leased the farm to one Samuel Sowls of Uley, yeoman, at 
the rent of £46 for 12 years, imposing at the same time a fine 
of £10 an acre on land " eared ^ plowed and converted to tillage." 
The fields allowed for tillage were the Tyning, the lands in the 
West and Shibley fields, the Meares, and the upper part of Mare- 
shalls piece, doubtless that now known as "The Massalls," next 
Downham Hill. But he reserved to himself the " old house and 
garden, together with the new stable or building between the old 
house and the new barn, and also the liberty of the brewhouse 
for washing and brewing." The " meers" were probably held by 
Mr. Bayly on lease only, for an indenture is extant dated 1700, 
by which Thomas Small of Nailsworth, clothier, leased to Michael 
Bayly for 12 years at the rent of £5, " a close of arable land called 
the meers, containing eight acres in the west field, now divided 
into two by a quick-set hedge set on the top of the great meer." ^ 

Michael Bayly, as we have seen, married Elizabeth Rowden 
about the year 1693. They had two children, Thomas and 

1 " Eared " prepared for cultivation with coni. — Ed. 

2 The lands here called mecra were doubtletss m' et marshy ground when 
they received that name, but the "great meer" upon which the quick-set 
hedge was planted was a prominent balk or boundary in what was qnce a 
common-tield. — Ei\ 



Some Notes on We-esden. 



Elizabeth. Thomas Bayley, the son, released his interest in 1723 
to his father, and died unmarried. In consequence of a voyage 
he made to the East Indies a resettlement of the estate was made, 
and the deed by which this was done was recorded in the E-olls 
Chapel, and is now preserved in the Public Record Office. It is 
referred to in the letter below. 

Michael Bayly in 1731, still described as of Uley, married 
again. His second wife was Mary Ashmead, of Gloucester, and 
their marriage settlement bears date 7th Sept. 1731. Shortly 
afterwards he removed to Gloucester, and became one of the 
sheriffs of that city in 1733 and 1740, and Mayor in 1747. 

Mr. Bayly appears to have been a dissenter, and a member 
of the Independent meeting house at 0am. It is evident that he 
took an active political part, and was a strong opponent of the 
Jacobites. As an illustration of the political state of Gloucester 
at the time of the rebellion in 1745, the following letter of 
Michael Bayly's, addressed to his grandson, "To Mr. Phillimore 
at a silke shop und' a long Gallare on London Bridg," will prove 
of interest to the reader. 

Oct^ ye 11th 1745, 

Bear J : 

Acording to y® pleasing prospect I had of seing good M^^. D. — at 
Bath I prepared to go there persu^ to an Intemation I gave her by LeW but 
I did not Reach M"^ Thomas^ untill 2 days after she was gon : but my 
vigalent Cuz. Adye soon gave me to know the time she set out : & hope 
Youl not suffer me to Remain long Igno^^ how she got home & now is togeth^" 
with My^. Fill to whom I hope you will in the best maner tender uufained 
service & make you make my Requests Known as above. 

And now I am turning my thoughts to y® glumie veil that hanges over 
Great brittan but y^ midlin and common people seemes Rath^ to glorie in 
than be a.f£ec^^. with & this leads to tell you how much myselfe is the marke 
and envey of y® mob of this plac & not a day pases without incontestable 
prufes thereof which putts me upon Informing you that when y^. wicked 
begin they its feared will make a full end therefor If I never did inform 
you I do now that should my writeings be destroyed I Registered my Estate 
at ye Rowles Chapell Chancery Lane I believe much about y*^ yeare 1726 or 
may be a year or two before or a year or Too aft^. & I hope god will bles 
little I Leave w^^ grete lucres & what ever decays with you yet godlynes 
with Contentment is sure gain & Cannot be tacken from you I am to all y*', 
bear yo^ name an affectionate Humble Ser*. IVB. 



290 



Transactions at Dursley. 



The subsequent history of this homestead may be very briefly 
summed up. Michael Bayly died about 1748. By his will dated 
2nd April, 1745, with codicil of 20th October, 1746, and proved 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, he devised " Resdown " 
to his grandson and executor, John Phillimore, of London. 
Michael Baily deserves to be remembered as a benefactor to 
the parish of Uley, for he left money to pay a school dame 
to teach children not having relief from the parish. John 
Phillimore was the eldest son of Jonathan Phillimore, of Cam, 
clothier, by his first wife Elizabeth, Michael Bayly's only surviving 
child. She was buried at Cam in 1723, leaving a daughter, after- 
wards Elizabeth Bliss, and a son John Phillimore .just mentioned. 
This John Phillimore was a wealthy silkman who carried on his 
business at Cateaton Street, and New Broad Street, London, and 
resided at Cheshunt in Hertfordshire. He died in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields in 1795, aged 72, leaving two daughters, co-heiresses, Mrs. 
Pearse and Mrs. Vincent, who, however, did not succeed to his 
Uley property. John Phillimore had a younger . half brother, 
Robert Phillimore, who assisted him in his business, and to whom 
in 1783, "out of natural love and affection," he conveyed this 
estate as a gift. Robert Phillimore, who never married, survived 
his brother but a few months, and was buried amongst his ancestors 
in Cam churchyard on the 24th November, 1795. By his will he 
devised his estates at Uley and Cam to his sister Eleanor Philli- 
more of Bridgnorth for her life, on whose death, in the month of 
February, 1837, within a few weeks of completing her 98th year, 
Wresden, in accordance with the terms of her brother's will, passed 
to his nephew in the possession of whose descendants it still 
remains. 

Such is the history of this ancient farmstead which has been 
mainly compiled from title deeds and family papers which are 
still extant. No stirring episodes are connected with it, and there 
are many other places in the neighbourhood which must possess 
a history of more general interest. But its association with the 
Uley cloth trade and the fact that it has passed from one family 
to another without alienation for so long a period, may render 
the foregoing acceptable as a contribution to the history of the 
parish. < 



List of the Merchants' Hall. 



LIST OF THE MERCHANTS' HALL, 1732. 
BRISTOL. ^ 
Communicated by E. F. EBERLE. 

Jn<' Willoughby 
Abra: Elton 
Hen: Dampier 



M'' Peter Day, Master 

M^ Mich* White ) ^ , 

V Wardens 
W Arth^ Hart 1 

M^ Edm^ Baugh 

M^ James Hilhouse 

M^ Ja« Hollidge 

M'^ Ja« Day 

M^ Ja« La Roche 

M^ Rob* Smith 

M^ Joseph Isles 

M^ Jere. Innys 

M^ Abel Grant 

M^ Jefferis 

M^ Hen. Loyd, Treasurer 

W Robert Yate 
S'^ Abra: Elton, Bar* 
M^ James Donning 
M'^ John Becher 
M^ Tho^ Longman 
M'^ Sami Hunt 
M^ Jno Blackwel 
Jno Norman 
M'^ Jacob Elton 

M' Chas Pope 
M'^ Joseph Brown 
M« Marm: Bowdler 
M'^ Robert Earle 
M'^ John Hollidge 
M'^ John Hobbs 



Mr Hare 
M'^ Nat: Foy 
M'^ Edwd Day 
M^ Edw<i Cooper 
Mr Dukeinfield 
M'^ Jno Hilhouse 
M^ W'^ Bawsdale 
M^ Joseph Blissett 
Mr vV^ Hart, jun^- 
M'^ Edm^ Saunders 

S^ Rd Lane, Kn* 
M^ Jn<> Elbridge 
M^ Tho« Watkins 
M'' Jos. Creswick 
Mr Hayman 
M^ Herbert Cother 
M^ Benj* Brown 
M^ Geo. Wyrall 
M^ Fra« Colston 
M^ Griffith Lort 
M^ Sam^ Blaake 
M^ Tho« Hoskins 
M^ Nath* Webb 
M^ Seth Clayton 
M^ Tho' Bowles 
M^ Jn« Sheppard 
Mr Brown 



i292 



Transactions at Dursley. 



The Worshipful John 

King, Esq^ May^ 
M^^ Jn« Dukeinfield 

Jn° Coysgarne 

Edw^ Foy 
M'^ Edwd Curtis 

Rich^ Laugher 

Tho« Eston 

Jn° Templeman 
Mr Challoner 

Lyonel Lyde 
M'^ Mich. Pope 

John Day 
Mr Rd Henvill 
M^ Hen: Combe 
M^ Walter Laugher 

Mr Uart, Sen'" 
M'^ Law. Hollister 
M^ Cha^ Berrow 
M^ Hen. Franklin 
M'^ Noblet Ruddock 
Mr W"^ Johnson 
M^ Hum: Fitz Herbert 
M^ Edw^ Atwood 
M^ John Baker 
Mr Swymmer 
M^ Christ^ Willoughby 
M'^ Henry Hart 
John Foy, Esq'*, Sheriff 
My Le^ Cassamajor 
M'' Tho« Chamberlaine 
M^ Corsley Rogers 
Mr Roberts 
M'" Mich. Becher 
M'^ Isaac Hobliouse 



M'- Rd Franklin 

M'^ Fownes Fitzherbert 

M'^ J ames Hazle 

M'^ Fra' Creswick 

M'^ Isaac Crump 

M'^ Jn° Champneys 

M'^ Fra^ Rogers 

M'^ Dan^ Leisons 

M'^ Ja« Whitchurch 

M'* Sam. Gardner, ju'" 

M'^ John Scrope 

Mr Harrington 

Mr Machan 

M'^ Ant^ Swymmer 

Mr Chamberlaine 

Mr Ste: Baker 

Mr Tho' Robinson 

Mr Jn« Steevens 

Mr Rd Longman 

Mr Sam^ Jacob 

Mr Geo: Daubeny 

Mr Hen: Swymmer 

Mr Jn^ Ducommun 

Mr Jn° Graham 

Mr Cha' Cross 

Mr Jno Pierce 

Mr Phil. Nourse 

Mr Christ" Jones 

Mr Tho« Jones 

Mr Jn<> Merewether 

Mr Matt^ Bowen 

Mr Abra: Elton, jur 

Mr Peter Muggleworth 

Mr Sam^ Smith 

Mr Richd Pigffot 



Notes ox Milo l>e Gloucester. 



293 



JSrOTES ON MILO DE GLOUCESTER, 

AND HIS CONNECTION WITH THE FOREST OF DENE. 

By a. W. CRAWLEY-BOEVY, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 

The history of the Forest of Dene during the reigns of the earlier 
Norman kings is very obscure. In Domesday Survey this Forest 
is very briefly, and apparently incidentally, alluded to in connec- 
tion with William Fitz -Norman, who is noted as holding the 
lands in Dene of three thanes who got them from King Edward 
the Confessor, tax free for guarding the forest, which would 
seem to have been considered by the Commissioners as appur- 
tenant to, or situated within, the limits of the great Manor of 
Dene. This forest was a favourite hunting ground of all the 
Norman kings ; and Ordericus Vitalis states that William the 
Conqueror was hunting there when he received news of the sack 
of York by the Danes. ^ 

Hunting was a favourite pastime of the Conqueror and his 
sons ; and all the royal forests in England, including the Forest 
of Dene, were preserved with such strictness as to earn for the 
Norman forest-laws a terrible and historical notoriety. 

One of the first acts of Henry I. on his accession to the 
throne in a.d. 1100 was to issue a Charter of Liberties, containing 
a special article whereby he expressly retained in his own hands, 
with the common consent of the Barons, the Royal Forests as they 
were in the Conqueror's time.^ This article doubtless included 
the Forest of Dene, in Gloucestershire ; and bearing in mind the 
jealous way in which the royal rights in these forests were main- 
tained, and the fact that Henry I. inherited all his father's 
passion for the chase, it is probable that the Forest of Dene 

1 Freeman's Norman Conquest, Vol. IV., p. 251. 

2 Stubbs, Vol. I., p. 305. 



294 



Transactions at Durslet. 



remained in the king's hands during the whole of this reign. At 
some time or another during Henry's reign the Camp and Castle 
of St. Briavels were built on a commanding sice in the Forest of 
Dene adjoining the Welsh border. The exact time or circum- 
stances under which the castle was built are not clearly known ; 
but according to Camden ^ it is " said to have been built by 
Milo Earl of Hereford to curb the Welsh." Modern research 
has hitherto failed to add anything material to this statement. 
Milo de Gloucester, afterwards created Earl of Hereford, was 
Sheriff of Gloucestershire in a.d. 1131,2 as appears from the earliest 
Pipe Roll now extant, and this date has been accepted by the 
Rev. W. T. Allen, Yicar of St. Briavel's, as the approximate date 
pf the completion of the camp and castle.^ 

It is certain from the Pipe Roll that the castle was in exis- 
tence at that date ; but when it was first erected is, I believe, 
unknown.* 

The castle does not seem to be mentioned by name by any of 
the Chroniclers on whom we are dependent for the events of 
Henry's reign ; but the king in person made two expeditions into 
Wales in the years 1114 and 1121 ; and the final subjugation of 
that province is usually dated from 2nd March, 1121, when the 
second expedition came to an end.^ Professor Freeman notes that 
the king returned in peace from the first expedition in a.d. 1114, 
after the usual precaution of building castles ; and it is, I think, 
tolerably certain that St. Briavels Castle was constructed on the 
English frontier against Wales about this period, and probably 
in connection with one or other of the Welsh expeditions 
referred to. No account or notice of the building of St. Briavels 

1 Britannia, by Gough, Vol. I., p. 268. 

He may have been sheriff some years before. We have no record, 
nor have we afterwards until 1155-G, when his son Walter de Hereford was 
sheriff and held the county in old farm of £8 U s. od. And Nigellus filius 
Arturi rendered an account of cenm of the Forest of Dene. Walter de 
Hereford continued Sheriff the follovviug year. — Eu. 

Transactions, Vol. III., p. 363. 

4 Conf. " Mediaeval MiUtary Architecture," by G. T. Clarke, F.S.A., 
2 vols. 

e Freeman, Vol. V., p. 212. 



Notes on Milo de Gloucester. 



295 



Castle has yet been discovered. In the Pipe Roll of a.d 1131, 
above referred to, we find Milo de Gloucester, as sheriff, accoun- 
ting to the king, inter alia, (i) for certain expenses connected with 
the payments of the establishment employed at the Castle of St. 
Briavels ; (ii) for the rent^ (censu) of the^J'orest of Dene, which 
appears to have been farmed of the crown by the descendant of 
William Fitz Xorman, the Domesday tenant already referred to. 
This entry would seem to confirm the view that the Forest of 
Dene, including the Castle of St. Briavels, was in the king's hands 
when the sheriff's account was rendered in the year above stated. 

Dugdale, however, states, on the authority of some ancient 
records printed in the Monasticon, that Milo de Gloucester 
received from Henry I. a grant of the royal Forest of Dene, and 
became by virtue of this grant the feudal Lord of the Forest. It is 
necessary to examine briefly the grounds on which this assertion 
is made ; and to see how far it is supported by the principal 
authorities on whom we are dependent for what we know of the 
history of Milo de Gloucester. 

These authorities are, I believe, as follow : — Sir Wm. Dugdale's 
Baronage and Monasticon ; Camden's Britannia; Selden's Titles of 
Hooiour, Brooke's Catalogue of Kings and Nohility, Vincent on 
Brooke ; Milles' Catalogue of Honour. Dugdale's Baronage ^ con- 
tains an account of Earl Milo's family, commencing with his father 
Walter, Constable of England, derived chiefly from John of 
Hexham and Gervase of Dover, better known as Gervase of 
Canterbury. John of Hexham's work is a continuation of the 
Chronicle of Simeon of Durham, published in the Bolls Series. 
The works of Gervase of Canterbury, who is styled in the Twys- 
den collection " Monochus Dorobornensis sive Cantuarensis " have 
been also republished in the Rolls Series. 

Besides the authorities mentioned, Dugdale also refers to the 
Itinerarium Cambrise " of Giraldus Cambrensis, the Tewkesbury 
Annals, to Roger of Hoveden's Chronicle, and to Gesta Stephani. 

1 This was not rend as the author supposes, but the Census- Forestce = the 
profits of the forest, for which the sheriff accounted. — Ed, 

2 Vol. I, p. 53(3, , 



296 



Transactions at Ddrslet. 



All these works have also been published in the Master of the 
E/olls Series. The historical introductions and excellent indexes o 
this Series greatly facilitates research, and I find that Dugdale and 
Selden have practically exhausted all the principal information 
available relating to Milo de Gloucester. 

Selden's " Titles of Honour " ^ contains a history of the Earl- 
dom of Hereford ; and one or two additional facts relating to Milo 
are quoted from Florence of Worcester. Camden, Brooke, Vincent, 
and Milles do not add anything material to the accepted accounts 
of the public events of Earl Milo's life. For his family and genea- 
logical history we are, however, at present largely dependent on 
two monastic chronicles or papers which are printed in Dugdale's 
" Monasticon." The first of these is the well known Llanthony 
Chronicle, printed under Dugdale's account of Llanthony Priory, 
near Gloucester ; and the second is the similar Abergavenny 
Chronicle under Dugdale's account of Bergavenense Coenobium, 
and taken from an old manuscript said to have been with Hamo 
le Straunge, of Hunstanton, in Norfolk.^ The Llanthony and 
Abergavenny Chronicles both purport to give an account of the 
founder's pedigree, and both agree in stating that the whole Forest 
of Dene was granted by Henry 1. to Milo and his heirs. The 
writer of the Abergavenny Chronicle ^specifically states that 
Milo was created Earl of Hereford by Henry I., who granted to 
him the Forest of Dene " in augmentum " of his dignity of Earl. 
But the alleged creation by Henry I. is, I believe, unknown to 
historiins; and it would seem that the writers of the Llanthony 
and Abergavenny Chronicles have both confounded the well 
known creation of the Empress Maud and her grant to Earl Milo 
of the Forest of Dene, cir. a.d. 1139, with an apocryphal creation 
and grant of Henry 1. 

In Dugdale's account of Fitz Herbert the same apparent 
error seems to be repeated in another shape ; and the Forest of 
Dene is there stated to have been given to Herbert on the 
occasion of his marriage with Lucie, third daughter of Earl Milo. 

1 Selden's Titles of Honour, page 648. 
- Mon. Angl. (1025) Vol. IV. p. 615. 

2 Baronage, Vol. I. p. 624. 



NOTKS ON MiLO DE GLOUCESTER. 



297 



But " for some transgression, as 'tis said," Herbert surrendered 
the Forest of Dene to King Henry II. 

Holinshed ^ says of Herbert Fitz Herbert that he was, in right 
of his wife Lucia, " Lord of the Forest of Deane ; " and on this 
point he is followed by Atkyns.'^ 

Of the alleged grant of the Forest of Dene to Milo by Hen. I., 
and of the grant of that forest to Fitz Herbert on the occasion 
of his marriage with Earl Milo's daughter Lucia, I can find no 
confirmation of any kind ; and apart from the facts already quoted, 
which seem to throw great doubt on the alleged grant, there are 
one or two additional points which seem further to dispose of the 
theory. By the charter, which is printed by Sir John Maclean at 
Vol. YI. p. 199, of the Transactions, as an appen. to his Paper on 
the Manors of Deane Magna and Abbenhall, Hoger Earl of Here- 
ford grants to William de Dene the same " Ministerium " of the 
Forest of Dene, as his own father Earl Milo had held. The 
natural inference to be drawn from this charter seems to be that 
Earl Milo was not the Lord of the Forest of Dene as stated by 
the authorities already quoted. He was merely the King's 
custodian or " Minister," who accounted to the Crown for the 
proceeds of the forest, and who, in virtue of his ofiice, held the 
King's Castle of St. Briavels. 

Again, there is evidence to show that Henry I. granted to 
Milo de Gloucester, the Constable, the fee and inheritance of the 
land of English Bicknor, which belonged to Ulric de Dene. This 
charter is also printed in extenso by Sir John Maclean in the 
Transactions of this Society, Vol. IV., page 319. English Bicknor 
is a well known parish of the Forest District, and is included in 
what is now the Hundred of Sfc. Briavels, but it appears under 
the Hundred of Westbury in Testa de Nevil. The fact of this 
grant seems also to militate against the view that Milo was 
himself Lord of the whole Forest of Dene, in virtue of a special 
grant by King Henry 1. 

I cannot find that Milo de Gloucester, Constable of England, 
was ever eo nomine styled "Constable of St. Briavel's Castle." 

1 Chron., Vol. III. p. 866, edn. 1587. " Hist, of Glouc. 2nd edit. p. 199. 

Vol. XI. w 



298 



TUANSACTTONS AT DURSLEY. 



as his successors in office appear to have been. But I think 
that Mr. Allen is undoubtedly right in treating him as the 
first Constable of that Castle ; and if this view be correct, it seems 
to dispose of the alleged royal grant of the forest which we have 
been considering. It is not improbable that Milo de Gloucester 
may, perhaps, have obtained from Henry I. a recognition of his 
office as hereditary Warden of the forest and Constable of St. 
Briavel's Castle. We know that Milo was sheriff of the County 
of Gloucester in a.d. 1131 ; and it is tolerably certain that the 
Castle of St. Briavels was erected by him at the instance of the 
King to support the royal authority at an exposed point near 
the Welsh March. Dr. Stubbs specially notes that some of the 
chief offices of the King's Court had a tendency to become here- 
ditary in particular families. In illustration he has pointed to the 
fact that the office of Constable of England was, for several gener- 
ations, held by the family of Walter the Constable, father of Earl 
Milo. Similarly the office of High Steward became hereditary 
in the house of Leicester ; that of Chamberlain in the family of 
Yere ; and the Butlership in that of d'Albini.^ I am also reminded 
that the Mastership of the Buckhounds was hereditary in the 
family of Brocas, which is another strong case in point. ^ 

If Milo de Gloucester was considered as the hereditary guardian 
of the royal forest of Dene and Constable of St. Briavel's Castle, 
it is not unlikely that he might be regarded, in popular phrase, as 
lord of the Forest of Dene. But this, of course, is very different 
from the feudal dominium derived from a public royal grant. 

As regards the alleged grant of the forest to Herbert fitz 
Herbert on the occasion of his marriage to Lucia, daughter of 
Earl Milo, I have been unable to find the exact date of this 
marriage ; or any confirmation of the alleged grant. In the 
absence of direct evidence I should feel disposed to doubt the 
existence of any such grant, though it is possible that some portion 
of the royal dues accruing from the forest may have been granted 
to Herbert Fitz Herbert on the occasion of his marriage. We 

1 Stubbs' Const. Hist. Vol. I. p. 345. 

^ The family of Brocas of Beaurepaire and Roche Court, Hereditary 
Masters of the Royal Buck Hounds, (Longmans, Green & Co., 1886.) 



Notes ox Milo de Gloucester. 



299 



know that these royal dues were of various kinds. They were 
assessed and collected by the verderers, or as they were afterwards 
called, " the Coroners of the Forest."^ Nicholl's ^ in fact specifically 
asserts that the grant made to Herbert Fitz Herbert in 5th of 
Stephen consisted of the royal quit rents of the forest. No 
authority for the statement has been quoted ; and its accuracy 
has been questioned.^ 

Henry I. died in the night following 1st December, 1135, and 
the whole country was very soon plunged into anarchy consequent 
on the rivalry of Stephen and the Empress Maud. 

Milo de Gloucester appears, at first, to have temporised and 
played a double part. He succeeded in obtaining from Stephen 
a restitution in fee of the whole Honour of Gloucester with the 
custody of the Tower and Castle there, which he had held as his 
patrimony in the time of Henry I., and likewise the Barony of 
Brecknock with all the offices and lands pertaining to that dignity. 

The record of this grant I cannot find in the Public Record 
Office ; but amongst the royal charters of King Stephen in the 
Register of the Duchy of Lancaster Records are the following : — 

[a) Confirmation to Earl Milo of the grant made by Henry I. 
to Walter the Constable of the land of Edric, the son of Ketel. 

(b) Grant to Earl Milo of all the land which the Bishop of 
Exeter held in Gloucester, and had given to Milo. 

It is clear, however, that these grants did not satisfy Milo, 
who (according to Dugdale) " expecting through the interest he 
had with Maud, the King's sole daughter and heir, to attain to 
the Earldom of Hereford, subtilly used all his power on her 
behalf, and went with some strength to his " Castle at Gloucester, 
where she then was, and fetched her with honour thence." 

On this occasion the Empress Maud is said to have bestowed 
on Milo St. Briavel's Castle and the whole Forest of Dene j which 
grant so obliged him to her that he entered into a league with 
Robert Earl of Gloucester, her brother, to aid him in keeping his 
castles and all his inheritance. 

^ Transactions, Vol. X., p. 224. A Gloucestershire Jury List of the 
18th century, by Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., &c. 

- Forest of Dean, p. 8. ^ Transactions, Vol. III. p. 367. 

W 2 



300 



Transactions at Dursley. 



This grant of the Empress Maud is, for my present purpose, 
one of special importance to the county history ; and it is much 
to be regretted that the original grant is no longer to be found. 
Dugdale's authority is stated to be some paper in the Duchy of 
Lancaster Records which is thus quoted : " Ex magno Registro 
in officio ducatus Lane." Mr. Walford D. Selby, of the Record 
Office has been kind enough to assist me in searching for this 
paper, but unfortunately without success. The missing grant 
appears to be one of those which were recorded in the last volume 
of the Great Cowcher. I am indebted, however, to Mr. J. H. 
Round for the information that the text of the missing charter 
is known, and that he proposes to publish it. 

In the Register of Royal Charters, Duchy of Lancaster 
Records, the following grants of the Empress to the Earl Milo are 
recorded : 

{a) 1141, St. Albans. Grant from the Empress Maud to Milo 
de Gloucester of the house which belonged to Gregory the Sewer 
at Westminster. 

(h) 1141. Oxford. Grant from the Empress Maud to Milo, 
Earl of Hereford, of the Castle and Honour of Abergavenny. 

(c) 1141). Oxford. Charter of Empress Maud, creating Milo 
de Gloucester Earl of Hereford. This charter is printed in extenso 
in Rymers' Foedera, Yol. I., page 8, Selden's Titles of Honour, 
page 648, and in Vol. V., App. 5, to the Report on the Dignity 
of a Peer of the Realm. This charter of the Empress Maud has 
been hitherto considered as the authority for the Korman Earldom 
of Hereford. 1 

Milo, Earl of Hereford, died on Christmas Eve, 1143, being 
accidentally killed by an arrow of one of his followers while hunt- 
ing in the Forest of Dene. His death is noticed by several of 
the chroniclers besides John of Hexham and Gervase of Canter- 
bury, who are quoted by Dugdale. We owe to Leland the 
tradition that Flaxley Abbey was founded as the spot where 
a brother of Roger is said to have met his death. I have discussed 
this tradition in my book entitled Cartulary and Historical 

i Stubbs' Const. Hist., Vol. I., pp. 360-362, 



i 



Notes on Milo de Gloucester. 



301 



Notes of Flaxley Abbey, and I have given my reasons for think- 
ing that the tradition has been wrongly associated by Leland 
with one of Earl Roger's brothers instead of with Milo father of 
Roger. The tradition in question seems to have been derived 
from Giraldus Cambrenses, who in his well feown Itin. CambricB, 
and in another work entitled Speculum Ecclesice has noticed the 
circumstances of Earl Milo's death. The monastery of Elaxley 
or Dene is described in the latter work as standing in limbo f orestse 
de Dene, non procul a Newenam fundatum olim, in loco ubi Comes 
Herefordise Milo ictu sagittse casuali, ad feram missse, perforatus 
lethaliter fuit."i 

Flaxley Abbey was shortly after Earl Milo's death founded by 
his eldest son and successor Roger, doubtless, I think, to com- 
memorate his father's fate. Roger, we may well suppose, aspired 
to succeed his father in all his dignities and possessions, including, 
of course, the Castle of St. Briavel's and the Forest of Dene. 
We do not, however, hear of any confirmation to Roger during 
Stephen's reign. From Stephen himself no confirmation could, 
of course, have been expected by Roger ; and the Empress Maud 
was herself in no position after Earl Milo's death to guarantee to 
Roger his father's possessions. I find it, however, stated as 
follows in Brooke's " Catalogue of Kings and Nobility " in the 
account given by Roger Fitz Milo under the head of Earldom of 
Hereford. 

" He was also Constable of England, Lord of Brecknock, * 
Caer Went, Gower, and of the Forest of Deane, all which (sayth 
Somerset Glover) were confirmed unto him by King Henry the 
Second his letters Patent, bearing date at Warwicke the 12th 
day next after the conclusion of peace between King Stephen and 
him." 

The letters patent referred to apparently bear date a.d. 1153, 
while Stephen was still nominally King. 

In Milles' Catalogue of Honour/' (1610) Roger is styled 
" Lord of the Forest of Dean." Brooke's reference to the Collec- 
tions of Glover, Somerset Herald, I have been unable to verify, 
nor could I find any trace of the letters' patent referred to. 

^ rjiraldus Cambrensis Rolls' Series, Vol. IV., p. 219. 



302 



Transactions at Dursley, 



Prima facie it seems not improbable that Roger did receive 
from Henry before his accession some guarantee that his father's 
possessions and dignities would be restored to him. It was of the 
greatest importance to Henry to pacify and attach as many of the 
Empress' adherents as possible, and the son and heir of Earl Milo 
was not a man who could safely be overlooked. Roger appears, 
from several public instruments, to have assumed his father's title 
of Earl of Hereford at least as early as a.d. 1144. He founded 
the Abbey of Flaxley within the forest limits, and he made 
some important grants to the abbey and monks of forest land 
and privileges. This fact of itself appears to suggest that Roger 
claimed to be Lord of the Forest in the full sense of the 
grant made to Earl Milo by the Empress Maud. But by the 
peace of Wallingford and Westminster, made between Stephen 
and Henry of Anjou in a.d. 1153 the following amongst other 
imputations were made, in that the royal rights, which had every- 
where been usurped by the Barons, were to be resumed by the 
King. Stephen died on 25th October, 1154,^ and on 19th December 
the same year Henry II. was crowned at London. On this 
occasion he issued, like Henry I., a Charter of Liberties, the text 
of which is published at p. 128 of Stubbs' Select Charters. This 
charter, coupled with the terms of the Wallingford settlement, 
gave Roger Fitz Milo and the other principal Barons very clear 
notice of the course which the King was expected to take. Roger 
may have relied on the letters patent already referred to ; but if 
so, he was speedily undeceived ; and, smarting, we may suppose, 
under a sense of injustice, he at once prepared for resistance, and 
fortified against the King the Castles of Hereford and Gloucester. 
According to Gervase of Dover his resistance was, however, very 
short; and before the 13th March, 1155, he had, through the 
intercession of his relation Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, 
made his formal submission to the King, and was thereupon 
confirmed by Henry II. in his father's title of Earl of Hereford. 
He at the same time received from Henry II. a grant of all 
the royal demesne which Henry I. had held between the Severn 

^ Henry's reign does not reckon until Wth December, the day of his 
coronation. — Ed. 



Notes on Milo de Gloucester. 



303 



and the Wye in Gloucestershire, except the Castle of St. Briavel's, 
the vill of Newenham, and the Forest of Dene. These important 
exceptions were expressly retained in the King's own hands. 

The transcript of this charter is set out at length in Vol. Y., 
App. 5 of the Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer of the 
Kealm. 

With this charter of King Henry II. I come to the end of the 
limit which I have proposed for this paper. A general review 
of the evidence leads, I think, to the probable conclusion that the 
Forest of Dene remained continuously in the King's hands from 
the time of the Conquest until its alleged grant by the Empress 
Maud to Milo de Gloucester, c. 1139. Making due allowance for 
the precarious character of titles derived from the Empress, Milo 
could doubtless claim to be Lord of the Forest of Dene in virtue 
of this grant from the date of receiving it in 1139 until his own 
death on Christmas Eve, 1143. From this last date until 1155, 
when the Forest of Dene was formally resumed by King Hen. II., 
Roger Fitz Milo probably claimed to be Lord of the Forest of 
Dene on the same footing as his father ; but his tenure was 
doubtless of a most precarious kind, being dependent entirely on 
the weakness of the King ; and, as already shewn, Henry II. 
took the first opportunity after his accession of formally resuming 
possession of this royal forest. 



304 



Transactions at Dursley. 



ON THE MANOR HOUSE 

OF WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, AND ITS INHABITANTS. 

By V. R. PERKINS. 

The Manor House of Wotton-under-Edge — one of the principal 
residences of the Berkeley family, and which was so intimately 
connected with the borough town of Wotton-under-Edge — was 
built by Thomas Lord Berkeley somewhere about the year 1210, 
or shortly before the end of the reign of King John. Smyth, in 
his life of this lord, tells us : He had built a faire house at 
Wotton, neere the church, or upon the place of the capital mes- 
suage, where, before his death (a.d. 1243), hee often abode. ^ 

In or about the first year of Henry III., 1215, he married 
Jone, daughter of Sir Ralph de Somery, Lord of Campden, in 
Gloucestershire, by whom, Smyth says, " he had issue that came 
to remarkableness in the world : six sons and two daughters. ^ ^ 
This lady survived her husband many years, and in this faire house, 
neere the church, she kept her residence most of the days of her 
widowhood, and thereupon was in common appellation called 
" Domina de Wotton," and such was her affection for this manor 
that on the 2nd of August, in the 36th of Henry IIL, a.d. 1251, 
eight years after the death of her husband, she procured to herself 
for life, and after to the Lord Maurice her son and his heires, a 
grant of free warren within her Manors of Wotton and Cam, and 
a market to be holden every Friday at Wotton, and a faire every 
year to be there likewise holden upon the eve, the day, and the 
morrow of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, with all lybertyes 
and free customs which to a market and faire appertayne : and for 
the holding thereof out of her Manor of Wotton, which consisted 
of the six hamlets, Nibley, Sinwell, Wotton, Coombe, Wortley, 

1 Berkeley MSS. Lives of the Berkeleys, Maclean's edn., Vol. I. p. 117. 

2 Ibid. 



On the Manor House of Wotton-under-Edge. , 305 

and Bradley; selected the said hamlet of Wotton, whereof the 
whole manor had the name, and which, to this day, is called the 
Borough or Market town of Wotton, or the New Town, and the 
next year after agreed with the inhabitants of that hamlet of 
Wotton, by the name of her free burgesses' of Wotton, that their 
burgages should consist of a third part of an acre, according to 
the custom and usages of Tetbury, and that every of them should 
have free entry of pasturage with a hors and a cowe into the three 
fields of the said manor after Michaelmas day, paying to her twelve 
pence yearly for every burgage, which deed of the Lady Jone, the 
Lord Maurice her son, by his deed dated on St. Matthew's day, 
in the 37th Henry III., confirmed for him and his heirs. And 
this was the time and this was the manner of the New Town's 
beginning and building where now it standeth the backer part 
whereof is still called the Old Town. The Old Town having, 
according to tradition, been burnt down in the reign of King 
John. These privileges were all confirmed by Thomas Lord 
Berkeley in the 10th year of Edward I., a.d. 1282. 

This Lady J one lived to a very advanced age, and died on the 
22nd May, 1376, in the 4th year of Edward I. Maurice, her son 
and heir, died on St. Ambrose day, 4th April, 1281, from whom 
this manor descended to his son Thomas, the second lord of that 
name. He retained the Manors of Wotton and Symondsall, 
together with others in the county, in his own hands, and when 
he was free from foreign employments he went often in progress 
from one of his manor or farm houses to another, scarce two miles 
asunder, making his stay at each of them for one or two nights, 
overseeing and directing the husbandries, and so back to his 
standynge house where his wife and family remained, which was 
very great. Sometimes at Berkeley, sometimes at Wotton, 
sometimes at Bradley or elsewhere. He died in 1321, and 
was succeeded by his son Maurice, who, in the next year, 
joined with the Lords Gifford, Audeley and Mortimer in the 
rebellion against the King's favourites, the two Despensers. 
Being induced to go with others to Cirencester to meet the King, 
upon faith of safe conduct, he was treacherously seized and 



S06 



Traksactioiss at Dursley. 



and committed to prison in the Castle of Wallingford, and his 
Castle of Berkeley and his Manors of Wotton, Symondsall, and 
others are declared forfeited to the King, and given into the 
custody of Simon de Driby to hold at the King's pleasure ; and 
by inquisition taken at Wotton on the 27th December, 1322, the 
jury found that it was more to the King's profit to keep these 
manors and lands stocked and stored with cattle as they then 
were than to let them out to farm for rent, so they remained in 
possession of the crown for some five or six years, until they were 
regained by his son Thomas, who having been in rebellion with 
his father against the Despensers, and also committed to prison 
was released from Pevensy, where he was then incarcerated by 
the success of the Queen's party in 1326, a few months after his 
father's death. And we find him soon after his release spending 
large sums of money in the repair of his houses and property, 
which had been allowed to go to ruin during the King's holding. 
This lord lived occasionally at his Wotton Manor House. He 
married, first, Margaret, daughter of Roger Mortimer, Earl of 
March, who died in 1337, and ten years later, Katherine, relict 
of Sir Peter le Yeele, Knight, daughter of Sir John Clyvedon, 
who survived him some twenty-four years. This lady (as Lady 
Katherine Yeele), founded the Free Grammar School at Wotton. 
This school is noted as being one of the oldest foundations of 
the kind in the kingdom. It dates back to 1385, 8th Richard II., 
when by letters patent this King granted his royal license to 
Katherine, Lady Berkeley, widow, to found and endow a Free 
Grammar School at Wotton-under-Edge, in the county of Glou- 
cester, "to consist of a master and two poor scholars, collegiately 
to live together and to have perpetual succession, and also to 
endow the said school with certain real estates as therein 
mentioned." She appears to have died this same year, and was 
buried beside her husband in Berkeley Church. 

The next one to take up occasional residence in this manor 
house was another Thomas Lord Berkeley, the fourth of that 
name. He was much more stylish and magnificent than any of 
his ancestors, and exceeded them all in the sumptuousness of his 
house, and the state in which he lived, and, if it were possible, he 



On the Manor House of Wotton-ukder-Edge. ,^07 

was even more fond of field sports than any of them : he kept 
hounds and greyhounds, not only at all his mansions, but also at 
his granges and farm-houses^ and he likewise had several stables 
of great horses both at Berkeley and Wotton. In 1367, when 
he was only fourteen years he married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Gerrard Warren Lord de Lisle, a young lady of seven 
summers, who brought him, on the death of her father, which 
took place in 1383, a great acccession of property. Like his an- 
cestors, he farmed his own demesne lands by the aid of reeves 
and bailiffs, and maintained great hospitality at the various manor 
houses, and gave handsome rewards to his servants as the follow- 
ing will testify. 

In 21st Richard II. 1398. In recompense for his service, he 
gave to John Harsfield a messuage and divers lands and tene- 
ments in Bradley for his life. 

In 1st Hen. lY. 1399. In recompense of his service, he gave to 
Robert Herblinge^ and Alice his wife, for their lives, five houses 
in Wotton, and divers lands in the Manor of Wotton fibreign. 

In 1402. In recompense of his service, he gave to John 
Chinham for his life, and Joan his wife, a messuage and divers 
lands in Chepinge lane in Wotton. 

In 1414. In recompense of his service, he gave to Philip 
Chamberlain for his life, a messuage and divers lands in Wotton 
fibreign. 

In 1417. Three months before his death he gave to John 
Plomer, and Jone his wife, for their lives, in recompense of her 
service, a house in Wotton, with liberty to buy and sell, toll free, 
within the said borough. 

When the King's purveyor came to purvey in the Manor of 
Wotton he gave him secretly 3s. 4d. and his man 4d., to speak a 
good word to his master, saith the accompt, and for their friend- 
ship bestowed more on them in wine 12d. 

This Lord and Lady Berkeley had only one child, a daughter, 
Elizabeth, who M^as about twenty-six years old at her father's 



308 



Transactions at Dursley. 



death. She was married to Richard Beauchamp, who, after his 
father's death, became Earl of Warwick and Regent of France^ 

This marriage laid the foundation of the disputes and contentions for 
the possession of the Castle and Barony, with their fatal results, between 
this Elizabeth and her heirs, as heirs of line, and James Berkeley, nephew 
of the aforesaid Lord Thomas, whom he had brought up at Berkeley Castle 
as his heir, and the heirs of the said James as heirs at law. This is called 
the Great Berkeley Law Suit, and in its various incidents it lasted from the 
death of the Lord Thomas in 1417 to 1609, when it was finally settled by 
compromise. Though called a Law Suit it was. in its earlier stages, far in 
excess of proceedings at law, being marked by violence and bloodshed, 
which culminated in a pitched battle at Nibley Green, on 20th March, 1469, 
when the young Viscount Lisle was slain. Mr. Perkins gave a very interest- 
ing account of the struggle down to this date, but inasmuch as all the 
particulars have been fully related by the late Mr. J. H. Cooke, and printed 
in our Transactions, Vol. III., p. 305, it is unnecessary to repeat it. — Ed. 



I 

J 




PARISH CHURCH, WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE. 



Notes on the Church of Wotton-under-Edge. 



309 



NOTES ON THE CHURCH OF WOT^^QN-UNDER-EDGE. 

By the Rev. H. SEWELL, Vicar. 

The Church is dedicated to S. Mary the Virgin, and stands in 
the tything of Sinwell. 

It consists of nave, north and south aisles, chancel, tower, 
south porch, and chapel on the north side. 

There are no remains of earlier work in the building than the 
arcades of the nave, the .doorway of the south aisle, the east 
window, and the walls up to, and certainly as high as, the window 
sills of nearly the whole church, with the exception of the tower, 
from which we are led to believe that the present church was 
erected in the 13th century, and that it then consisted, as it does 
now, of a nave, north and south aisles, chancel and south porch 
(from this latter a very handsome early English doorway was 
removed when the present modern doorway was erected). 

The drip-course in the tower wall shews that the roofs of this 
church were high pitched, and the nave, at that time, had no 
clerestory windows. : , • 

The church was, no doubt, a complete and perfect edifice, to 
which was added, in the 14th century, the two lower stages of 
the present tower (ball flower ornament), and this was again 
added to by two more stages in the 1 6th century. 

. We now come to the first great change which took place after 
the erection of the present church, but how, or why effected, no 
one can now say ; possibly the roofs may have failed, or the desire 
to obtain more light by the erection of a clerestory over the nave 
arcades, and the insertion of larger windows in the church itself 
may have induced the men of the 15th century to remove, as they 
undoubtedly did, the high pitched early English roofs and win- 
dows, and to build windows in their own style (Perpendicular) 
and to erect clerestories, and to place roofs of very flat pitch, 



310 



Transactions at Dursley, 



covered with lead over the whole building, as they were prior to 
the third, and much to be lamented era in the History of the 
Church which took place in the early part of the present century. 

The roofs and fittings were undoubtedly of oak. Screens 
existed at the chancel arch, and across the north and south aisles, 
and altars at the east end of the north and south aisles, as well as 
of the chancel, and painted glass in most of the windows. 

The chapel on the north side was dedicated to S. Katherine, as 
tiles with her wheel were found beneath the floor. 

From this period (15th century) small alterations and ad- 
ditions to the building were made. 

We now come to the last great change to which this building 
has been subjected. At the commencement of the 19th century 
the old oak roofs, and the clerestory, the screens, and the old 
oak seats of the nave and aisles were removed ; and new roofs 
and windows, such as we now see, were erected ; by this a debased 
character was given to the church. 

In 1838 the chancel arch was removed from its old position 
to where we now see it, and two new bays added to the nave 
arcade. In 1882 and 1883 the chancel was restored to its original 
dimensions by the addition of the present screen, the nave was 
refloored and reseated, the galleries at the west end were removed, 
throwing open to view the fine tower arch and western wall of 
the nave. The clear view now obtained of the western wall of 
the nave reveals unmistakeably the history of the present church. 

Paintings of S, Christopher and other saints formerly adorned 
the western wall. 

There were formerly several chantries in the church : one 
dedicated to S. Nicholas, one to S. Katherine, before mentioned, 
one to All Saints, and one to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The 
chapel of S. Nicholas is said to have adjoined the south porch. 

At the east end of the south aisle there formerly stood a 
chapel in which there was a squint giving a view of the high 
altar. The squint is still preserved, and the remains of the door^ 
way leading to the chapel from the south aisle can still be seen ; 



Notes on the Chue,ch of Wotton-undbr-Edge. HI I 

this chapel may have belonged to Lisle House, which is close 
adjoining. 

The Organ is the work of Christopher Schnider, the son-in- 
law of Father Smith. It was built in a.d. 1726. It originally 
stood in the church of S. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, and was 
the gift of King George the 1st to that church. It cost 1500 
guineas. Handel was engaged to open it, and used often to play 
upon it. 

In A.D. 1800, it was removed from S. Martin's-in-the-Fields 
and sold for .£200 to the Rev. Dr. Tattersall, Yicar of Wotton- 
under-Edge, and given by him to the parish church. 

The Parish Registers, date from the year a.d. 1571, and are 
in a good state of preservation. 

There is a fine brass to Thomas 4th Lord Berkeley, and his 

wife Margaret, a.d. 1392, and a matrix to Richard de Wotton, 

Rector, c. 1320. 

Note. — I am indebted to Mr. F. S. Waller, of Gloucester, for much of 
this information. 



Vol. XI. X 



312 



Tramsactioxs at Bursley. 



KNIGHTS' FEES IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE, 3rd Henry IY., 
WITH AN INTHODUCTION 
By Sir JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

We made a few very brief remarks on Aids in introducing to our 
readers the Aid granted to King Edward III. in 1346 on making 
his eldest son, the renowned Black Prince, a Knight, but for 
reasons which will appear further on we propose now to enter 
upon the subject a little more at large. 

It may be as well, in the first instance, to glance at the sources 
from which the revenues of the crown were derived under our 
early Norman Kings, of which Scutage and Aids formed a very 
important portion. Foremost among these sources, however, were 
the profits arising from the Royal Demesnes. These demesnes 
were of vast extent, for in addition to the ancient demesnes of the 
Crown, consisting of the lands held by King Edward the Confessor, 
soon arose the lands escheated in consequence of the revolt of the 
English, so that at the time of the Domesday Survey the Royal 
Estate was of enormous extent. Money, however, was very scarce. 
The great tenants of the crown, in respect of the lands held by 
them, rendered military service when called upon, and the socage 
tenants, in respect to their tenures, paid their dues in kind ; by 
labour on the lord's demesne, or in supply of provisions for the 
Royal household; but in the 12th century much of this was com- 
muted for payment in horses, dogs, and hawkes ; for birds, for 
game of divers sorts, and for cattle. Moreover, under the feudal 
system there were divers other sources of revenue too nume- 
rous to mention in detail : e g. escheats of lands, permanently 
by confiscation or temporarily during the monage of tenants, 
marriages, the profits of bishoprics or monasteries during vacancies, 
which were too often unjustly prolonged ; the profits of counties 
after deducting the third penny, the perquisite or fee of the 
sheriflf, and many other incidental and casual profits which it is 
unnecessary to enumerate. 



Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire, 



.^13 



In the following remarks we propose to confine our attentioii 
to the question more immediately before us — Military Tenures. 
This system was introduced into England at the time of the 
Conquest, though something of the kind was not unknown in this 
country previously, the extension and development of the system 
became a necessity of the circumstances of the time. William 
had seen in France the difficulties of government unless the King 
was supreme ; consequently after the victory of Senlac, he claimed 
the lordship of the whole land, and naturally parcelled it out 
among those who had been his companions and assistants in the 
conquest ; not, however, at first, disturbing the possession of those 
English lords who had not openly* resisted him and now submitted 
to his authority, only exacting from them heavy fines ; but the 
subsequent revolt of these Englishmen naturally led to the con- 
fiscation of their possessions, and enabled the King to endow the 
crowds of Normans who flocked into England. The result of this 
appears in the Domesday record, which shews what manors then 
existed in England, and by whom held, both by tenants in chief 
and by mesne tenants, and this shews the basis of Knights' fees, 
but the record does not shew the tenures by which the manors 
were severally held or the services rendered for the same. We 
know, however, that these tenures were almost wholly military. 
The lands were very unequally divided at the will of the King, 
and were apportioned according to what he considered to be the 
dignity or deservings of the grantee : e.g. his half brother Robert 
Earl of Mortaine, whom he created Earl of Cornwall, was granted 
284 manors in that county alone. These great Barons again 
divided their fiefs among their followers in such proportions as 
they thought fit, to be held of them by Military Service as they 
held of the King. The amount of service rendered for each 
manor was in proportion to its value, but usually, we may say, the 
service of a Knight was rendered for every holding sufficient to 
support a Knight, and generally the variation in the service 
by which a manor was held did not exceed from a half to two 
Knights' fees. 

When the great inquest was taken there were in Gloucester- 
shire 492 manors, reckoning the berewicks of Berkeley, Deerhurst, 
X 2 



3U 



Transactions at Ddrsley. 



and Tewkesbury Hundreds as separate manors, but this does not 
help us very far to know the number of Knights' fees by which 
they were held. 

We have already stated that the three principal occasions on 
which the King could, on his own authority, levy an Aid, were 
for the marriage of his eldest daughter once, for making his eldest 
son a Knight, and for the ransom of his person if made captive 
in war. And the first E-eturn of Knights' fees which we possess 
are those embodied in the Liber Niger, which are supposed 
to have been called for by King Henry II. (1166) in contem- 
plation of the marriage of Matilda his eldest daughter to the 
Duke of Saxony.^ It is immaterial to the question which we 
are considering for what specific purpose these Returns were 
ordered. The King's commands were that every Baron or tenant 
in capite, that is holding of him immediately, sine medio, should 
certify what fees they held, how many of the old feoffment, that 
is granted before the death of King Henry I,, and how many of 
the new feofi'ment, and of whom the same were holden. These 
Returns were called the Cartse Baronum, but unfortunately the 
originals are now lost save one, and we are dependent upon a 
summary of them preserved in the Liber Niger, printed by 
Hearne, and the Liber Rubeus, or Red Book of the Exchequer. 
According to Maddox, the Earl of Gloucester paid for 307 
Knights' fees, of the old feoffment, besides 131 fees of the new 
feoffment, held of the demesne larfd, but they were not in Glou- 
cestershire. These Returns afford us the first information we 
possess as to the Knights' fees in the County of Gloucester, and 
it shews by whom they were held in 1166, but the names of the 
manors are not stated. 

The next Aid which claims our attention is that noted by us 
(ante Vol. X. p. 279) as levied by King Richard I. for the ransom 
of his person, who having been seized on 20th December, 1192, 

1 Mr. Eyton remarks that " the Returns themselves contain no internal 
evidence whatever of having been provided for that specific occasion, but it 
so happened that at the time when the Returns were ordered the Princess's 
future marriage had been agreed upon, and it so happened that the Auxilium 
collected in 1168, in consequence of her marriage, was grounded on these 
Returns, it being in fact the earliest Auxilium levied after these Returns." 
(Itin. Henry II. p. yOn.) 



Knights' Fees in Glottcestershire. 



315 



by Leopold Duke of Austria, when passing through his dominions 
returning from the Holy land was held in captivity. This assess- 
ment was made at 20s. each Knight's fee, and it is brought to 
account under the name of Scutage in the Pipe Roll of the 6th of 
the King's reign. There was also a furtjjer assessment on this 
occasion designated Hidage, which meant an Aid charged per hide 
on lands holden by socage or other tenures than Military Service. 

King Henry III., during his long reign, had three notable 
Aids besides other levies not of this nature. The earliest known 
of these was levied in the 19th year of his reign for the marriage 
of his sister Isabel to the Emperor Frederick II. of Germany. It 
was granted by the common council of the realm under exceptional 
circumstances, as Isabel was the third daughter of King John, at 
two marks for every Knight's fee both of the old and new feoffment. 
The originals of the Returns in Testa de Nevil, as relates to Glou- 
cestershire, p. 73 et seq., are not known to exist. It appears upon 
a careful critical examination that the Returns so printed are in 
many respects inaccurate. The originals were supposed to have 
been lost, and that the Record Conmissioners who printed Testa 
de Nevil in 1807 derived their knowledge from a Register pre- 
served in the Exchequer, into which, according to a memorandum 
prefixed, the Returns were transcribed in the reign of Edward II. 
for facility of reference, though not as of Record. This trans- 
cript appears, from copies of some of the Returns since discovered, 
to have been very loosely made, and is not exempt from error in 
respect to christian names. It is still possible that the originals 
may be found, as there are at the Public Record Office chests not 
yet examined or classified. The accomplishment of this is much 
to be desired, as the Returns, if found, will be of great value from 
being the first in which the manors forming the Honours and Fees 
are specified. We shall endeavour to obtain the examination of 
these chests to verify the Returns, and, if satisfactory, print 
them hereafter. 

Of the two other notable Aids of King Henry III ; viz., that 
to marry his eldest daughter Margaret to Alexander King of 
Scotland, of 20s. per Knight's fee, granted by the Common Council 
of the Magnates of England, Anno Regni 29, and that for making 



816 



Transactions s at Ditrslev. 



his eldest son a Knight, at 40s. per fee, Anno Regni 38, we cannot 
at present say anything. The Returns for neither of these are 
known to exist. It is, however, not unlikely that some portions 
of them may })e incorporated in the Testa de Nevil. 

This brings us down to the reign of Edward I., in whose 18th 
year an Aid to marry Eleanora, his eldest daughter to Alphonso, 
King of Arragon, was granted by the Barons and Magnates of the 
Realm at the rate of -iOs. per fee, and at the same rate for portions 
of fees, but the grantors stipulated that this grant should not turn 
to their prejudice, that so in future an Aid to be granted in like case 
might be increased or diminished at the discretion of the Barons and 
Magnates, and that it should be levied out of fees in such manner 
as Aids were wont to be levied. Unfortunately the Returns for 
this Aid are also missing, but, in this case, the loss is not so greatly 
to be deplored inasmuch as in almost every instance reference is 
made to it in the Returns of the 20th Edward IIL, for which 
reason we selected that Aid as the first to be printed. 

Moreover, the loss of the Returns for the Aid of the 18th 
Edward is to a large extent compensated for by the Inquisitions 
taken by John de Kirkeby, Philip de Wilebi, and others. This 
is the collection known as " Kirby's Quest, " so carefully edited 
and annotated for the Society by Sir Henry Barkly (ante 
p. 134). After a critical examination of these Inquisitions, Sir 
Henry states from internal evidence that they must have been 
taken between 1283 and 1286, thus coinciding, within some six 
or seven years, with the date of the Aid for the marriage of the 
Lady Eleanora. And on a comparison of the names of the tenants 
of the fees in Kirby's Quest with those shewn in the Aid of 20tli 
Edward III. (1346) as having held the same fees in 1290, they 
will be found very generally to agree. This will be seen by a 
reference to Sir Henry Barkly's valuable notes. 

With reference to the Aid of 20tli Edward IIL, alluded to 
above, and printed ante Vol. X., p. 278, I would, in the first 
place, desire to correct a misprint in the date in the title, which 
escaped correction in revising the proofs, and which our readers 
may have noticed, as it does not accord with the regnal year of 



Kntghts' Fees in Gloucestershire. 



317 



the King, printed in the same title. For 1349 read ToJfd ; and 
on page 275, line 17, for anno regina read anno regni. 

The original Returns for this Aid, like those for the Aids we 
have already been considering, are no longer extant. The only- 
existing authority for this Aid is a volumer known as the " Book 
of Aids." This is beautifully written, but considerably later than 
20th Edward III. Indeed it contains documents in the same 
hand-writing of the date of 3rd Hen. TV. The scribe was evidently 
proud of his caligraphy, and well he might be. It is exceedingly 
clear, and the capitals beautifully illuminated. He w^as. however, 
as careless in his orthography as he was particular in his writing. 
The transcript made for us for the purpose of printing was very 
correctly copied, but Sir 'Henry Barkly in preparing " Kirby's 
Quest" for the press discovered that the Returns for the two 
Aids are interspersed, those for that of 3rd Henry IV. being 
inserted in the case of four counties where those of 20th Edw. III. 
appear to be wanting, and moreover the text of the " Book of 
Aids " is very corrupt, many of the names of persons and places 
being mis-spelt.^ 

We now reach the Aid of 3rd Henry lY. granted for the 
marriage of Blanch, the King's eldest daughter, to Louis (surnamed 
Barbatus), afterwards Duke of Bavaria, her first husband, and 
printed below. This, as far as it goes, unlike the other Aids of 
which we have treated, is printed from what remains of the 
original Inquisitions for the County of Gloucester, which are 
exceedingly imperfect and decayed, and in places quite illegible. 
Moreover, the documents are very incomplete, for we find Returns 
for 15 Hundreds only, and, probably one or two other Inquisitions, 
now lost, contained the remaining Hundreds. We have, to a 
1 Page 282. Hund.of Respigate, 1st entry — For Gremesfelde read Bremesfelde. 

5th entry — ForDaiton read De Acton. 

7th entry— For Bailly read Kaylly. 
Page 286. Hund. of Bottelowe, 3rd entry — For Bugo read Bogo^ and delete 

[I Hugo.] 

290. Hund. of Kyftesgate, 14th entry. — For Yarmion read Marmion. 

loth entry. — For Yume read Mune. 
„ 292. Hund. of Westlit'.— For Westlit read Westm\ 
And it is not improbable that there may be other instances of error. 



318 



Transactions at Dursley. 



large extent, filled up the lacuncB arising from the lost or unread- 
able portions of the existing documents from the context, or from 
references to other records. These insertions are, to distinguish 
them, printed within square brackets. There are, however, some 
words and passages which it is impossible to restore with certainty. 
Nevertheless, wdth all its faults and imperfections, disappointing 
as they are, we deem the document very valuable as forming a 
link in the chain of evidence of the devolution of the manors in a 
large portion of the county during a dark period of our local 
history ; and it is the more valuable as it is to be feared that for 
this county no record remains beyond the summary of the account 
rendered by the collectors, at the Exchequer, w^hich shew that 
only 126 fees were accounted for of the last of the Aids collected, 
that of the 6th Henry VI. 

The grant last referred to was not purely an Aid, inasmuch as 
it embraced other charges besides those on Military Tenures. Of 
this every person possessing a whole Knight's fee was charged 
6s. 8d,, or half a mark, and so after the same rate to the fourth 
part of a Knight's fee, and persons not possessing a full quarter 
part of a fee escaped the charge altogether. It is very remarkable 
how, at that date, the fees had become sub-divided, whether from 
ordinary causes, or by cozenage to evade payment, it is impossible 
to say. Few fees, as far as our experience extends, remaineti 
entire, and many had become so divided into small shares, and 
because no one held a full fourth part of a share, no charge was 
made. It is, however, very valuable in that it refers back to the 
persons who held the same fees in 1346, when Edward the Black 
Prince was Knighted (20th Edward III). 

The levy, for the reason mentioned above, has been treated 
rather as a Subsidy than an Aid. And it is very singular that 
Gloucestershire is the only county for which no Keturns exist. 
The foregoing remarks relate to Knights Fees only and to the 
Aids charged thereon. 

■ We hope, as time and opportunities offer, to print the w^hole 
of this series of Records relating to Gloucestershire. 



Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire. 



319 



1 1 ^ 

LAY SUBSIDIES, GLOUCESTER, 

Inquisitio capta apud Wynchecombe, die Sabbati proximo post 
festum Sancti Gregorii Papse, [anno regni] Regis [Henrici quarti 
post conqusestum tertio, coram Roberto S^omervile nuper Yice- 
comite] / Gloucestrise. et Roberto Whytyngton', nuper Escaetore 
Domini Regis in Comitatu prsedicto, et Johanne Derhurst, collec- 
toribus [rationabilis Auxilii] pro Blanchia, primogenita [lilia dicti 
Domini] / Regis maritanda, virtute commissionis dicti Domini 
Regis eisdem collectoribus inde directse, per sacramentum Ricardi 

Russeir, Ricardi Tyboton, Roberti 

/ Moryn Johannis Bradwey, Johannis Shadwelle, 

Roberti Villeyn, Edmundi-HamweH', Pliilippi Nethercote, 

Johannis , juratorum, qui dicunt [super 

sacramentum] / suum, quod omnes subscripti tenent de Domino 
Rege sine medio in Hundredis subscriptis : videlicet. Abbas de 
[Wynche]combe tenet [de Domino Rege sine medio] / in villis de 
Wynchecombe, Charleton', Shirburne, Honyburne, Stanton', et 
Twynyng', [in] Hundredo de Kyftesgate, et alibi infra Comitatum 
Gloucestrise, duo feoda militum. Item dicunt, quod Abbas de 
Evesham tenet [de Domino Rege sine medio in S]eynesbery ^ / 
in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem unius feodi militis. Et 
quod idem Abbas tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Aston'- 
Somervile [unum feodum militis]^. Item dicunt, quod Margeria 
Gyffard' et Willelmus Tracy ^ tenent de domino Rege sine medio 
in Weston' et Norton'^ in [eodem Hundredo] / Et 

^ The Abbot of Evesham held Seynesbury in 1346 (See ante Vol. X. p. 
290.) 

- See ante Vol. X. p. 291, where the extent of the fee is given. 

3 Aston Somerville was held by the Scmervilles in 1290 and in 1346. 
We do not find the fee in Kirby's Quest. It was at the date of this Return 
held by the Abbot of Evesham. 

^ Weston [sub Edge] and Norton (sub Edge] were at an early date held 
by Henry de Penbridge (Cott. MS. Jul. C. 1, cited by Fosbrooke), of whom 
it was purchased by Walter GifFard, Archbishop of York, and upon his 
death it passed to his brother Godfrey, Bishop of Worcester, his heir, who 
held it in his own right at the time of Kirby's Quest (see ante pp. 140-141). 
The Bishop of Worcester after alienating several messuages left the manor 
to John, son of William the bishop's brother, who was father of John, father 
of John father of Elizabeth, who dying s.p., it passed to her cousin John, 



320 



Transactions at Dursley, 



quocl Abbas de Hayles tenet de Domino E,ege sine medio in 
Longebergh', in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem unius feodi 

mplitis. Et quod] ^ / tenet de Domino Rege sine 

medio ibidem, et in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem unius 

feodi militis. Et quod Johanna quae fuit uxor Willelmi 

[tenet de Domino] / Rege sine medio in Mune,^ in eodem 

Hundredo, dimidium feodum militis. Item dicunt, quod Com- 
itissa de Warrewyk' tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in 
[Wykeware ^ [in eodem] / Hundredo, dimidium feodum militis. 
Item dicunt, quod Edwardus Lodilowe tenet de Domino Rege 
sine medio in Campedene,'^ in eodem Hundredo, [dimidium 

son of William Giffard her father's brother, who, it is believed, married 
Margery daughter of Sir John Pauncefote, Knt., who, upon the death of 
John Giffard, married William Tracy, of Tuddington, and, holding these 
manors in dower, together with her husband, were tenants at the date of 
this Return. That the manors w^ere held in dower is e\ddenced by the fact 
that they returned to the Giffard family. 

^ Richard Lambaunk held this fourth part of a fee in Longborough in 
1346 (see ante Vol. X. p. 290). 

^ This manor in 1346 was held by Peter Mountford. The name of the 
manor in that Return is erroneously written Yime (see ante Vol. X. p. 290 
and ante p. 317 n). 

In 1164, Henry de Chedringworth was, by the authority of the King's 
Writ relieved of a payment of viiti bt (blank = silver purified by fire) in 
Mune. Pipe Roll, 10th Hen. 11., Pipe Rolls Soc, Pub. Vol. 7., p. 17 ) 

3 The Earl of Warwick held this fee in 1346 (see ante Vol. X. p. 291). 
Campden. — The numerous sub-divisions of the Manor of Campden, 
arising from its having repeatedly fallen among coheirs, make it very 
difficult to trace the devolution of the Fee. From the time of the Conquest 
it was, with some interruption in consequence of forfeitures, held by the 
Earls of Chester until the death of Ranulph Blundevil, the seventh Earl, 
in 1231, s.p., when his three sisters became his coheirs, of whom Mabel, 
the second, married William de Albini, Earl of Arundel, and her son 
William inherited Campden, who dying s.p. his brother Hugh succeeded 
him, being then a minor, and in the Aid levied 1235 (19th Henry III.) 
upon the marriage of Isabel, sister of King Henry III. to the Emperor 
Frederic II. he was assessed at one mark for half a Knight's fee in Campden 
(Testa de Nevil, p. 75). Hugh de Albini dying s.p. his lands were divided 
among his four sisters and coheirs, Nicbola, the third, married Roger de 
Somery and left issue four daughters: viz., Joan, who married John le 
Straunge ; Mabel, who married Walter de Suly ; Maud, who married John 
de Erdynton; and Margaret, who married Ralph de Cromwell. The purpar- 
ties ' f Joan and Maud were acquired by John de Ludlow, who then held 
a moiety of the manor, and Edward dc Ludlow is here stated to hold half 
a fee in Campden. 



i 



Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire. 



321 



feodum militis.^ Item] / dicunt, quod Johannes Dalyngrugge et 
Alicia uxor ejus tenent de Domino Rege sine medio in Syndeleye 
[Sudeley] in eodem Hundredo [unium feodum militis]-^ [Item 
dicunt, quod Johannes]-^ / Russell' et Elizabeth' uxor ejus tenent 
de Domino Rege sine medio in Guytyn^", in eodem Hundredo, 
unum feodum railitis [quod fuit Templariorum]^ [Item dicunt,] 
/ quod Episcopus Exoniensis tenet de Domino Rege sine medio 
in Campedene, in eodem Hundredo, dimidium feodum militis. 
Item [dicunt quod Archiepiscopus Ebor ^ tenet de Domino] / 
Rege sine m.edio in Otyiiton' et Condycote in Hundredo de 

Salmondesbury, unum feodum militis. [Et quod ^ [de] / 

Domino Rege sine medio in Rusyndon' [Rysindon] Magna, in 
eodem Hundredo dimidium feodum militis. Et quod [Henricus 
Hussey tenet de Domino Rege in Rysyndon]^ / in eodem Hun- 
dredo, decimam partem unius feodi militis, Et quod Prior de 
Parva Malverne [tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Newentoii 

The other two purparties were recovered by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester, who died 24th Edward I. seized of the fourth part of the Manor 
of Campden held by the service of the eighth part of one Knight's fee, leav- 
ing his son Gilbert his heir, who being slain at Bannockburn in 1314, s.p., 
his three sisters became his coheirs, of whom Margaret, the eldest, became 
the wife of Piers Gaveston, and, after his execution, of Hugh d' Audle, who 
died in 1347, leaving by the said Margaret his wife an only daughter and 
heir named Margaret, then the wife of Ralph Lord Stafford. Ralph alienated 
his share to his brother Richard Stafford, who acquired also the purparty 
of Margaret de Cromwell, and it should be noted that Richard de Cromwell 
and Isabella de Barrye in 1290 held half a fee in Campden, which in 1346 
was held by Richard de Stafford above mentioned, which Richard died in 
1348, and his son Edmund, Bishop of Exeter, is returned as holding the 
same fee in this record. 

See ante note 6, p. 142. See also Fosbrooke's History of Gloucestershire, 
and the exhaustive memoir on this manor by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, ante 
Vol. IX. p. 354. 

^ The extent of the fee is stated ante Vol. X. p. 290, when it was held 
by Richard Stafford. 

2 The extent of the fee is stated ante Vol. X. p. 291. 

3 See post p. 326. See post p. 326. ^ See ante Vol. X. p. 288. 

6 In 1346 this half fee was held by Henry Honep' and Walter de Lisle. 
Fosbrooke states that Henry Hussey held a moiety in Great Rysindon, 
2nd Henry IV. citing Fed. Fin. in Trinity term of that year. (History of 
Glouc. Vol. II. p. 393n.) ; and William Lucy held the sixth part of one fee 
in Wilie and Rysinton in 1346, which William Lucy had held in 1290. (See 
ante Vol. X. p. 288.) 



322 



Transactions at Dursley. 



[Naunton] in eodem Hundredo / tertiam partem unius feodi 
militis.^ Item dicunt, quod haeredes Johannis Crosson^ tenent 
de D[omino Rege sine medio in Werinton parva in eodum Hun- 
dredo dimidium feodum] militis. Item dicunt, quod, Abbas 
de Abyndon' tenet de Domino Rege sine medio Manerium de 
Dumb[ul]ton 3 in Hundredo de Kyftesgate per servicium / mib'.- 
tare, set per quot feoda [ignorant]. In cujus rei testimonium 
huic Inquisitioni prsedicti Juratores sigilla sua apposuerunt. 
Data [die, anno, et loco supradictis]. 

Inquisitio capta apud Gloucestriam, die Mercurii proximo 
post festum Sancti Gregorii Papse, anno regni Regis Henrici 
quarti post conqusestum tertio, eodem Roberto Somervile, nuper 
/ Vicecomite Gloucestrise, et Roberto Whytyngton, nuper Escsee- 
tore Domini Regis in Comitatu prsedicto, et Johanne Derhurst, 
collectoribus rationabilis Auxilii pro Blanchia, primogenita filia 
dicti / Domini Regis maritanda, virtute commissionis dicti Domini 
Regis eisdem collectoribus inde directse, per sacramentum Petri 
Cappe, ThomjE Flewellyn, Ricardi Bour', Edmundi / Forde, 
Walteri Hulle, Ricardi de Aur', Willelmi Snodhulle, Johannis 
Wareyn de Piriton', Johannis Felde de Aur', Phillippi de Anne, 
Johannis Joce, et Johannis / Piryhale, Juratorum, qui dicunt 
super sacramentum suum, quod omnes subscripti tenent de Domino 
Rege sine medio in Hundredis subscriptis : videlicet, Robertus 
Ferrerys / tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Teynton' et Kyl- 
cote, in Hundredo de Bottelowe, dimidium feodum militis. Et 
quod Reginaldus Grey tenet de Domino Rege / sine medio in 
Kempeleye, in Hundredo prsedicto, dimidium feodum militis. Et 

quod Pembrugge^ tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in / Luy- 

tuldymmoke (Little Dymock) eodem Hundredo, dimidium feodum 

1 See ante Vol. X. p. 288. 

2 John Crosson and Thomas Himdenemille held this half fee in 1346 
as persons of the same names had held it in 1290. (See ante Vol. X. p. 288.) 

3 Dumbleton is not mentioned in the aid of 1846, only Littleton, hut in 
Kirby's Quest, under the Hundred of Grectiston (ante p. 144), a preceding 
record will be found. 

^ Henry Pembridge held this half fee in 1346, as William Pembridge had 
held it in 1290. (See ante Vol. X. p. 286). 



Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire. 



323 



militis. Et quod Ricardus Ruyhale tenet in Dymmoke, in eodem 
Hundredo, viginti libratas terrse / de Domino Kege in socagio, 
sine aliquo medio. Et quod Thomas Dominus de Berkeleye tenet 
in Hundredo de Blydeslowe Manerium de [Aure] de Domino 
Rege / in socagio ^ sine aliquo medio, quod valet per annum, ultra 
reprisam, xx libras. Et quod Prior Lantonise juxta Gloucestriam 
tenet de Domino Rege / sine medio in Ailberton', in eodem Hun- 
dredo, dimidium feodum militis. Et quod Ricardus Baret tenet de 
Domino Rege sine medio in Yer/dushulle,^ in eodem Hundredo, 
decimam partem unius feodi militis. Et quod Comitissa Warr' 
tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in [Lyjdeneye, / in eodem 
Hundredo, octavam partem unius feodi militis. Et quod 

Johannes F tenet de Domino Rege unum mesuagium, c acras 

terrae, acras prati, et quandam piscariam in Aur', / in eodem 

Hundredo, in socagio, per servicium xiij^ iiij<^ quae Robertus 
Baderon' et Phillipus Baderon' nuper teneuerunt ; quae valent per 
annum, ultra reprisam, ...^ viij^. Et quod Elizabeth, quae fuit uxor 
Roberti Eynesford,' tenet / Manerium de BurghulP, in Hundredo 
de Westbury, de Domino Rege in socagio, sine aliquo medio, 
ad valentiam decem marcarum per [annum]. / Et quod David 
Tho'mes et Ricardus de Aur' tenent de Domino Rege sine medio 
unum mesuagium [et] molendinum, duo gardina, un[am acram] / 
terrse, cum pertinentiis, in Aur', in Hundredo de Blydeslowe per 
magnam serjeantiam.^ In cujus rei testimonium huic Iiiquisitioni 
praedicti Juratores sigilla sua apposuerunt. Data, die, anno, et 
loco supradictis. 

Inquisitio capta apud S[odbury], die Mercurii in vigilia festi Cor- 
poris Christi, anno regni Regis [Henrici quarti post conqusestum 

1 Maurice (iii) Lord Berkeley purchased, inter alia, a moiety of the 
Manor of Aure and moiety of the advowson of the church, of Aymer de 
Valence, Earl of Pembroke, and Thomas (iii) his son purchased the other 
moiety of Roger Mortimer. Smyth says in capite (Berkeley MSS., Maclean's 
edition, Vol. I. pp. 339-340) but, as Fosbrooke, citing Pedes Finium, 37th 
Henry III. Hill., says they were subject to a pepper-corn rent, they were 
clearly in held socage. 

2 Written Zerdeshill in 1346. (See ante Vol. X. p. 287.) We are unable 
to identify the place. 

2 The Serjeancy was doubtless some office connected with the Forest of 
Dene, of which there were several. 



324 



Transactioxs at Dtrslky. 



tertio, coram Roberto Somervile,] / niiper Yicecomite Gloucestrije, 
et Roberto Whytyngton', nuper Escaetore Domini Regis in Comi- 
tatu prsedicto ^et Johanne Derhurst, collectoribus [rationabilis 
Auxillii pro Blanchia] / filia Domini Regis maritanda virtute 
commissionis dicti Domini Regis eisdem collectoribus directse, 

per sacramentum R / ton', Johannis 

Walker de Tetteworth', Johannis Frempton', Johannis Cope, 

Johannis Knyte, Johannis Smyth de Saltm 

/chescombe, Thomse Adams, Johannis Collewelle, et Hugonis 

Lucas, Juratorum, qui dicunt super sacramentum [suum, quod 
omnes subscripti tenent] / de Domino Rege sine medio in Hun- 
dredis subcriptis : videlicet. Abbas de Malmesbury tenet de 
Domino Rege [sine medio in [Littleton]^ in Hundredo / de Grym- 
boldesasche, octavam partem unius feodi militis. Item dicunt, 
quod Margareta Sebrok' tenet de Domino Rege [sine medio in... 

/in [eodem Hundredo, pro dote sua, tertiam partem 

unius feodi militis. Et quod Mauricius Russell' tenet de Dom- 
ino Rege sine [medio in Derham ^ in / eodem Hundredo, 
unum feodum militis. Et quod Abbas Sancti Petri Gloucestriae 
tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Boxwell unum feodum militis 

[Et quod Johannes C?) Worth tenet de Domino Rege 

sine medio in F[rampton] Cotell','- in eodem [Hundredo,] 

/ Et quod hferedes J ohannis de Wylynton' tenent de Domino 

[Rege sine medio] in eadem (1) villa [Et quod] 

/ Matiir Cauntelowe tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Dodyn- 
ton dimidium feodum et quarta pars unius feodi / militis Et quod 
Alexander Clyvedon' tenet de Domino Rege sine medio 

I See ante Vol. X. p. 284. 

- Roger Cantek in 1346 held one fee in Derham which William Russell 
held in 1290. This is probably the same. It was held by Ralph Russell in 
1235. (Testa de Nevil, p. 74). 

'■^ John de Wyllngton had alienated a part of Frampton Cotell to John 
Worth, who married Joan relict of the said John Wylliugton, 20th Rich. 11. 
and held it. They left a sou John, whose is pr-obaWy the surnauie which is 
lost. John Wroth died 1412 leaving two sisters his coheirs (Atkyns' History 
of Glouc. p. 231). Inq. p.m. 13th Hen. IV. No. 25. 

She was the sister and sole heir of Nicholas Berkeley and daughter of 
John de Berkeley (ir) of Bursley, who held the same parts of the fee in 
1346, (See ante Vol. IX. p. 375, and Vol. X. p. 285). 



Knights' Fees ix Gloucestershire. 



[per] / annum decern marc' Et quod 

Johannes Est [w]ode tenet de Domino Rege in Bukton'^C?) 

/ Domini Regis patent' duas partes unius 

feodi militis in manu dicti Domini Regis ex ...../et in 

custodia Domini Regis existent'. Item «licunt, quod Abbas de 
Stanleye tenet [de Domini Rege sine medio dimidium feodum in 
Coderyngton prout predecessores sui tenuerunt idem] / in Hun- 
dredo prsedicto, per quae servitia ignorant. Et quod Prior Bath- 
onia tenet de Domino Rege [sine medio dimidium feodum in 
Olveston per quae servitia] / ignorant. Et quod Comes Stafford' 
tenet de Domino Rege Manerium de [Thornbury / in Hun- 
dredo de Thorneham (sic) sine [medio] per servicium militare vel 
non, ignorant. Et quod Episcopus Bathon' ^ tenet de Domino Rege 
in Aston / [unum feodum militis in] Hundredo de Pocylch[urch'] 
sive per servitium militare vel non ignorant. Item dicunt, quod 
Constantia, quae fuit [uxor Thome] Domini le Dispenser tenet de 

Domino Rege et quod s j quondam 

fuerunt in manu Domini Regis ratione minoris aetatis 

Ricardi, filii et hseredis ejusdem Thome [le Dispenser 

...In cujus rei testimonium huic Inquisitioni prsedicti Juratores 
sigilla] / sua apposuerunt. Data [die, anno, et loco] supradictis. 

LAY SUBSIDIES, GLOUCESTER, 11^. 

' ' 48 

Inquisitio capta apud Gloucestriam, die Martis proximo post 

festum Sancti Gregorii Papse, anno regni Regis Henrici quarti 

post conqusestum tertio, coram Roberto / Somervile, nuper Vice- 

comite Gloucestriae, et Roberto Whytyngton', nuper Escaetore 

^ Button or Bitton ? In 1346 the heirs of Stephen de la More, within 
age, and in the wardship of Thomas de Bradstone and Edmund, son of David 
le Blount, held one fee in Button which Stephen atte More held there in 
1290. (See ante Vol. X. p. 284). 

2 This fee would appear to have been held by the Prior of Bath in 1 346, 
and was assessed as one fee, 

^ It is not easy to fill up the words of this blank with certainty, 
although the historical facts are well known. After the execution of Thomas 
le Despenser, 1st Henry IV. the Manor of Chipping Sodbury was granted to 
Constance his relict for life, her only son Richard, being a minor, remaining 
at the date of this Aid in the King's hands. ( Vide Dugdale and Fosbrooke, 
Vol. II. p. 36). 



326 



Transactions at Dursley. 



Domini Regis in Comitatu prsedicto, et Johanne Derhurst, collec- 
toribus rationabilis Auxilii pro / Blanchia, primogenita filia dicti 
Domini Kegis maritanda, virtute commissionis dicti Domini Regis 
eisdem collectoribus inde directse, per sacramentum Ricardi 
Ecton', / Walteri Pynchyn, Ricardi Milton', Joliannis Copovere, 
Ricardi Russell,' Roberti Sumpnur, Joliannis Harsefelde, Thomas 
Brut, Joliannis Doppyng', Thomse / Southam, Johannis Amfray, 
et Willelmi Brocworthe, Juratorum, qui dicunt super sacramentum 
suum, quod omnes subscripti tenent de Domino Rege sine medio 
/ in Hundredis subscriptis : videlicet, Thomas Berkeleye de Ber- 
keleye tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Berkeleyhurnes, in 
Hundredo de / Berkeley, tria feoda militum. Et quod Thomas 
Fitz Nichol tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in Hulle et 
Nymedisfelde, in eodem Hundredo, dimidium / feodum militis.^ 
Et quod Matiir Cauntelowe^ tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in 
Durseleye et Colde Newynton', in Hundredo prsedicto, dimidium 
feodum / militis. Item dicunt, quod Thomas Brugge tenet de 
Domino Rege sine medio in Harsefelde, in Hundredo de Whyston', 
Et quod Matiir Cauntelowe tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in 
Stanley Regis, in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem unius feodi 
militis. 2 Et quod / Elizabeth' quse dimidium feodum militis. / 
fuit uxor Johannis de Arundell' tenet de Domino Rege sine medio 
in eadem villa, et in eodem Hundredo, unum feodum militis. / 
Et quod Johannes Perleye tenet in Pychincombe, in eodem 
Hundredo sex. libratas terrae de Domino Rege in socagio sine 
aliquo medio. / Item dicunt, quod omnia terrae et tenenieiita, quse 
Johannes de la Felde, filius et hferes Roberti de la Felde, teiiuit 
de Rege in eodem Hundredo, ut / de Manerio de Guytyng, quod 
fuit Templariorum, quondam in manu Regis existente, tenentur 

1 This half fee in 1346 was held by John Fitz Nichol grandfather of this 
Thomas, whose father Nicholas son of Ralph lield it in 1290 (See ante 
Vol. X. p. 285), as also did Nicholas Fitz Nichol, his ancestor, at the Aid 
levied in 1183 on the marriage of Maud eldest daughter of King Henry II. 
(Smyth's Berkeley MSS. Maclean's edition, Vol. III. pp. 223, 224). 
- See ante p. 324. 

In 1 346 half a fee in Haresfeld was held by Matthew son of Herbert, 
which in 1290 liad been held by John son of Reginald [Fitz Peter] (See ante 
Vol. X. p. 286, and further, Fosbrookc's History of Gloucestershire, Vol. I. 
pp. 300, 301). 



Knights' Fees in Gloucej5Tershirk. 



8-27 



nunc de Johanne KusselF et Elizabeth', / uxore ejus, ut cle praedicto 
Manerio ; qui quidem Johannes et Elizabeth tenent prsedictum 
Manerium de Domino Rege in capite. Item dicunt quod / 
Manerium de Colverdene et quaedam terrse et tenementa in 
Moreslade juxta Sandhur[st] in Hundi^edo de Dodeston', quae 
(juondam tenebantur de Kege / per certa servitia, nunc tenentur 
de Abbate Beati Petri Gloucestrise, ut de Manerio de Berton' 
Regis juxta Gloucestriam ; quod quidem Manerium / joraedictus 
Abbas tenet de Domino Rege ad feodi firmam. Item dicunt, quod 
unum mesuagium, xxv acrse terrse, v acrae prati, et iiij°^' solidatse 
redditus / apud Manerium de Bruerne, quae Johannes, filius et 
haeres Beatricis quae fuit uxor Johannis le Botiller, et Almaricus 
le Botiller nuper / tenuerunt, tenentur de Domino Principe ut de 
Castro et Honore Walyngford'. Item dicunt, quod Johannes 
Staunton' tenet ballivam vocatam / Ballivam de Staunton',^ in 
Foresta de Dene, de Johanne filio Regis ut de Castro Sancti 
Briavelli ; quod quidem Castrum, cum Foresta de Dene, / idem 
Johannes filius Regis tenet ex concessione dicti Domini Regis. 
Item dicunt, quod Johannes Berkeleye tenet de Domino Rege / 
sine medio Castrum et Manerium de Beverston', in Hundredo de 
Berkeleye, per servitium militare, set per quot feoda ignorant.'^ 
In cujus [rei] testimonium prsedicti Juratores huic Inquisitioni 
sigilla sua apposuerunt. Data, die, anno, et loco supradictis. 



LAY SUBSIDIES, GLOUCESTER, 

Inquisitio capta apud Gloucestriam, die Martis proximo post 
•festum Sancti Gregorii Papse, anno regni Regis Henrici quarti post 
conquaestum tertio, coram Roberto Somervile, nuper / Yicecomite 
Gloucestriae, et Roberto Wliitington', nuper Escaetore Domini 
Regis in Comitatu praedicto, et Johanne Derhurst, collectoribus 

^ The Bailiwick of Staunton was long held by the family of Staunton, 
originally Walding. (See History of the Manor and Advowson of Staunton, 
ante Vol. VII. p, 227 et seq.) 

- In 1346 this manor was held by Thomas de Berkeley by the service of 
one fee and a half, as it was held by John ap Adam in 1290 (See ante 
Vol, X. p. 285). Robert de Gurnay held it with Ailburton and Kings Weston 

Vol. XI. y 



S28 Transactions at Dursley. 

rationabilis Auxilii pro Blanchia, primogenita filia dicti / .Domini 
Regis maritanda, virtute conimissionis dicti Domini Regis eisdem 

collectoribus inde directse, per sacramentum Walteri 

Nicholai Mattusdon', Joliannis Wynyarde, / .Tohannis Wethur, 
Junioris, Thomse Walter, Willelmi Russell', Johannis Bryd de 
Heydon', Hugonis Hanker, Roberti Wodewarde, Johannis Taver- 
ner de Teukesbury, / Roberti Crese, et Johannis Mynour, Jura- 
torum, qui dicunt super sacramentum suum, quod omnes subscripti 
tenent de Domino Rege sine medio in Hundredis subscriptis : 
videlicit, / [Archiepiscopus] Eboracensis tenet de Domino Rege 
sine medio in Churchedon', in Hundredo de Dodeston', duo feoda 
militum, Prior Lantonise juxta Gloucestriam tenet de Domino / 

in 1172 of the Honour of Maurice de Gaunt (Testa de Nevil, p. 75^). 
The following short pedigree will make this more clear : — 
Robert Fitz Harding=f= 



Robert, 3rd son=p 

I 1 

Maurice, who was known as Eve ^ . . . de Gurnay. 

Maurice de Gaunt held Bever- died before 
ston and King's Weston ob. her brother, 
s.p. 



Robert de Gurnay==p 
heir of his uncle, paid Aid in 1173, for 
Beverston & King's Weston 1^ fees as of 
the honour of Maurice de Gaunt (Testa 
de Nevil, p. 75.) 



Anselm de Gurnay=|= 
of full age on his father's death, 1269 
(Excerpt Rot. Fin. II., pp. 489-490), held 
1^ fees in Beverston and King's Weston, 
cir. 1285 (Kirby's Quest, see ante p. 75). 



John de Gurnay, =f= 
of full age on his father's death, ob. 1286. j 
Inq. p.m. 14th Edw.III. No. 14. | 

Elizabeth, ^Sir John Ap Adam, paid aid on 
daughter and heir I Beverston in 1290, died 1291. 

I ' (Inq. p.m. 19th Edw. I.) 

8ir Thomas ap Adam, 
Sold Beverston, &c., in 1330 to Thomas 
Lord Berkeley, the third of his name 
(died 1361), whose fourth son John in- 
lierited Beverston, and founded the 
family of Berkeley of that place. He 
was the person named in the text. Died 
6th Henry VI. 



Knights' Pees in Gloucestershire. 



329 



Rege sine medio in Brocworthe, in eoclem Hundredo, dimidiura 
feodum militis ; Abbas Beati Petri Gloucestrise tenet de Domino 
Rege sine medio in eadem villa, / et in eodem Hundredo, dimid- 
ium feodum militis ; Thomas Brugge tenet de Domino rege sine 
medio in Mattusdon, in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem 
unius feodi / militis ; Nicholaus Mattusdon et parcenarii ^ sui 
tenent de Domino Rege sine medio in Kyngeshome ^ juxta Glou 
cestriam, in eodem Hundredo, dimidium feodum militis. / Et quod 
Johannes Kyng tenet in Sandhurst, in eodem Hundredo, viginti 
solidatas terrse de Domino Rege in socagio, sine aliquo medio. 
Item dicunt, quod / Abbas Westmonasterii tenet de Domino Rege 
sine medio in Bodyntoii', in Hundredo de Westmonasterio dimid- 
ium feodum militis. Et quod idem Abbas tenet de Domino / 
Rege sine medio in Yevington',^ in eodem Hundredo, quartam 
partem unius feodi militis. Et quod idem Abbas tenet de Domino 
Rege sine medio / in Wyghtfelde, in eodem Hundredo, dimidium 
feodum militis. Et quod idem Abbas tenet de Domino Rege sine 
medio in HarfFelde, in eodem Hundredo, / dimidium feodum 
militis. Et quod idem Abbas tenet de Domino Rege sine medio in 
Ryll (f;, in eodem Hundredo, quartam partem unius feodi militis. 
Item dicunt, quod / idem Abbas tenet de Domino Rege sine 
medio in Lymynton, (Leminton),'^ in Hundredo de Teukesbury, 
sextam partem unius feodi militis. Et quod idem Abbas / tenet 
de Domino Rege sine medio in Kynmerton',^ in eodem Hundredo, 
duo feoda militum. Item dicunt, quod Domina la Despenser 

1 Nicholas de Mattesdon married Margaret, one of the daughters and 
coheirs of Thomas Berkeley, of Cubberley. The other parceners were her 
sister Alice, wife of Thomas Bruge, and their mother who held her third in 
dower. 

^ Richard Daubeney died in 1361 seized of a moiety of the Manor of 
Kyngesholme, which he held in capite by gi'and serjeanty, but by what 
particular service is not stated. (Inq. p.m. 19th Edw. Ill, 1st Nos., No. 27. 
See ante 178). 

=^ Ev^enton, John Throckmorton died seized of land in Lye and Eventon in 
this Hundred, 13th Edw. IV., (See Fosbrooke's History of Glouc. Vol II, p. 
363). 

^ See Fosbrooke's, Hist, of Glouc. Vol. II. p. 261. 

^ Kenmerton. In 1346 the Earl of Warwick held half a fee, Walter 
Beauchamp held half a fee, and John de Ferrers held a whole fee which John 
de Ferrers held in 1290. 

Y 2 



330 



Transactioxs at Durslev. 



tenet de Domino Rege / sine medio in T[e]ukesbury, in eodem 
Hundredo, unum feodum militis. Item diciint, quod Thomas 
Berkeleye de Coberleye tenet de Domino / Rege sine medio quse- 
dam terras et tenementa apud Stoke, [Stoke Archer], in eodem 
Hundredo, per parvam sergentiam servitium ^ Item dicunt quod 
Episcopus Wygorniensis tenet de Domino Rege sine / medio 
in Clyve, Southam, Goderynton', et Brokehampton', in Hun- 
dredo de Derhurst et Tebaldeston' unum feodum militis et 
dimidium. / In cujus rei testimonium prsedicti Juratores huic 
[nquisitioni sigilla sua apposuerunt. Data die, anno, et loco 
supradictis. 

^ The service was that the tenant should carry one bow with arrows for 
40 days before the King when he went to war, (See Ante p. 142). 

N.B. — The dividing strokes in the text shew the commencement of the lines 
in the original record. 



A Domestic Outrage tnt Gloucestershire. 



331 



A DOMESTIC OUTRAGE IN GLOUCESTERSHIIIE 
About the year 1220. 
By Sir HENRY BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 
On the Close Roll of 6tli Henry the third is an entry, which, 
apparently, escaped the notice of Dugdale, although it throws 
light on the genealogy of the Baronial family of Giffard, and 
supplies indeed the name of a lord of Brimpsfield, whom he 
omitted from the pedigree. 

It is the transcript 1 of a mandate addressed on 27th Deer., 
1221, to the Sheriff of Gloucestershire, directing him to deliver 
his prisoner, Matilda, relict of Richard of Acton, to Ely as Giffard 
and Oshert Giffard of Brimpsfield, who together with William 
Earl Marischal, William Earl of Salisbury, Osbert Giffard of 
Norfolk, Gilbert Giffard, and Elyas de Cailloue, have bound 
themselves that she will, before Easter next, assume the habit of 
a black nun, or that of the Convent of Semperingham. 

No hint is given of the offence she had committed, nor of her 
relationship to her manucaptors, but on turning to the Assize 
Roll for this county of nearly even date,^ a clue will be found to 
the solution of both questions. 

Under the head of " Hundred of Agmead," ^ it is set forth in 
the Presentment of the (Grand) Jury, that " Richard Butler, of 
Acton, was wounded * in his own house, it is unknown by whom, 

1 Vide Appendix A. 

^ Vide " Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester in 5 Hen. III., 
edited by F. W. Maitland— London, 1884." The learned Editor, who appends 
a Note expressing curiosity as "to what happened in the end to the heroine 
of this queer tale," (page 143) will, I am sure, be glad to have his attention 
invited to this entry on the Close Roll. There are, as usual, slight dis- 
crepancies in the names, but the identity of the two stories is unquestionable. 

" Appendix B. 

He must have lingered long, for it is shown in the proceedings that his 
wife was summoned in vain to two county courts prior to his death. 



332 



Transactions at Duksley. 



although his wife Matilda accused William Rous, formerly his 
servant. On being examined, she states that she had gone to 
walk in the garden at night with her maid, whilst her husband 
was having his feet washed by her daughter Amice ; that she 
heard a noise, and on going to the house door saw William and 
another man with swords drawn near her husband ; that they ran 
after her, but she escaped, and hid herself until they went away ; 
her maid, however, being caught and bound. 

The jurors evidently disbelieved her story, denying that Richard 
ever had such a servant, and alleging that she and her husband 
were perpetually at strife, and that he sometimes beat her because 
he accused her of light behaviour ; that she often went off to the 
house of her father Elyas de Colewey} or to the house of Robert 
Wayfer, who had married her aunt ; and furthermore that the 
said Robert and William Wayfer, and John of Fuestone, often 
came to the house of the said Richard, bringing her back with 
them, and threatened the said Richard. 

Wherefore the jurors of Agmead hrmly believe that the afore- 
said William and John slew him by the counsel and wish of 
Matilda herself and bribed by her thereto. The jurors of Grum- 
boldsash Hundred 2 concur in this opinion. 

On being asked by the Court whether she is willing to be tried 
before a jury of her neighbours, Matilda flatly refuses, on the 
plea that many of them are probably prejudiced against her. 

Judgment is thereupon deferred till one month after Michael- 
mas (that is till the King's court sits at Westminster).^ Bail 
being meanwhile exacted for Amice, the daughter of the said 

^ According to Dugdale (Baronage, p. 499), Elyas de Caillewe was a 
brother of Elyas Giffard, who had assumed his mother's surname. The 
latter is variously spelt, but was, I take it, the original of the modern 
Cayley. 

- Agmead Hundred was fined only one mark for this murder "quia 
parvum, " p. 121. It probably could not furnish a full Jury of Freeholders, 
and hence those Grumboldsash were called in. Eventually it merged in that 
Hundred. 

^ Mr. Maitland shews in a note that the Judges of Assize were directed 
to adjourn all difficult cases to Westminster, and observes tliat this was 
'• locjuela ardua " because Matilda would not submit to trial, (p. 144.) 



A Domestic Outkage i-v Gloucestkksiiike. 

Matilda. The reason of this last order is not very obvious. The 
girl can hardly have been suspected of complicity m her father's 
murder, but she may possibly have given false evidence at her 
mother's dictation. 

What became of the perpetrators of the outrage does not 
appear. Probably they were suffered to " abjure the realm," and 
sought perchance to expiate their crime by a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land. 

Matilda herself doubtless remained in the custody of the 
sheriff, though perhaps not committed to Gloucester goal till 
judgment was pronounced. In any case she is not likely to have 
been hardly dealt with, for the sheriff, Ralph Musard, was con- 
nected by marriage with her uncle. ^ Seclusion in a nunnery for 
the rest of her life was the severest punishment inflicted on her. 
Perhaps the severest such a woman could receive. 

The bearing of this case on the early admistration of criminal 
justice I leave to be discussed by those more competent. It is 
well worthy of record, if only for the light it throws on the 
domestic life of the period. Looking at the high standing of the 
Giffard family, attested on this occasion by the fact that their co- 
sureties were : — the Earl Marischal, whose father, just deceased, 
had been Guardian of the Kingdom ; and the Earl of Salisbury, 
the famous Longsword, son of King Henry II. by Posamond 
Clifford ; two of the chief nobles of England ; it is impossible to 
come to any other conclusion than that the manners and customs 
of the English aristocracy at the time were coarse and brutal ; 
such in fact as would now be deemed disgraceful in the lowest 
class of the community. 

Appendix A. 

Potulus Litterarum Clausarum — anni sexti Henr^ tercii — prima 

pars, memb. 16. 

De liberacione |^ 
prisori j 

Rex Vicecomiti Gloucestrise Salutem — Scias quod concessi- 
mus quod Matilda que fuit uxor Ricardi de Actun se reddat 

^ According to the pedigree in Diigdale, Elyas Gitfard had married 
Isabella Musard. 



334 



Transactions at Dcrsley. 



religioni nigri ordiiiis, nisi forte in ordine de Simplingeham^ possit 
admitti. Ita quod citra Pascha anno regis nunc sexto, liabitum 
religionis nigre sive de Simplingeham recipiat — quod quidem 
manuceperunt, Comes Wilt^ Marescallus, Wilts Comes Sarre- 
buriensis, Osbertus Giffard de Norfolcia, Ely as G-iffard, Cilebertus 
Giffard, Osbertus Giffard de Brumfelde, Ely as de Cailloe. 

Et ideo tibi precipimus qnod predicta Matilda sine dilacione 
predictis Elye Giffard et Osberto Gififard de Brunfelde libera a 
prisona nostra — committas, Teste H. — tunc apud Winton — xxvij 
die Decembris per eundem. 



Appendix B. 

Hundredum de Aggemede, ISTo. 111. Ricardus le Butiller de 
Acton vulneratus fuit in domo sua nescitur a quibus set Matildis 
uxor ejus appellavit inde quendam Willielmum Russum qui fuerat 
serviens ejusdem Ricardi. 

Et ipsa venit et elicit quod ipsa fuit in domo sua cum viro suo 
et quedam Gunula famula sua cum ea, ita quod ipsa per preceptum 
ejusdem Ricardi viri sui exivit cum famula sua ut iret spaciatum 
in gardino de nocte sicut clebuerunt cubare. Et Amicia filia sua 
remansit et lavit pedes Bicardi et interim venit predictus Willel- 
mus cum quodam homine et intravit domum et assultavit virum 
suum ita quod ipsa audivit clamorem et accessit ad hostium et 
vidit gladios extractos circa virum suum ; et ex quo ipsi per- 
ceperunt eam secuti fuerunt eam et ipsa fugit cum famula sua ita 
quod ipsa evasit et ceperunt famulam suam et eam ligaverunt et 
ipsa jacuit interim in quadam liaia et abscondidit se quousque inde 
recesserunt ; et quesita quare non intravit ad auxiliandum viro 
suo dixit quod non intrasset pro tota Angiia et dicit quod preg- 
nans tunc fuit et grossa, et quesita si velit ponere se super visne- 
tum et juratam utrum culpabilis sit et consenciens de morte ilia 
necne, dicit precise quod non quia forte plures odio eam habeant. 

Et juratores dicunt quod discordia fuit sepius inter eam et 
Ricardum virum suum ita quod ipse eam aliquando verberavit 

1 Sempvingham, a Gilbertine Priory in Lincolnshire^ founded by Gilbert 
de Gaunt in 1139 — " as a new model of religious life " and doubtless stricter 
in ruU' than most nunneries. 



A Domestic Outrage in Gloucestershire. 835 

eo quod imposuit ei quod stulta fuit de corpore suo, et ipsa sepius 
redire solet ad domum Elye de Coleweye patris sui et ad domum 
Roberti Waifer qui habuit amitam ejus[dem] Matillidis in uxorem, 
ita quod Robertus et Willelmus Wayf er et J ohannes de Fuestone 
venerunt sepius ad domum ejusdem Ricardi et eam secum ad- 
duxerunt et minati fuerunt eidem Eicardo. 

Unde bene credunt quod ipsi Willelmus et Johannes eum 
occiderunt et per consilium et voluntatem ipsius Matillclis et per 
ejus purchacium. Et dicunt quod vir suus nunquam habuit 
Willelmum Russum ad talem servientem sicut ipsa elicit. 

Et Coronatores et Comitatus recordatur quod ipsa secuta fuit 
ad duos comitatus ante mortem viri sui, et ad tercium comitatum 
post mortem ejus et ad quartum non venit et ipsa. 

Juratores de Grumbaldeasse idem dicunt quod alii juratores, 
scilicet, quod per purchacium ipsius Matillidis fuit ipse Ricardus 
occisus a predictis. 

Judicium ponitur in respectum usque in unum mensem post 
festum Sancti Michaelis, et Amicia filia ejusdem Matillidis sit 
interim sub plegio. 

Placita corone de Comitatu Gloucestrise. 

Anno quinto Regis Henrici. 



336 



Traxsactioxs at Dursley. 



NOTES ON A ROMAN INSCRIBED STONE AT 
WESTON BIRT. 
By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.SA., &c. 
Ox the visit of the Society to Weston Birt on the 4th of August, 
1886, attention was directed by the Rector, the Rev. D. Kitcat, 
to an inscribed stone in the Rectory Garden (see ante p. 210), 
which has not heretofore been described. 

Mr. A. H. Paul, Local Secretary at Tetbury, writes me that 
it was ploughed up in a small enclosure ^ on Nesley farm, in the 
parish of Beverston, close to the boundary of Lasborough. The 
walls on two sides of this enclosure are very old, and are built of 
singularly large weather-worn stones, which look as if they had 
not been quarried but picked up from the surface of the ground 
after they had been rounded by the action of the weather. These 
two walls are not parallel, and the other two being modern it is 
difficult to say precisely what was the original form of the enclo- 
sure. Mr. Rich, who for the last forty years has been steward of 
Mr. Holford's estate, says tliere is a tradition that it was in " old 
times " a cattle pen, and that the ground within it is 50 per cent. 
more fertile than the surrounding lands. Some forty years ago 
and more the stone was lying in the churchyard at Lasborough, a 
benefice united with Weston Birt, under Mr. Kitcat's charge. 
Mr. Holford, the owner of the estate, had it brought up to Weston 
Birt, and there it was thrown aside. Mr. Kitcat having heard 
of it rescued it from a heap of rubbish, and, for its greater 
security, caused it to be j^laced in his own garden, where it still 

J Since the text has been in type Mr. A. H. Paul has written to me 
that he has discovered the man, whose name is Long, who found the stone. 
Long says it was near the middle of the tield, and there was another, which 
was not dug up, close by it. He thinks it was in 1^40, We will make 
further investigation respecting the other stone. 



Plate XVI 




f D -jVl- I 

ATI 07^- 
GfiTA I 
VIXIT. : 
ANN'XXK 
\ H.p. 



J^/mum. IrbscrilfeJy Stoney Fovurul at B e^rerstcrt' . 




Fra^rroe^it o?Ty euro In^orvbeJy Stone, uv tke^ Chr&ru:^te.r 
Scale of Inches 



V 



Roman Inscribed Stone at Weston Birt. 337 

remains. From the waste of ages and ill-treatment it has become 
much abraded, so that the inscription is almost illegible. The stone 
is in form a parallelogram with a triangular head. The inscription 
is on a sunk panel about 20 inches by 12 inches, moulded at the 
edges, and surrounded by a border 3 inches wide. The head is 
moulded in the same manner, and within the triangular panel is a 
figure in low relief, apparently of a rose or some similar ornament. 
After a careful and studious examination, with the aid of several 
squeezes kindly taken by Mr. Kitcat, we have at length succeeded 
in reading the whole of the inscription, which is in seven lines, as 
follows : — 

D M 
METTI. N. 

ATION 

GETA 

VIXIT 
ANN • XXX V 
H P ' 

This, extended, will read D[iis]M[anibus] METTI NATION [e] 
GETA VIXIT ANN[os] XXX | V H[eres] P[osvit], which 
may be thus englisbed, " To the Gods of the Shades. The heir 
of Mettus, [who was] by nation a Getan [and] lived thirty -five 
years, placed [this]." Andrews gives in his Latin Lexicon 
METTVS (or METTIVS, genitive METTI (masculine), a sabine 
prsenomen, e.g. Mettus Curtius (Livy I., 12). The Y. signifying 
five in the number of years the deceased lived is placed on the 
margin of the stone, there being no room on the panel. It will 
be noticed that the letters H.P. at the bottom are cut larger than 
the others in the inscription, apparently to give them significance. 
{Flate XVI. Jig. 1). Smith, in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities (Edition 1851, Funus, p. 561) states on this subject : 
The heirs were often ordered by the will of the deceased to build 
a tomb for him (Hor. Sat. ii., 3, 84., v , 105 ; Plin. Ep vi. 10) and 
sometimes they did so at their own expense (de suo) which is not 
unfrequently recorded in the inscription on funeral monuments 
as in the following example, taken from an urn in the British 
Museum ; — - ' 



338 



Transactions at Dursley. 



DIIS MANIBVS 
L. LEPIDLEPAPHRAE 
PATRIS.OPTIMI 
L. LEPIDIVS 
MAXIMVSF 
DE • SVO 

The Get8e were a tribe allied to the Dacians, and though 
Strabo distinguishes between them he admits that they spoke the 
same language. They were originally a nomad race, and abstained 
from animal food. According to the author above-mentioned, they 
were a simple, honest, and brave people, " the justest of mankind."^ 
They occupied that part of Europe lying between the Danube 
and the Dniester — the eastern part of Moldavia and Bassarabia, 
having the Dacians on the east and the Tliracians on the south. 
Their relations with their powerful neighbours on the south (the 
Romans) were very unsettled. They sometimes stood in the 
character of friends and allies, and at other times were at open 
war. It was, perhaps, at a time when the former condition pre- 
vailed that Mettus entered the E-oman army. The Get^e were 
received into the empire a.d. 375. 

The name of Mettus, or Mettius, was honourably known 
amongst the Romans. The tradition is familiar to us all that 
Mettus Curtius, a noble youth, when the chasm in the forum 
gaped for the greatest treasure that Rome possessed, and the 
citizens were perplexed wliat to do, came forward and declared 
that Rome possessed no greater treasure than a brave and gallant 
citizen in arms, and offered himself as the victim demanded. Tlie 
citizens yielded a silent assent, and the heroic youth, in full 
armour, mounted his horse, and plunging into the abyss the earth 
immediately closed over him (Livy vii. 6.). There are several 
other traditions relating to him (See Livy i, 12, &c.) 

There is another inscribed stone in the Coriiiium Museum at 
Cirencester, the only one in that depository which we could find 
on a recent visit which is not attributed. In general character 
and in details it very much resembles the one above described. It 
is, however, only a fragment, and it is not known whence it came. 
The inscription, which is not complete (See Plate XVI. fg. 2), is 

1 Strabo; Vol. I., 462. 



Roman Inscribed Stone at Weston Biet. 



339 



printed in the catalogue of the Museum, but without any ex- 
planation. It is : — 

DM 
CAST. 
CASTREN 
VAN 

The bars of the " A's" are omitted throughout. As far as the 
letters go they are fairly legible, but from the incompleteness 
of the inscription the reading is somewhat uncertain. The first 
line must undoubtedly be read " Diis Manibus " as on the Bever- 
ston stone. The termination of the word in the second line 
is contracted. It may, probably, be read as " Castor " (or its 
genitive " Castoris," a by no means uncommon Roman name. 
The word in the third line is also, doubtless, a contracted word, but 
the fracture in the stone is so close to the last letters in this and 
the fourth line as not to admit of any indication of a contraction. 
The word may be read as Castrensis, " of or pertaining to a camp," 
or as Castrensianus (or its genitive Castrensiani) "a soldier whose 
duty it was to guard the boundary or rampart of the camp." 
Some 25 years ago there was, ajid perhaps there still is, an official 
at Calais who was styled " gardien des Remparts," whose duties 
were probably very similar to those of a Castrensianus " Y." in 
the fourth line, we read as Yixit, contracted, and " An " as Annos. 
The rest of the inscription is lost, but probably it concluded in 
much the same form as the last inscription. In conclusion, we 
must express our obligations to our old friend, the Rev. W. lago. 
President of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, for much valuable 
assistance in elucidating these difficult inscriptions. 

Another Roman monumental stone is mentioned by Rudge 
(Hist, of Glouc. 1. p. 341, 1803) as having been found at Bowldown 
farm, which is close to Nesley farm, referred to above, a few years 
before he wrote. He states it to bear the following mutilated 
inscription — 

D.M.SUI ICENA ANNoS Xllll VIXIT. 

This in itself would seem to be unintelligible. Fosbrcoke (Hist, 
of Glouc. 1. p. 409, 1807) follows Rudge in his description, but 
neither of these authors state where the stone then was, and we 
have failed in our efforts to obtain any information relating to it. 



.^40 



NoTinES OF Recent Arch^ological Pctblicattons. 



4^otices of Recent ^rchi^oloQicaX anb |gt0tekal Jpubltrattons. 



DANTE'S DIVINA COMMEDIA -Its Scope and value. From the German 
of Frantz Hettinger, D.D., Professor of Theology at the University, Wurz- 
burg. Edited by Henry Sebastian Bowden, of the Oratory. London : 
Burns and Gates, 1887. 

The Commentary on the Divina Commedia is prefaced by a menioir of the 
ever famous author. Born in 1265, at Florence, of noble ancestry, "Dante 
entered upon life vi^hilst his beloved country (Italy) was torn by rival 
factions of the Guelphs and Ghibellines. His education was of the highest 
type, but his whole life was influenced by an event which befel him as a 
boy of nine years. This was his ideal love for Beatrice, a girl of about his own 
age, who, apparently unconsciously, obtained a sovereign influence over his 
whole soul. His love for her was purely ideal. It impelled him ever to what 
was great and noble. It was purely spiritual, having no trace of anything but 
what was pure and elevating. From his first interview he saw her not again 
for nine years, and she addressed to him some words of salutation. Upon 
this he wrote his first sonnet, not sending it to her, but to some of the 
eminent poets of his time. Some time after Beatrice married a rich Floren- 
tine, but this disturbed not Dante, who still continued to write sonnets in 
her praise. In 1290 she died at the early age of 24. His grief was deep, 
but his love became deeper still, and, if possible, more intensely spiritual. 
She became the inspiration and guiding star of his whole life. 

Not long after the death of Beatrice, Dante went to Paris, where it was 
supposed he entered the Franciscan Order, which embraced all classes 
without interrupting their usual avocations, and Dr. Hettinger observes 
that Dante throughout the Divina Commedia manifests a special predilection 
for St. Francis and St. Clare, and that his enrolment as a Tertiary seems to 
be explicitly stated in the following lines : — 

I had a cord that braced my girdle round, 
Wherewith I erst had thought fast booiid to take 
The painted leopard. (1)—Hell. xvj., 106. 

and he thinks it probable that it was at this time that Dante acquired that 
familiarity with Holy Scripture which marks all his writings. 

It was not long, however, before Dante was called to rougher scenes. 
The circumstances, and especially the sanguinary strifes in his own city of 
Florence, impelled him to take an active part in the destinies of his country. 

In the bitter feuds between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines he gave 
proofs of his courage and military skill. In the great battle of Campaldino, 
in 1289, he was under arms and exposed to great danger whilst fighting 
bravely in the first line of horse, but we must not follow him through the 
l)rief period of his military service, for from tliis period commenced his 

1 This animal symbolises sensuality. 

i 



Notices of Recent Arch.tiolocical Publications. 



341 



political career. He took the popular side in his own city, and rose to the 
head of affairs as one of the six priors who were annually chosen for the 
government of Florence, each exercising his turn for two months. 

These contentions could not, however, be permitted to continue, and 
were suppressed by Charles V. of France, and the leaders of both parties, 
among them Dante, were banished. Exile from /his beloved Florence was a 
great grief to him, and he never entered the city again. For 18 years he 
was a wanderer, during which he wrote the Divina Commedia, the most 
remarkable work perhaps which the mind of man has ever produced. He 
writes with indignation against his enemies, lamenting his disconsolate and 
hard fate, dying at Revenna on the 14th Sept. 1321, at the age of 58 years. 
The sketch of the poet's life is followed by some brief observations on his 
minor works, but these we must pass by and proceed to the consideration 
of the " scope and value" of the Divina Commedia. 

We need scarcely say that the form of the poem is that of a Vision, 
the author suggests a series, of visions of the unseen world. Milton and 
others have written visions of the same subject, but they appear as visions, 
whilst there is a reality and a personality in Dante's description of the 
personages brought before us. They stand out in their several tangible 
forms as in life, not as shadowy myths. We might almost say they are 
commonplace, familiar, did not the awful and sublime grandeur of the 
whole vision forbid. 

One great characteristic in Dante's poem is the deep knowledge he 
displays throughout of Holy Scripture and Catholic Theology, upon which 
the whole poem is built up. There is scarcely a page in which his skill as 
a theologian is not apparent. Milton and others, who have written upon 
similar subjects, have been utterly deficient in this knowledge. And this 
difference is accounted for in Dante's training. Dr. Hettinger remarks : 
" The Church, by her ritual, kept before the eyes of her children symbolical 
and mystical representations of the other world, and impressed them on 
their minds as living realities by the sculptures and pictures which were 
found everywhere, from the cathedral to the wayside shrine, So, again 
the favourite subjects of dramatic art were scenes from the world to come. 
Dante's treatment of this pre-existing matter gives striking proof of his 
originality. He recognised the dominant ideas of his time, and was himself 
under their influence ; nor, except by their means, could he hope to move 
his fellow men. But the subject matter thus selected for him by the 
popular taste of the day was dissolved, purified and refined in the crucible 
of his genius, until, as with a sculptor's skill, out of the rude clay he moulded 
a masterpiece of art, at once the product and the mirror of his age, yet in 
the fullest sense his own creation." (pp. 59-60). 

Dante styles his poem simply a Comedy. The title of Divine was added 
by posterity— and Dr. Hettinger explains the difference between Tragedy 
and Comedy by saying that Comedy is a kind of poetic narrative differing 
from all others. As regards its matter, it is distinguished from Tragedy, 
which in the commencement begets admiration and tranquility, but in the 
conclusion shame and remorse. Comedy, on the contrary, begins sadly 
and ends happily {ih.) 



342 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



The scene of the poem is cast into three divisions of the unseen world, 
Hell, Purrjatory and Paradise, and the treatment of the subject is twofold. 
Dr. Hettinger remarks that "many modern writers have blindly ignored 
the fact that Dante was a man of very definite convictions in religion, science, 
and politics, and that to understand him you must go back to his time." 
This is obvious. And as to its contents it is to be noted that ' ' the work 
has not a single meaning but many meanings. The first meaning is literal, 
the second is allegorical. The first symbolises only the going out of Israel 
from Egypt under Moses ; the second, the redemption under Christ. The 
moral sense, the conversion of the soul from the mourning and misery of sin 
to the state of giace, and the anagogic sense typifies the passing of the holy 
soul from the bondage of this corruption to the liberty of everlasting glory. 
And these mystical meanings, though called by different names, may all be 
termed allegorical as distinguished by the literal or historic sense. " (p. 64). 

This would seem to be the scope and character of the work, and this 
design is carefully worked out by the commentator in following the poet in 
his pilgrimage through the several sections of the unseen world, through the 
first two of which he was conducted by Virgil. On entering Paradise he meets 
his beloved Beatrice, the type of divine grace and wisdom, through which 
alone the soul rises to God. For the vivid and awful description of these 
scenes we must refer the reader to the pages of this instructive and charming 
volume. 

Dr. Hettinger's criticism of the Divine Comedy would seem to be very 
judicious and just. He says : "in richness and force of his imagery Dante 
stands alone. His figures seem to live and move, and are marked by a 
perfection of detail which shews the practised eye of the artist, naturalist, 
and sportsman, yet likewise that unequalled play of phantasy which the 
subject demands. His similes are always novel, yet always apposite .... 
With him the sublime never becomes pompous, nor the tender and lovely 

insipid Only Shakespeare and Tacitus possess, with Dante, the 

mysterious power of laying hold of the reader, and concentrating his ideas 
and emotions on one single point. But Dante surpasses Shakespeare in 
passion, Tacitus in grandeur, and both in simplicity . . . Two works only, 
in ancient and modern times, can claim comparison with the Divina Com- 
media — Homer's Iliad and Goethe's Faust. The nearest in matter and form, 
though still its inferior, is Faiist.''^ 

Besides this, the Divina Commedla is superior to all the others named 
in its instructive and christian teaching. In some matters of detail and 
speculation we may not agree with Dante, but his theology is of the age in 
which he lived. He sees " one eternal purpose traced and developed in all 
things, and man, through the Redeemer, winning his way to God." 

Dean Ciiurch writes: " Tliose who know tlie Divina Commedla best, 
know how hard it is to be the interpreter of such a mind (as Dante), but 
thej' will sympathise with the wish to call attention to it. They know, and 
would wish otlicrs also to know, not by hearsay, but by experience, the 
power of that wonderful poem. Tliey know its austere yet subduing beauty ; 
they know what force there is in its free, and earnest, and solemn verse, to 
strengthen, to tranquilise, to console." 



i 



OTiCES OF Recent Arch^ological Pltblications. 343 



THE ANCIENT CITIES OF THE NEW WORLD— being Travels and 
Explorations in Mexico and Central America, from 1857-1882, by D4sir6 
Charnay, with numerous Illustrations. Translated from the French by 
/. Oorno and Helen S. Conant. London : Chapman & Hall, Lim., 1887. 

This work treats of a subject of great interest upon which much has been 
written but still little is of certainty known. Tw'O notices of it by the present 
writer have been issued, though, for reasons which he gives, he pronounces 
them both unsatisfactory : and he presents to the public the present work, 
" in which (he says) the entire design I had at heart is revealed : and if the 
account of my discoveries, the issue which naturally follows, the theory I 
wish to establish, are still couched in language which may appear crude and 
incomplete, I ask the indulgence of my readers on the plea that this edition 
received the last touch between the two expeditions. On the other hand, 
the subject is so vast that I only aimed at giving a broad outline, hoping for 
greater leisure at some future time." 

M. Charnay attributes the worthless character of what has been hitherto 
written on Mexico to various causes, and says that "up to the present day 
authentic documents have been wanting " ; and travellers have confined 
their investigations to particular districts, and that the conclusions which 
they have drawn from their observations have been found to be untenable 
when compared with the ruins of the whole country, and hence various 
epochs of American civilization were dealt with as so many distinct civil- 
lizations, producing the utmost confusion, whereas, in fact, they belong to 
the same civilization — namely the Toltec, and that of comparatively recent 
date. 

M. Charnay discards the question of first origins, and begins his history 
with the first arrival in Mexico of the cultured Toltecs, who settled in the 
valley of Tula, their development in the high plateaux, the disruption of 
their empire, how they transmitted their industries and mechanical arts to 
the people who succeeded them, and, lastly, he follows them in their exodus, 
and finds traces of their civilization everywhere in their passage and in the 
regions of Central America. 

The author observes that Castes are purely Asiatic, and are unknown 
among the Red Indians. In the case of the Toltecs the population was 
divided into four castes : viz., Priests, Warriors, Merchants, and Tillers of 
the soil ; whilst land was held in common, and the feudal system prevailed 
both with them and the Malays. He remarks that two languages, 
are used in Java and Cambodia : one to address superiors, the other the 
vulgar, and that this was also the case with the Toltecs, and gave rise to 
two difierent written languages and that they have various other customs in 
common. 

M. Charnay commenced his travels from Vera Cruz, and the description 
which he gives of his journey to Chapultepec is very interesting, though 
not marked by any incident which requires particular notice. Chapultepec 
was a place occupied by the Toltec tribe, whose capital was at Tula in the 
same district, in the 8th century. The name Toltec, we are informed, is 
synonymous with " architect." The tribe was remarkable for the mildness 



Vol. XI. 



344 



Notices of Recent Archjeological Publicatioks. 



of the character of the members and the degree of their civilization. They 
were, after a time, displaced by rude tribes, among them the Aztecs. Of 
the religion, manners, and customs of this barbarous people, which were 
most cruel and repulsive, an interesting account is given. A horrible story 
is told of the immolation of an Aztec maiden, but even this would seem to 
have been exceeded by the general prevalence of human sacrifices. This 
was especially marked on the occasion of the dedication of the great temple 
Huitzilopochtli in 1486, when the number of persons immolated is variously 
estimated at 80,000 and 20,000, but probably even the lesser number is 
exaggerated. 

Tula is situated sixteen leagues north of Mexico. The Toltec was one 
of the Nahuan tribes, and, by common consent of historians, the most 
cultured of all that family, and the best qualified to preserve the history 
and tradition of the race by means of documents and sculptures. Their 
documents generally were, however, destroyed at the Spanish conquest. 

Veytia, the Historian of Antigua, whose authority M. Charnay accepts, 
places the primitive home of the race in Asia. According to him, after the 
general dispersion of the human race in connection with the Tower of Babel, 
the tribe from which the Toltecs derived their origin made their way across 
Tartary, and passed Behrings Straits by means of large flat canoes and 
square rafts made of .Vood and reeds. Very early history, as we know, 
before the existence of historical documents, is invariably founded upon 
tradition, and these traditions are oftentimes supported by rock sculptures 
or other evidence of a secondary character ; and M, Charnay is of opinion 
that none are better authenticated or more trustworthy than those now 
under consideration. To the Toltecs Veytia attributes the ' ' invention of 
of hieroglyphs and characters, which, arranged after a certain method, re- 
produced their history on skins of animals, or aloe and palm-leaves, or by 
knots of different colours, which they called nepohualtzilsin, " historical 
events," and also by simple allegorical songs. This manner of writing 
history by maps, songs, and knots, was handed down from father to son, 
and thus has come down to us." 

On landing in America the Toltecs proceeded southwards, building several 
cities, and at length settled at Tollan, or Tula, which became their capital 
at a date which is variously assigned to the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries, but a.d. 
713 is supposed to be about the probable time. They were good architects, 
and skilled in mechanic arts. The^' built great cities, the ruins of which are 
still visible. They erected palaces built of cut stone, without mortar, beams, 
girders, or wood of any kind. Their arches were constructed like those of 
other primitive races e.g. the Britons. Whatever they did was excellent, 
graceful, and delicate. Exquisite remains of their buildings, covered with 
ornamentation, together with pottery, toys, jewels and many other objects 
are found throughout New Spain, " for," says Sahagun, "they spread every- 
where." (p. 82). An interesting account is given of their religious belief and 
ceremonial observances which we are unable to refer to more fully. Many 
antiquities, consisting of pottery, sculpture, &c., have been found at Tula. 
The Toltecs are described as above middle height, and owing to this they 
could be distinguished in later times from the other aborigines. Their 
complexion was clear, their hair thicker than that of other nations who 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 345 



followed them, although less so than the Spaniards. This is still observable 
among the few who remain claiming Toltec descent. " Of the young women 
the author says : " Some look quite pretty, with their glorious eyes, their 
long hair reaching below the M-aist in two long plaits, with glass or stone 
beads around their necks ; their scanty costume leaving uncovered their 
shapely arms, necks and ankles. On looking at them I seem to myself to 
be carried back a thousand years amidst that grand old race whose ruins I 
am here to study." (p. 103). The Toltecs reached the zenith of their power 
in 10th and 11th centuries, and their empire extended over one thousand 
miles, bordering on the Atlantic and Paciific Oceans, and the population was 
so dense as to cause the soil to be cultivated on the highest mountains, 
whilst an influential priesthood performed the sacred rites within innumer- 
able sanctuaries. 

The Toltecs were peaceful, their organization was feudal and aristocratic, 
indicative of conquest, yet their government was paternal. Besides the great 
feudatory lords they had military orders, and titles which were bestowed 
on distinguished soldiers for services in the field or on the council, and 
finally the celebrated order of the Tecuhtlis, which was sub-divided in sub- 
orders of " the Tiger," " the Lion," and ' ' the Eagle," and other animals, each 
having its peculiar privileges, (p. 112). The author states that the initiatory 
ceremonies resembled somewhat those of our knights of the middle ages. He 
describes these initiatory rites at considerable length, which far exceeded 
in rigour those of our mediseval Knights. He further describes the customs 
and marriage ceremonial of this interesting people, for which we must refer 
the reader to his pages (pp. 114, 115). Much further illustration is given of 
their laws, habits and feelings. Their religion was mild and gentle. Human 
blood never stained their altars. Their offerings were of fruit, flowers and 
birds. Their chronology was somewhat remarkable, and their calendar was 
adopted by all the tribes of Anahuac and Central America. The year was 
divided into 18 months of 20 days, adding five intercalary days to make up 
the full number of 365 days, and as the year had nearly 6 hours in excess of 
365 days, they provided for this by intercalating 6 days at the end of 4 years, 
which formed leap-year. Tlapilli (knots) were cycles of 13 years, 4 of these 
cycles was a century, which was called Xiuhniolpilli (" binding up knots "). 
Besides the bundle of 52 years they had a larger cycle of 104 years, but this 
was not much used. At the end of each cycle of 52 years they held a great 
festival at the rekindling of the sacred fire. As the time approached the 
people were filled with the greatest anxiety and apprehension lest any 
accident should occur, for if the fire failed to be rekindled an universal 
dissolution was expected to follow. They threw away their idols, destroyed 
their furniture and domestic utensils, and suffered their fires to go out. A 
lofty mountain near Mexico was the place selected for kindling the new fire, 
which was effected by the friction of two sticks, and the fire thus kindled 
was communicated to a pile of wood at midnight, and as it blazed up shouts 
of joy ascended from the multitudes assembled on the surrounding hills. 
The following days were devoted to festivity, the houses were cleansed and 
whitewashed, and broken vessels replaced with new ones. 

A sad account is given of their fall and dispersion, which, stated briefly, 
arose in the following circumstances : — Polygamy and concubinage were 
strictly forbidden by the Toltec laws, both to princes and people, — but 
z 2 



346 Notices of Recent Ab,ch.5:ological Publications. 



Tecpancaltzin, the last of the Toltec Kings, became enamoured of a beau- 
tiful damsel named Xochitl (flower), daughter of one of the great nobles, 
of whom he, by guile, obtained possession and defiled. Of this connection a 
son was born, who is known in history as Topiltzin. On the death of his 
legitimate wife Xochitl was proclaimed Queen and Topeltzin as his successor, 
and after Tecpaucaltzin's death the Toltec princes, who were thus deprived 
of their hope of succession, broke out into open hostilities, and eventually 
the tribe dispersed in different directions. This is said to have taken place 
1031-1050. Some remained in the Tula valley with the two sons of Topiltzin, 
and their grandsons were subsequently closely connected with the royal 
families of Mexico, Texenco and Colhuacan. 

This must end our remarks on M. Charnay's account of the ancient and 
powerful tribe of Toltec, and we must now accompany him in his exploration, 
and very briefly advert to his discoveries, which confirm his theory that the 
Toltecs were the builders of the ancient cities and the founders of the 
ancient civilization of Mexico and Central America. 

Ascending Monte de Fraile, a mountain a few miles north of Mexico, rising 
some 13,000 feet above the level of the sea, he gives an estatic description of 
the beauty of the scenery. Here he opened some graves, and was abundantly 
recompensed for all his labours by the discovery of a large number of 
ancient relics of the Toltec people, every variety of vases, some representing 
the Toltec God Tlaloc, fruit cups, beads, jewels, &c., &c. "Whole civili- 
zation (he says) emerges from these tombs and carries us back to the life of 
this long-forgotten people." He remarks that of the large number of orna- 
ments found in a certain tomb "not a single bead, not a single ornament 
was found but was broken," and he suggests that this was done at the time 
of the burial as a token of grief. On one day, out of five tombs which were 
opened " five were found to be intact and yielded sixty remarkable pieces, 
one of which is unique and of peculiar interest. It is a three-footed terra- 
cotta cup, some six inches by three, by one and a half at bottom inside. . . 
Both the inside and outside are covered with pretty devices, painted white, 
yellow, blue, green and red, fused into a harmonious whole. The colours 
are in relief and like enamels. Next one almost as beautiful but smaller." 
These beautiful cups were put out to dry in the sun, but the surface of one 
quickly scaled off, whilst the brilliant colours of the other were fast fading 
away. He succeeded in getting a photograph of it, but it gives only a faint 
idea of this beautiful work of art. The bottom of this cup is well engraved 
(page 173). But the most remarkable " find " in this prolific grave was a 
perfectly well preserved human brain, the skull of which was gone. It had 
been protected by its surroundings and by a stout cup into which it was 
wedged. This would seem to be almost incredible, but it is vouched for by 
the author and his associates. In explanation of this remarkable preservation 
the author states that at an elevation of 13,000 feet, close to the volcanic 
cone of Popocatepetl, in a soil saturated with sulpherous vapours (a film 
of sulphide always extended over my nitrate of silver washes), the same 
chemical combinations which destroyed the bones, may have acted as a 
preservative on cerebral matter." In four days they secured some 800 
interesting pieces of all kinds, the whole, however, was confiscated by the 
Mexican government. But we must pass on. 

The next place visited was Bellote, on the Rio Gonzales, for the purpose 
of examining three pyramids, measuring from 125 to 325 feet at the base 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 347 



and from 37 to 43 feet in height. These are in all respects identical with 
those at Tula and Teotihuacan, save that they are much smaller and unlike 
those at the last mentioned place in that they are built of shells and mud, 
and that baked bricks are not used except in partition walls. On the terrace 
crowning the pyramid a fragment of wall still exists, covered with hard 
cement composed of four layers of lime and mortar, each coating representing 
figures and characters in bas-relief, modelled in the lime coating, one of 
which the author succeeded in removing intact, and it is figured p. 189. The 
figure in this bas-relief is represented with a receding forehead very similar 
to those on the bassi-rilievi at Palenque, proving, in the author's opinion, 
the unity of civilization of the two countries save that priority of date most 
assigned to those at Bellote. 

With reference to the Toltec chronology and the custom of re-decorating 
the houses at the end of every century after the rekindling of the sacred tire, 
to which allusion is above made (ante p. 345), the author suggests that this 
custom may have received here its highest development, that the walls of 
the temples were covered tvith hieroglyphic coatings commemorating the 
age which had just elapsed, and that every succeeding century received a 
layer similarly inscribed ? Were this presumption, he says, substantiated a 
starting point would be obtained, enabling us to state that at the Conquest 
in 1520 this monument was four Indian centuries, or 208 years, old, plus the 
fraction of the century just begun. This, however, he says, is not borne 
out by facts, but granting the correctness of his theory, he cites a statement 
of Stephens (Incidents of Travel, Vol. II. p. 316) in which that writer asserts 
that in a remote corner of the temple he saw six coatings of plaster which 
would be equivalent to 312 years, plus the fraction of the current century, 
which might bring it up to 330 years at the Conquest, and about 690 years 
old at the present time, an antiquity which may reasonably be accorded to 
Palenque as the sequel will shew. And he adds that these monuments are 
identical with those observed by the early Spaniards and so often described 
by their historians ; and if it be borne in mind that when the Toltecs were 
driven from the high plateaux they migrated south, and were found as early 
as 1124 established at Goatzacoalco, Tabasco, and Yutacan by the envoys of 
Xolotl, the conclusion that the monuments under notice belong to this tribe 
must force itself upon every unbiassed mind. 

The next visit was to Comalcalco, passing through a difficult country, 
having on the right and left the remains of the old Indian road which con- 
nected the city with the river, crossing rivulets formerly spanned by bridges 
of which bricks and corbels are still visible. At Comalcalco they found a 
great pyramid measuring some 975 feet at the base and some 95 feet high. 
The principal monument was a great palace which is very fully described. 
It was built of baked bricks, stone not being procurable, and the roofs were 
more high-pitched than those of Tula on account of the prevalence of ex- 
tremely heavy rain, but in other repects they possessed the same typical 
character as the buildings at Tula, and as those found in all other the 
author's explorations. 

Though the volume increases in interest as we proceed, our limited 
space constrains us to pass rapidly on. The visit to lias Playas and Palenque 
is of the highest interest. The dense forests are full of remains of buildings. 



348 



Notices of Recent Arch.^^ological Publications. 



large cities, and massive palaces, all in ruins. The author, with sadness, 
reflects upon what will be their condition fifty years hence, and grieves to 
think there will be nothing left but heaps of mouldering stones. 

A full and graphic description is given of the great Palace of Palenque, 
illustrated by a large number of well executed views of the buildings and 
of the curious sculptures of high artistic merit with which it is so plenteously 
enriched. It is evident, as pointed out by the author, that Palenque was 
not, as has been supposed, a capital city, the residence of a powerful 
monarch. None of its decorations shew any sign of war or triumph. No 
arms appear ; " nor spear, nor shield, nor bow, nor arrow, but nothing but 
preachers and devotees. " He comes to the conclusion that it was a holy place, 
an important religious centre, a city that was resorted to as a place of pil- 
grimage, teeming with shrines and temples, whose gods were the gods of the 
Toltecs, a vast and much sought burial place (p. 246). And this is confirmed 
by the multitude of inscribed stones with which the temple was covered, 
which, at present, are uninterpreted. It is, however, satisfactory to know- 
that 325 square feet of squeezes have been secured, and that we may hope that 
in no long time they may be read, as they will probably throw great light 
upon the history of this mysterious country. 

The account of the author's travels in the Province of Yucatan excites the 
attention of the reader. It is chiefly historical and topographical, and relates 
to the manners and customs and superstitions of the people. He describes in 
a very graphic manner the grandeur of the scenery and the very remarkable 
monuments with which the dense forests abound. The Spanish conquerors 
destroyed as far as they possibly could all the records of the earlier race, 
with the view of absolutely annihilating all its past history. Manuscripts 
written on goats' skins, inscribed and sculptured stones and other precious 
relics thus perished, leaving merely gleanings for the explorers to gather, 
which they have very industriously and successfully done. The monuments 
which they have discovered are by no means scanty, and the comparison of 
the bas-reliefs with those with which they were familiar on the plateaux, 
the more their afiSnities and resemblancies are studied, the more strongly 
do they appear, indeed some are all but identical though found a thousand 
miles apart ; whilst the buildings are of the same character and are con- 
structed in the same manner as those at Tula and Teotihuacan. The author 
remarks that "when we add that the same customs, the same institutions, 
the same manner of computing time, the same religion, the same arms were 
common both to the tribes of the plateaux and the mayas of the peninsula, 
as recorded by all ancient writers, we think we may even more positively 
afiirm the Yucatec civilization is both Toltec and recent," 

The volume is one of the most valuable historical works which has 
come into our hands for some time. 



THE ENGLISH IN AMERICA.— THE PURITAN COLONIES. By J. A. 
Doyle, M.A., Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 2 vols, 8vo. London : 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1887. 

Both the State and the Church in England were troubled with, what maj'^ 
be called, the Spirit of Puritanism, from the time, at least, of Henry VIII. 

t 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 349 



down to the period of the events treated of in these volumes, to say nothing 
of the Lollardlsm which preceded it. It is needless to recite the difficulties 
which arose in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Elizabeth, by the force of her 
own strong will,succeeded, in some measure, in keeping the Puritans in check, 
but the accession of James to the throne, who had been brought up as a strict 
presbyterian, led them to hope that he would favour their opinions. James, 
however, had experienced much annoyance from the over-bearing manners 
of the presbyterian ministers in his own country, and was very much indis- 
posed to subject himself to the same in his new kingdom, and detected, or sup- 
posed he detected, sedition lurking beneath. The proceedings of the Hampton 
Court Conference and the Enactment of the Canons of the following year, 
seemed to render their aspirations desperate, and the disappointment thus 
arising produced great disaffection among the leaders of the party, even 
extending to the House of Commons, which, under the plea of not obtaining, 
what they called, a redress of grievances, refused to grant the supplies 
necessary for the purposes of the state. James certainly wanted tact and 
discretion in meeting the difficulties by which he was beset. He was 
bigotted and intolerant, and the puritans were no less so. It was the spirit 
of the age. But undoubtedly if the King had yielded to their claims they 
would have despised him for his weakness, and increased their demands. 

There was not, at this time, any open rupture between the more moder- 
ate puritans and the Established Church. The former had no objection in 
principle to an established religion provided its organization and doctrines 
were fashioned upon their own peculiar model, and in accordance with their 
own narrow views. They had no desire to make a schism. Their object 
was to indoctrinate the Church itself. Even in the time of Elizabeth, 
though openly adhering to the Church, secret associations were formed in 
divers places for propagating their own peculiar opinions among the half- 
educated rural clergy, and gradually to corrupt its doctrine and subvert its 
discipline. 

Towards the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth the discoveries in 
America attracted much public attention, and various abortive attempts 
were made at colonization. All miserably failed. But in 1606 King James 
granted two charters for the colonization of Virginia. The party of emigrants 
consisted chiefly of persons of rank — noblemen, gentlemen and merchants ; 
and the second — of knights, gentlemen, and merchants from the West of 
England ; and into Virginia slavery had been introduced before the settle- 
ment of New England. During the civil war thousands of persons, made 
prisoners by the parliamentary forces, were openly sold in England to 
be transferred and resold again in Virginia to the highest bidder. Both 
those communities adhered to principles of the monarchy and of the 
Church of England. After a while Virginia became eminently successful. 
Meanwhile the dejected and discontented puritans, in 1608, migrated to 
Holland, and settled at Leyden, where they formed a religious community 
according to their own views. Their desires were, however, drawn 
towards the far west, where they saw a field suited to their needs. Here 
they could, without interruption from King or Bishop, carry out their own 
conceptions of civil and religious liberty, their own notions on theo- 
logical doctrines and church government. The chief leaders in the project 



350 IsToTicES OF Recent Arch^ologioal Publications. 



were E-obinson, Brewster and Bradford, and overtures were made to the 
Virginia Company to allow them to settle in that colony, where, it was 
believed, there were many moderate puritans. Accordingly two of their most 
influential members were sent over to England to negotiate the business upon 
the basis of the principles of the monarchy and the Church of England, but 
their confession of faith for this purpose was so adroitly drawn as to mean 
little (see the author, p. 49). The project from various causes came to 
nought. To form a company among themselves would require a capital, 
and the puritans had none, therefore proposals were made to some mer- 
chants and others to form a partnership, emigration to be considered as 
equivalent to a pecuniary subscription of £10. The arrangements were 
made as follows : — 

All emigrants over 16 years of age were entitled to a single share of £10 
value ; every emigrant who furnished his family with necessaries was 
entitled to a double share for each person so furnished, and every one who 
exported children between 10 and 16 years old, to one share for every two 
children. Children below 10 were to be entitled to fifty acres of unmanured 
land, but were to have no further interest in the company. All settlers, 
except those provided for in the conditions above-mentioned, were to receive 
their necessaries out of the common stock. For seven years there was to be 
no individual property or trade, but the labour of the colony was to be 
organized according to the different capacities of the settlers. At the end 
of the seven years the company was to be dissolved and the whole stock 
divided. ' ' Two reservations were inserted, one entitling the settlers to 
separate plots of land about their houses, and the other allowing them two 
days in the week for the cultivation of such holdings." To this the London 
subscribers refused to agree, and to avoid the break-down of the whole 
scheme the intended settlers were constrained to yield. The shareholders 
entered into it merely as a financial speculation. They cared not for the 
colony, and sought only to obtain interest for the money they had advanced. 
It does not appear that they had any sympathy with the peculiar religious 
views of the emigrants. 

The difficulties were so far overcome that a party of about 100 persons 
sailed from Plymouth in the " Mayflower," and after a long and bad passage 
arrived at Cape Cod. Here, after some exploration and much consultation, 
they determined to settle down in their new home, and proceeded to draw 
up a constitution for the future government of the infant colony. " This 
set forth as the objects of the colony: — the Glory of God, the advancement 
of the Christian faith, and the honour of the King and Country of England. 
It went on to bind all those who sigaed it to submit to all such laws and 
ordinances as the community should from time to time enact. There is no 
reservation of conformity to the laws of England, nor is there anything said 
as to the mode of legislation." This is the starting point of the Puritan 
Colony of New England, which, with Massachusetts, forms the subject of 
the two volumes now under notice. Mr. Doyle's History of the Colony of 
Virginia, previously published, we have not had an opportunity of seeing. 
And his series of works treating of the origin and settlement of English 
colonies, leading, eventually, though then little foreseen, to the creation of 
the great Commouwealtli of the United States of America, is necessarily of 
great historical interest and value. 

i 



Notices of Recent AncHJiOLOGiCAL Publications. 351 



In consequence of the lateness of the season at which the settlers arrived 
there was little opportunity for making preparations for the winter, during 
which they suffered greatly from hunger and exposure. Half of their number 
died, and at one time there were but seven individuals who were not stricken 
down by sickness. Happily the natives shewed no desire to molest them in 
their helpless condition. The return of the spring brought health and 
vigour to the survivors, but the community had been greatly weakened by 
deaths. Intercourse with the natives followed, and a friendly and formal 
alliance was made between the settlers and Massasoit, the chief of the 
district, which was honourably observed on both sides. 

Difficulties and misunderstandings soon arose with the London partners, 
who, for the reasons already stated, sought only their own private interests, 
and in 1627 the partnership was dissolved. The communal system, also, 
upon which the colony was founded, as might have been expected, broke 
down, and private allotments were made, but progress was retarded by the 
strict religious exclusiveness adopted. No one could enjoy the privileges 
of a free citizen unless he was acceptable to the Church. New settlers, 
however, who could pronounce the required shibboleth, gradually arrived. 
The colony prospered and still preserved its exclusive religious character. 

Various small settlements were founded in the neighbourhood of 
Plymouth, Such was one designed to be made by one Thomas Weston, an un- 
principled man, sometime a member of the London Committee, who seceded 
from that body with the intention of sending out a party of settlers on his 
own account. These men were as base and unprincipled as Weston himself. 
An independent settlement upon their borders in such circumstances could 
not be otherwise than a cause of uneasiness to the Plymouth community, and 
their anxiety was increased by the unscrupulous character of the men them- 
selves. They were indolent and unthrifty, and were reduced to great straits. 
Having made Plymouth their resting place, the settlers there, as a matter of 
charity, supplied their necessities as far as they could, but they robbed the 
Indians, and could scarcely be restrained from seizing the green corn, which 
would have exposed every English settler to the vengeance of the natives. 
At length they determined to make a settlement on the south side of 
Massachusetts, but were as indolent and improvident as before, and con- 
tinued their depredations on the natives. The Indians, in just indignation 
at their proceedings, formed a league to cut them off. Massasoit, the 
faithful ally of the Plymouth settlement, privately intimated this design 
to the Governor of Plymouth saying that possibly the danger may extend to 
that settlement. The Plymouth settlers in full council dispatched Capt. 
Standish at once with a party of armed men to seize the ringleaders among the 
natives. The language and demeanour of the natives when Standish arrived 
seemed to justify his suspicions, and he resolved to strike the first blow. 
Two of the natives were killed and the rest dispersed. Another writer, not un- 
friendly to the settlers, gives a very different account of the incident (Rev. 
J. B. Marsden, M.A., History of the Early Puritans, p. 307). He says: 
*'The Indians had resolved to massacre the white men ; the white men resolv^ed 
to massacre the Indians. A small party was enough, as the slaughter was 
to be the work of guile.'" Nor indeed were the Puritans wanting in bravery ; 
so Capt. Standish, with eight companions, were judged to be a very sufficient 
force. They affected a friendly bearing towards the chief conspirators, 



352 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



and lured them into an Indian wigwam. On a signal given the door was 
closed and the butchery began. Standish himself plunged his knife into the 
heart of one of the chiefs. The whole party returned in triumph unhurt, 
carrying with them the head of an Indian warrior. Which version is most 
correct we cannot say. Mr. Marsden does not cite any authority for his 
statement. 

Among these small settlements a company of merchants and other inhabi- 
tants of Dorchester, co. Dorset, formed a small fishing settlement at Cape 
Ann, in Massachusetts Bay, which was destined to become one of the greatest 
Puritan colonies in America. This, however, did not succeed, and was aban- 
doned by the merchants, but one of the adventurers, John White, the Puritan 
Rector of Dorchester, saw in this failure an opportunity for a scheme of 
colonization of a far more important character. We need not refer to the 
particular circumstances leading to the foundation of this important colony. 
Mr. Doyle has stated them very fully and clearly. Suffice it to say that 
Massachusetts was to be exclusively a Puritan settlement, and as far as 
possible, an independent Commonwealth. The first step taken was to shake 
off the authority of the Company, and John Winthrop, a landowner in 
Suffolk, a very able man, was appointed Gov^ernor, and ruled the colony 
many years. The object of the founders was to establish the colony, "not as 
a band of traders, nor of pauper labourers, but a worthily representative 
body of Citizens animated with the desire to reproduce the political life of 
the country which they were leaving." (p. 135) 

Winthrop arrived in the colony in June, 1630, but notwithstanding the 
wealth and commercial ability of the settlers, the colony, like all others, 
experienced great difficulties and suffered much distress in the following 
winter. More than 80 persons of the 900 sent out the year before perished, 
and the survivors had but a fortnight's provisions left. More than a hundred 
settlers, some of them persons of wealth, including one of the four ministers, 
left the colony within a year after Winthrop's landing. The contemplated 
social economy of the colony also broke down. The settlers had no means 
of feeding their hired servants, and were obliged to give them their freedom, 
and it was found here, as it has been found in other free colonies since, that 
servile industry could never be permanently maintained, and that the land 
must be cultivated by small proprietors. Jealousies and quarrels also arose 
among the settlers in respect to political affairs. Winthrop looked upon 
popular government with disfavour. " The best part of the community (he 
said) is always the least, and of that least part the wiser is still less." An 
axiom as true as it is trite. In consequence of these disputes a House of 
Representatives was established in 1634 which led to Winthrop being 
superseded in the government by Dudley, the Deputy Governor, a narrow- 
minded enthusiast. Further changes in the Constitution were made. A 
law was established that no man should be a freeman of the colony unless he 
was a member of some church, that is, Mr. Doyle observes: — "unless a 
man would profess his adhesion to a detailed and complex theological creed, 
and conform to an exacting system of morality and worship, he was debarred 
from all share of the government ;" (p. 146) and this was followed by further 
measures of repression of liberty of conscience and freedom of speech. 

That tlie Puritans possessed many excellent qualities no one will deny, 
and their code of personal morals was a very high one, but their inconsis- 
tencies were very great. Supposing themselves to have been persecuted in 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 353 

England, which in our judgment they were not, for if they had lived quietly 
they would not have been molested, when left to themselves, they learned 
bitterly to persecute each other. "Apostles of liberty, as they considered 
themselves, they confined its blessings to themselves. Champions of freedom 
of conscience they allowed no freedom which interfered with their own 
narrow views. Professors of G-ospel holiness tlvey fulfilled it but in part. 
When opposed they were revengeful, when irritated fanatical and cruel." 
This last trait was manifested on two notable occasions — the attack on the 
Indians, in connection with Weston's settlers, as related ante page 351, and 
the fearful massacre of the Pequod Indians, as described by Mr. Doyle 
(Vol. I., p. 233), in which 600 men, women, and children were destroyed 
with the loss of two Englishmen (Marsden, p. 309). The instances of bigotry, 
intolerance, persecution and cruelty are too numerous to mention. They 
pervade the whole history of the Puritan colonies. Doubtless there were 
among them disorderly spirits who, having resisted legitimate authority in 
the old country, were ill-disposed to submit themselves in the new to the 
dictatorship of their brethren. 

The space at our disposal precludes us from treating as fully as we could 
wish of this very remarkable and instructive work. Our remarks, so far, 
are confined to the first volume. The second seems to be of equal or greater 
interest, and we propose to refer to it again at an early period. In the 
meantime we can cordially commend the work to the attention of all who 
take an interest in the growth and development of the great transatlantic 
continent. 

GLEANINGS IN OLD GARDEN LITERATURE. By W. Caeew Hazlitt. 
London : Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, 1887. 

This is a scholarly, chatty, and charming little book, which if one 
takes it up it is difficult to lay aside again. Who is there of a cultivated 
mind that does not love a garden ? Nature in a garden pours forth her choicest 
bounties and beauties. Shakespeare loved his garden, and was fond of 
plants and flowers, of which he had a good knowledge, and was well ac' 
quainted with gardens, as shewn in all his works as has been brought under 
notice by Canon Ellacombe in his " Plant Lore of Shakespeare." Francis 
Bacon also, his contemporary, was devoted to his garden, to the enjoyment 
of which he rejoiced to retire from the woolsack. "God Almighty (he 
writes) first planted a garden ; and, indeed, it is the purest of human 
pleasures; it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without 
which buildings and palaces are but gross handy-works ; and a man shall 
ever see that when ages grow to civility and elegance, man comes to build 
stately sooner than to garden finely ; as if gardening was the greater per- 
fection." Bacon wrote several books on gardening, and, to a considerable 
extent, was a successful experimentalist, though some of his conclusions 
were contested by Ralph Austen. Evelyn too, gentle Evelyn, delighted in 
gardens. His greatest trial in life was the annoyance he experienced from 
Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, who occupied Sayes Court, close to Dept- 
ford dockyard, for three months, when studying naval architecture there, 
and was pleased, in his drunken frolics, with charging in a wheelbarrow 
through Evelyn's "glittering hedges of holly." 



354 Notices of Recent Arch^oloCxICAL Publications. 



Many others of our great English Worthies whom Mr. Hazlitt brings 
under our notice were fond of their gardens and took great "pleasure in 
gardening. Mr. Hazlitt, himself, is manifestly a lover of gardens, or he 
would not have devoted his time and attention so fully as he has done to 
plants and garden literature. The first regular treatise on gardening, he 
tells us, was the work of Thomas Hill, a native and inhabitant of London, 
which was issued about 1560. And he carries us through old garden 
literature, gleaning many interesting passages from Bacon, Evelyn, and 
other early writers on gardens, plants, and flowers. 

The chapter on Kitchen Gardens is of great interest. We are told that 
in the time of the Saxons the leek was universally cultivated, not confined 
to Wales. It was a favourite table vegetable, as were also onions and garlic. 
Many kinds of flowers which are still favourites among us — the sunflower, 
the violet, the marigold, the gilliflower, the honeysuckle, the periwinkle, 
the pansy, and the bay tree, were then grown in the kitchen garden, These 
are distinguised from the plants introduced by the Normans, such as the 
pear, the cherry, the pea, the turnip, the radish, the colewort, the cabbage, 
and many herbs, as parsley, mint, rue and sage, so that in early times the 
list of vegetables was by no means despicable. And Alexander Neckham, 
who wrote in the latter half of the 12th century, mentions, in addition to 
those above named, fennel, savory, cresses, melons, the cucumber, the 
poppy, anise, mustard, white pepper, w^ormwood, peaches, pears, citrons, or 
lemons, &c., &c. By the middle of the 17th century, of course, our lists of 
vegetables, fruits and flowers had vastly increased in number, and improved 
in quality ; and greater skill had been acquired in cultivation, which con- 
tinued to improve in the century following. Asparagus and artichokes were 
cultivated. Pope, the poet, gives a hint that the melon should be eaten 
with a spoon, observing that " so far as the spoon will cut it is ripe." The 
potato remained a rarity in this country long after the time^ of Elizabeth. 
It was ranked with the date, the orange, and the plum of Genoa. It was 
still regarded as a dainty as late as 1633, but vegetables generally were very 
abundant in the 17th century. 

Lysons, in 1792, remarks "on the incredible profit by digging the 
ground ! for though it be confessed that the plough beats the spade out of 
distance for speed (almost as much as the press beats the pen), yet, what 
the spade wants in the quantity of ground it manureth, it recompenseth with 
the plenty of food it yieldeth, that which is set multiplying abundant-fold 
more than that which is sown." Tlie writer of this notice has had some ex- 
perience in spade cultivation, and can bear testimony to its advantages. Mr. 
Hazlitt's account of the market gardens in the neighbourhood of London is 
of great interest. 

In his description of the gardens which formerly adorned our old 
country houses, some of which happily remain, Mr. Hazlitt, in some 
measure, seems to yield to the objection of Horace Walpole to the old 
formal geometiical forms introduced from the Netherlands about the time 
of the Revolution as being stiff and tasteless. While admitting that the 
fashion was often carried to an absurd length in tlie attempt to clip shrubs 
to resemble birds, animals, &c., we must confess to a partiality for the 
quaint old formal Dutch gardens laid out with box, yew, and holly hedges 
kept carefully clipped, witli stately avenues leading to and from the mansion 

i 



Notices of Kecent Aech^ological Publications. 355 



in various directions harmonizing with the stiff square form in which the 
old red houses of the period were built ; and we do not think that either the 
house or it environs have been improved whether under the direction of 
Capability Brown, or his coadjutors. 

Whilst treating of old systems of gardens, Mr. Hazlitt brings under the 
reader's notice many hints of practical value to Ihodern gardeners, and we 
are sure that his little brochure will be read with pleasure and profit by all. 



HISTORIC TOWNS— EXETER. By Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L., LL.D., 
Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford. London : 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1887. 

HISTORIC TOWNS— BRISTOL. By Wm. Hunt. London : Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1887. 

The City oe Exeter, from its great antiquity and importance, has been 
well selected to follow next' after London in the list of Memoirs of the 
Historic Towns or England, and no better choice could have been made 
than Professor Freeman as its historian. To say he has well performed the 
labour he has undertaken would be superfluous. From his long and intimate 
acquaintance with the place, his high attainments as a historian, and his 
general knowledge of Antiquities and Ancient Architecture render him 
specially qualified to deal with such a city as Exeter. 

In the plan of this series the various cities and towns of which it is 
proposed to treat are divided into classes, and Exeter is placed in the 
group of those towns of Roman origin which have, throughout all English 
history, kept a certain position as heads of shires, or as heads of dioceses, 
or have been, in some other way, places of importance. Cities which 
have been heads of Kingdoms or heads of Ecclesiastical Provinces form a 
separate and higher class, Exeter, the author remarks, does not therefore rank 
with Winchester and London, or with Canterbury and York, but it has kept 
its position as a local capital more fully than any other city of its own class. 
It is pointed out also that it has pre-eminently kept its own name under 
different forms according to the language of the races, respectively, which, 
at various periods, have borne sway within its walls, as: — Isca Damnoniorum, 
Caer Wise, Exanceaster, Exeter — all having the same signification — The City 
on the Exe. 

The date when Exeter was first occupied by the Romans is not known, 
but it must have been very soon after their settlement in the country ; and 
after their departure the Britons and the Saxons dwelt together, side by side, 
within its walls in harmony, until the former, for political reasons, were 
driven out by JEthelstan in 926. The manner in which the city was divided 
between them has been shewn by our ingenious member, Mr. Kerslake, in 
an interesting paper which he read before the Royal Archaeological Institute 
at Exeter in 1873. 

Exeter is not mentioned in history, however, until its occupation by 
the Danes in 876, at which time it appears to have been a well-known and 
strong place. The Pagan invaders were soon expelled, and on the death of 
Alfred in 901 the West Saxon kingdom was left in peace. Edward the 



356 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



Elder, whom Professor Freeman styles The Unconquered, held a Witan here, 
and from his reign it is frequently named in history. The next important 
event touching it was its siege and capture by William of Normandy, who, 
as William the Conqueror, Professor Freeman delights to contrast with the 
Prince of Orange, whom he fondly calls William the Deliverer. 

The growth of the city from this date, both in its social, municipal and 
military character is of great interest. The erection of the castle, the com- 
pletion of the Church of St. Peter, the removal of the bishop's seat from 
Crediton with the formation of the Chapter at Exeter, together with the 
steady growth of the liberties of the citizens, especially while under the 
vigorous rule of John Ji'.hillingford, as mayor, in the 15th century, with the 
privileges of the freemen later in time, the contentions arising between the 
castle, the city, and the cathedral, and the part taken by Exeter and its 
citizens in the various sieges to which it was exposed, and the municipal 
changes which have taken place down to the present time are all related in 
Professor Freeman's luminous, attractive, and inimitable manner, and will 
be read with great interest. Moreover there are many striking incidents 
arising throughout the narrative which will demand attention, though we 
cannot particularly refer to them here. 

The history, however, is a mere sketch, as we presume all of the series 
will be. No man knows better than Professor Freeman the necessity of 
original research in writing a history, whether local or general. This prin- 
ciple, we are glad to see, he enunciates with much force in his inaugural 
address in entering upon the duties of his present high and important office. 
*' To the laws and to the testimony (he says), to the charter and the chronicle, 
to the abiding record of each succeeding writ on parchment or engraven on 
stone, it is to these he (the teacher) must go himself and must guide others." 
But in writing this book he desires it to be distinctly understood that it 
does not represent any independent research into the Exeter archives. 
Nevertheless it is a sketch by a master's hand, and is most instructive and 
valuable. 



Bristol, in this series, is classed as one of the great commercial and trading 
towns. In fact it originated in Trade, arising from the conspicuous advan- 
tages of its port, and trade brought it wealth and influence. It is of 
comparatively modern origin. It is not known in history until about a.d. 
1000, though, doubtless, it was a shipping place of importance long before 
that date. There is no evidence that the Romans had a settlement here, 
though the discovery, in dredging, of a Roman pig of lead in the river leads 
to the conclusion that the port was used by that people as a shipping place. 
Moreover, the fact that .Ethelred II. had a mint here about the end of the 
9th century shews that it must have been a place of considerable mercantile 
importance at that early date. 

Bristol, however, does not appear to have been a place of much standing 
at the time of Domesday, as it was gdded under the Manor of Barton, which 
was a portion of the Eoyal Demesne, and the King therefore was the Lord 

I 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 357 

of the Town, nevertheless the burgesses would appear to have possessed ] 
some degree of freedom, for they were summoned, and answered for them- 
selves before the commissioners, and afterwards from time to time acquired 
greater franchises. 

The situation of the port gave the town in early times much commercial 
intercourse with Ostmen of Dublin, and withi-other of the Scandinavian 
nations, principally in slaves, which, Mr. Hunt states "were its chief 
articles of export, and it seems to have been on the worst form of this 
traffic that the early prosperity of the town was founded. Slavery (he 
says) was one of the primitive institutions of our race, and men were law- 
fully made slaves for various causes, but that after the introduction of 
Christianity the sale of Christian and innocent persons was strictly forbidden. 
In spite of the laws on this subject Bristol men kidnapped or bought the 
best of the youth of both sexes whenever they could. The slave was the 
most valuable chattel of the time, and a man fetched the price of six oxen. 

We will turn, however, to a more pleasing subject. As with Ireland, 
so with the coasts of Spain and France, the port of Bristol was most con- 
veniently situated for purposes of trading, and very extensive transactions 
were carried on with those countries, and especially with the English 
possessions in the latter country, chiefly in wine. The streets of Bristol 
town were so honeycombed with cellars for storing wine, salt and other 
merchandises that no vehicle was allowed to be used in them. All goods 
were carried by porters or packhorses, a custom which continued at least to 
the end of the 17th century, which is noticed by Pepys (Diary, III. p. 463.) 

In the time of Stephen Bristol was considered almost the richest town 
in the country. In the civil war of that time it took part with the Earl of 
Gloucester on behalf of the Empress and her son against Stephen, and on 
Henry's accession to the throne and the subsequent conquest of the south of 
Ireland, he granted to the men of Bristol, who had always supported him, a 
charter giving them the City of Dublin " to inhabit, with all the liberties 
and free customs which they have at Bristol and through my whole land." 

A chapter follows, in which Mr. Hunt gives an account of the " Black 
Death " which swept off one half of the population of the town. The influx 
of strangers from the country and from abroad, and the effect produced in 
the social position of the craftsmen and labouring population generally, is 
of considerable interest and value, for these effects were not merely local, 
but affected the whole realm. 

In a chapter headed " The Castle," Mr. Hunt gives a most interesting 
description of the state of Bristol during the reigns of Hen. II. , Hen. III. and 
John — the part the town took in the Barons' wars — the erection of the castle — 
the extention of the walls of the town — the building of the bridge across the 
Avon — the incorporation of Bedminster within the liberties of the borough 
and the consequent strife which arose between the town and the powerful 
lords of Berkeley, who were lords also of Bedminster, and, naturally, were 
not very patient of this invasion of their rights. This, and great inter- 
necine quarrels, led to what is called the " Great Insurrection." The King 
appointed Thomas Lord Berkeley as commissioner to settle the disputes 
of the townsmen, which, not unnaturally, increased the strife and led to 



358 Notices of Recent Akchjsological Publications, 



overt rebellion on the part of the commonalty. They cast off the King's 
authority and built a wall across the isthmus between the city and the 
castle so as to prevent all communication, and the townsmen maintained an 
imperium in imperio during nearly three years ; which resistance of the men 
at Bristol to the King's authority had not a slight effect upon the result of 
his war with his Barons. 

Mr. Hunt, in a series of chapters, notices some of the great merchants, 
their pious deeds, their wealth and their pageants — the dissolution of the 
monasteries — the foundation of the Bishopric of Bristol — the discovery of 
North America, and colonization of Newfoundland — the stirring incidents in 
Bristol of the civil wa-' of the 17th century — a spirited chapter of great 
interest, and various matters under '* Odds and Ends," concluding with an 
account of modern politics and riots within the city. 

Both volumes are illustrated with maps shewing the condition of the 
respective cities at different periods, and are attractive and interesting. 



THE HISTORY OF THE DRAMA IN EXETER during its best period 
1787-1823, with Reminiscences of Edmund Kean. By Wm. Cotton, F.S.A. 
London : Hamilton, Adams and Co. , Paternoster Row. Exeter : William 
Pollard & Co., 1887. 

It is well to have our attention recalled to the social condition of the 
Provinces during the latter half of the last and the first quarter of the 
present centuries. The distance of some of our counties, Devon for instance, 
from London, the difficulties of travelling, not, in some cases, small, to say 
nothing of dangers from bad roads and other causes, led the local nobility 
and gentry to content themselves with a visit to the county town, with 
their wives and families, for a few weeks or months in what was called the 
season, where many, if not most of them, had town residences. Many of 
these fine old mansions still exist in our country towns, though now diverted 
to baser purposes. The local gentry would here meet their friends and 
neighbours and enjoy kindly and mutual intercourse. Probably they would 
spend their time with more pleasure and profit, and at far less expense, than 
they do now in a London season. Balls, assemblies, and various amusements 
were plentifully provided, among which the drama held a high place. 

Passing by Mr. Cotton's statement, that the story of the Drama in 
Exeter dates from the beginning of the 16th century, which would seem to 
be somewhat mythical, we come down to 1747, at which date the first theatre 
in the city was erected. It was on the boards of this theatre that William 
Dowton, an actor of some repute in London, derived his professional 
education, though Mr. Cotton tells us he was chiefly remarkable for the 
length of time he was on the stage. But a new theatre was built in Exeter 
in 1787 by Mr. Hughes, of Birmingham, which was opened under the 
patronage of Lord Courtenay. It is from this date that Mr. Cotton takes up 
the history of the Exeter stage, and he enters upon his self-imposed task 
con amove. Mr. Hughes, who was a friend of the famous Mrs. Siddons, was 
the first manager. The theatres of Weymouth and Plymouth were included 
in the circuit, and the company migrated from one to the other. Tlie first 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



359 



company was a very good one. It included Stephen Kemble and his wife. 
Plymouth and Weymouth had their turns. 

" The season of 1789-90, Mr. Cotton tells us, is ever memorable in the 
aimals of the Exeter theatre, by the appearance of the great tragedy-queen — 
Sarah Siddons, herself. She was at this time in the zenith of her fame, her 
powers, and her charms. Dr. Johnson had bowj^d down and worshipped, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds painted his name on the hem of her garment in his 
portrait of her as the Tragic Muse. Statesmen were glad, when she played, 
to sit among the fiddlers ; the King shed tears at her acting, and the Queen 
appointed her teacher of elocution to the Royal Princesses ; without any 
emolument. ! She first appeared in Isabella, in London, seven years previously, 
and the impression she made was such that the whole house was convulsed 
with emotion. Screams and sobs, and hysterical cries, interrupted the per- 
formance." This play was presented to the Exeter audience, and Mr. Cotton 
adds " that a more critical and discriminating audience was not to be met 
with even in London itself." It is needless to say that the famous actress 
was rapturously received in -a crowded house. The company played at 
Weymouth with great success during the autumn, the King, and ladies and 
gentlemen of the court, being present almost every evening. We may here 
bring in an amusing anecdote of the good old King George III. , though we 
do not know that it occurred on this occasion, but it will fit here as well as 
elsewhere : — 

Mr. Hughes, it appears, had his company at Weymouth, and amongst 
them was a remarkably masculine woman, who sustained the character of 
Miss Pickle in the farce of the Spoiled Child, which was a great favourite of 
the King's. On lighting their Majesties to the carriage, which was a 
customary proceeding, the King said to the manager, Very good, very 
good, Hughes — farce well played — well played ! clever man that Miss 
Pickle — clever man — clever man !" "Man? (exclaimed Hughes) your Majesty 
is deceived, the person who sustained Miss Pickle is Mrs. Blank, a very 
respectable tooma?!.''" "No ! no! Hughes," rejoined the monarch laughing, "a 
man, Hughes — a man ! a man !" " With all submission (replied the astonished 
manager) I assure your majesty Mrs. Blank is a woman ! " "It won't do — 
it won't do, Hughes, (continued the King) a man ! Hughes — a man ! hey, 
Charlotte, hey ? hey ? Clever man, Hughes — saw his beard — saw his beard ! 
A man, Hughes, a man ! " The next morning Hughes entered the green- 
room and addressed the assembled company : "Ladies and gentlemen, I am 
happy to tell you their Majesties were much gratified by the performance 
last night — much gratified. (And turning to Mrs. Blank, who sat in 
gigantic dignity in one corner of the room) I am most happy in saying, 
madam, that his Majesty particularly noticed you I "God bless the King," 
exclaimed the delighted lady. "And the Queen also distinguished you," 
continued Hughes. "Lord love them," said the lady. " I saw they were 
looking at me, bless their dear hearts." " Yes, (said Hughes) his Majesty 
was vastly pleased." " May the King live for ever," rejoined Mrs. Blank, 
beaming with smiles ! " But his Majesty— (" God bless him " interrupted 
Mrs. Blank) — his Majesty insists that you are — a man!" "The nastj' 
beast ! " cried Mrs. Blank, and fled from the room. 

Mr. Cotton gives many interesting anecdotes of the Exeter company, and 
of the many eminent actors who graced the Exeter stage. One little incident 
Vol. XI. A 2 



360 Notices of Recent Arcii^ological Publications. 



deserves notice. It is stated that there was only one performance during 
the season of 1803-4. The play was Henry V., and it was intended that the 
whole receipts of the night should be applied in aid of the Ladies' Fund for 
supplying the Exeter Volunteers with flannel waistcoats, but some of the 
privates thought it derogatory to their character and consequence to accept 
of them, so the offer was declined — it might have been declined 7-espectfully 
it is remarked ? 

In 1805 Master Betty, the young Roscius, aged 12 years, was engaged 
for a few nights. In the following year Charles Kemble and his pretty 
bride (Miss de Camp) acted for a few nights, but appear to have been very 
coldly received. In 1811 Edmund Kean and his wife appeared. He played 
Shylock, and attracted great attention, giving an original conception of the 
character. He was engaged at two guineas a week. He is described as a 
little man with a sallow face, a little figure, a melodious voice, and such an 
eye ! His Shylock was something marvellous, but, personally, he was, at 
this time, anything but a reputable character, being much addicted to 
intemperance, which led to great poverty and misery. An interesting sketch 
is given of his life by Mr. Cotton, the vicissitudes of which are too well 
known to need repetition here, as is also his sad end. 

After the departure of Kean the Exeter stage was favoured with the 
appearance of many stars of greater or less magnitude, including Charles 
Kemble and his wife, Macready, Mrs. Yates, Miss O'Niell, Miss Foote, Mrs. 
Fancit, Grimaldi, Farren, and others of minor note, who severally trod the 
Exeter boards ; but the affections of the audience seem to have lingered 
still with Kean. 

Mr. Cotton gives some interesting sketches of these parties in turn, 
citing in some instances the plays in which they acted, the characters in 
which they performed, and the manner in which they severally sustained 
their respective parts, quoting extracts from the critiques of the contem- 
porary local critics, which, generally, so far as we can judge, appear just and 
discriminative. 

Mr. Cotton has performed his part well, and his poetical illustrations 
appear to be apposite and well introduced. 



THE GREAT ROLL OF THE PIPE for the eleventh year of the reign of 
King Henry the Second, a.d. 1164-1165. 

This young and active society has delivered another volume to its members, 
being the eighth of the series, since our last part was issued. It is the 
account of William Plpard, the Sheriff of Gloucestershire. It is thicker, and 
we think, of more than usual interest to Gloucestershire Antiquaries. 

Referring to the statement in the fifth volume of the series, in which it 
was pointed out that the Roll for the eighth year of Henry IL , although it 
was officially classified as a Pipe Roll, was, in reality, the Chancellor's anti- 
graph, and the earliest of that series ; it is now shewn that in the Roll 
for the eleventh of the same King, the full text of which is printed in the 
volume now under notice, points were observed which tend to prove that 
the Pipe and Chancellor's Rolls for this year have, at some time, changed 
places, and it is suggested that it should be borne in mind, as has been 



Notices of Recent Arch^:ological Publications. 



361 



before stated^ that the earliest Chancellor's Rolls, some 300 in number begin- 
ning with the 9th year of Hen. II., were formerly in the British Museum, and 
consequently not in strict legal custody. The Roll now printed has, how- 
ever, as far as is known, always been in proper custody, and is therefore of 
greater legal authority. It has been carefully collated with the Chancellor's 
Roll, and all differences are pointed out in the f^ot-notes. 



LONDON CHURCH REGISTERS SERIES— THE REGISTERS OF 
ST. BOTOLPH, BISHOPSGATE. Transcribed by A. W. Cornelius 
Hallen, M.A. Parts II. and III. 1887. 

We noticed Part I. of this new Series of Parish Registers under the title of 
the " Registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate," in our last issue, in which we 
stated that, if sufficiently supported by subscriptions to cover the cost of 
printing, it was and is Mr. Hallen' s intention not only to complete the 
Registers of St. Botolph down to 1753 but to continue the series by the 
annual issue to the subscribers of a volume of 448 pages of matter. 

Since our last notice was written Mr. Hallen has issued two other 
quarterly parts of the Registers of St. Botolph, bringing down the record of 
christenings and marriages to 1628, and of burials to 1603. The work is 
beautifully printed on excellent paper, and every page shews care and ac- 
curacy in transcribing and editing. 

It is needless again to advert to the special value of the Registers of the 
London Parishes to all who are engaged in genealogical pursuits, a large and 
rapidly increasing class. It is those only who practically know their cosmo- 
politan character can fully appreciate their value to genealogists. There 
are, further, many other subjects of interest in the study of our old City 
Registers. They shew the growth of the population, the prosperity or decay 
of the city, its social condition by the classes of its inhabitants and the indus- 
tries practised at various periods. There are many crafts mentioned in this 
Register now quite obsolete. We mention : Threadmaker, Scalman, Water- 
bearer, Hatbandmaker, Thruster, or Thraster,^ Silkthraster, Needlemaker, 
&c., &c. 

The Registers also are rich in unusual christian names. We find Phaefer 
(mas.), Trixon (mas.), Lewyn, Clerentia (fem. ), Israel, son of Nicholas God- 
help, Benone, son of widow Rede, Exham (fem.), Cassandra (fem.); and 
unusual orthography is found in writing common names : — e.g., Beniahmyn, 
Samewell, Jayne, Jeames, &c. We noticed many quaint and curious entries. 
Among the baptisms is this, on 25th Sept. 1586 ; " Elizabeth a negro child 
born white, y*^ mother is a negro." 

In numerous instances in the entries of baptisms there are statements 
that security has been given " to discharge the parish." The first entry of this 
kind we meet with is under July, 1588, though it is without a specific date : 
" Elizabeth daughter of Wm. Marsell, being borne hard by y^ preaching 

1 From the Anglo-Saxon Thrawan, " to throw." We hear the word is still in use as 
"Throwster" at Frome, Somersetshire, in connection with the manufacture of cloth. We 
have also Sericum torquere," to throw silk — (See Lye's Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico- 
Latinum). 



362 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



place in Spittle, for w^^ John Reeves and Mr. Fowler, dwelling in St. 
Geo. pish in Southwark, have given their words to discharge pish." And 
entries to this effect continue for ten years, when they cease. We con- 
clude that the children were born of poor strangers, and that the bonds were 
given to avoid the children acquiring a settlement or becoming chargeable 
to the parish, though it was prior to the Poor Law Act of the 43rd Elizabeth. 
We do not remember to have seen such entries in any other registers. 

The work is a labour of love on the part of Mr. Hallen, and all real 
workers know how fascinating is such work ; nevertheless, printers must be 
paid, though the transcriber's labour is given gratuitously, and the cost of 
printing is a heavy item. It is hoped that genealogists and others who are 
interested in the printing and preservation of these valuable records will 
cheerfully subscribe the funds to pay the out-of-pocket expenses, and this 
is all Mr. Hallen desires. Subscribers names to be sent to the Rev. A. W. 
Cornelius Hallen, the Parsonage, Alloa, N.B. 

AT BOSIG. By James Baker. Gentleme.n's Magazine, April, 1887. 

Mr. James Baker, a member of our Society, is an enthusiastic traveller, 
especially in the out-of-the-way and obscure parts of Eastern Europe, which 
Englishmen rarely visit. Some time ago we noticed two articles of his on 
"Days Afoot" and "Round about Haida " (Trans., Vol. IX. p. 214) and 
we have now before us the April number of The Gentlemen's Magazine, in 
which he gives a description of that, in its day, important stronghold, the 
Castle-Convent of Bosig, in Bohemia, with an interesting account of its 
eventful history. 

The Castle of Bosig is mentioned as early as the ninth century, and 
from the twelfth its continuous history can be traced. In 1278, when 
Rudolf I., of Mahren, conquered the district, it became the prison of the 
wife, son, and daughter of King Otakar, and a romantic story exists, Mr. 
Baker tells us, of the escape of Queen Kunigunde, though he does not cite his 
authority. In 1337 it became a Royal Palace. The Emperor Karl IV. often 
resided here, but after his death it ceased to possess the dignity of a Royal resi- 
dence. Its vicissitudes are briefly related until its destruction by the Bavarians 
in 1620, when it fell into the hands of Count Walenstein, who set about 
its restoration, but on his death it again reverted to the crown, and the 
Emperor Ferdinand III. granted it, with divers lands, &c. , to the Augus- 
tinians ; twenty years later, however, it was again in ruins, having been 
burnt by the Sv\^edes. Once more the monastery was reinstated, and after 
Ferdinand's death a figure of St. Benedict was borne hither " from Prague 
with great pomp, which soon attracted a crowd of pilgrims to worship before 
it. In the year 1740, no less than 40,087 persons communicated at its shrine, 
and gifts of the richest and of the costliest poured into the monastery." Its 
eventful history ended in 1785, when the Emperor Joseph II. distributed the 
statues, &c. , to various churches. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, edited by the Bev. B. H. Blacker, 
is proceeding in "the even tenor of its way." The third volume is now 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 363 



approaching completion, and there is no falling off in its interest and value. 
The later numbers contain some good articles and notes. There are some 
useful extracts from Parish Registers of Baptisms, Weddings and Burials, 
and copies of Monumental Inscriptions from various churches, very useful 
to the genealogist ; besides notices of individuals. We expect that the 
next number will complete the volume, when we hope to notice it more 
fully. 

The Western Antiquary, edited by Mr. W. H. K, Wright, also continues 
to make satisfactory progress under its able P]ditor. There are some notices 
of much value in the numbers issued during the present year, and we may 
specially mention a series of articles, commenced in the February number, 
entitled Biogra'phia Medica Devoniensis, or collections towards the history 
of the Medicinal W^orthies of Devon. By William Munk, M.D., F.S.A. 
Devon has produced some eminent and remarkable men in the faculty of 
medicine. The present series relates chiefly to the Physicians of Plymouth. 
In this list, Dr. James Yonge, F.S.A., a native of the town, born 1646, and 
Dr. John Huxham, F.R.S., a native of the county, find places, and brief 
memoirs of others of less note are given. The Rev. Prebendary Hingeston- 
Randolph, the learned Editor of "Bishop Stafford's Register," supplies 
abstracts of many antient deeds of considerable interest and value from the 
Church of Kingsbridge. Dr. Brushfield has introduced an interesting article 
on " Broadside Ballads of Devon and Cornwall " — whilst there is no lack of 
Notes and Queries of the ordinary kind. 

Northern Notes and Queries. We have been favoured with further 
numbers of this useful publication. The Editor, the Bev. A. W. C. Hallen, 
brings under notice, the subject of Old Linen, which, perhaps, has not 
received from Antiquaries the attention which it deserves, and he describes 
some curious pieces preserved in his own family. Other examples of a 
similar character of the date of about 1700 are mentioned by later corres- 
pondents. All the patterns seem to be of a political character. It is a 
subject well deserving the attention of Archa3ological Societies in visiting 
our old Manor Houses. There are many notes of considerable interest, 
conspicuously one relating to the funeral of Mary Queen of Scots. 



Another claimant of public favour has arisen in the far north, entitled 
Scottish Notes and Queries, published at Aberdeen. The progeny of the 
original Notes and Quehies, so auspiciously established by the late Mr. 
W. J. Thoms, is rapidly increasing. This latest-born is said to be "robust 
and full of vitality " — but some die young and it is not always the fittest 
which survive. 



864 



TilANSACTIONS AT DURSLEY. 



ANCIENT 

CHURCH EMBROIDEHY IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
By MARY ELLEN BAGNALL-OAKELEY. 

Since Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley's Memoir on the " Ancient Church 
Embroidery in Gloucestershire " has been "worked off" (ante page 
246), we have received from her the following Addendum thereto. 
Perhaps, strictly speaking, it should be printed in the Transactions 
of the Society at Stratford-upon-Avon, but it will, we think, be 
more convenient, though late, to print it in the same volume as 
the Memoir to which it relates. — Ed. 

Since the foregoing pages were written the Bristol and Glouces- 
tershire Archaeological Society has visited the church of Clifford 
Chambers, and on looking at the covering of the altar in that 
church I found it so curious that I desire to add a few lines of 
description as an addendum to my former paper. This Com- 
munion Cloth is square, and is composed of fine red cut velvet, 
now much faded, and surrounding it is sewn a border of gold and 
silver " passementerie " about 4 ins. wide. This is of an elegant 
and elaborate design, and almost as bright as the day it was 
worked. It is of foreign make, and was, probably, taken from 
some ancient vestment brought from the continent. 

On the ends of the altar are two cushions, each covered with 
the same kind of velvet as the cloth, but on one of them is placed, 
without any regard to design, some pieces of very fine guipure 
lace made of silver thread, which, though sadly mutilated, retains 
much of its ancient beauty. The design is composed of pome- 
granates and their leaves, and most likely it^ was part of the 
decoration of a cope and chasuble. One of the pomegranates, 
which was part of the powdering of the ground, is sewn on the 
cushion. If English, tliis would be probably of the early part of 
the roign of Henry VIIT., but it is more likely to be of Flemish 
manufacture, in which country the pomegranate decoration was 
used for a long period. 

1 



Abbenhall, M., 297 

Abbindon, Abbot, 144, 322. 

Abbots' Court, Deerhurst, 105, 115 

Abergavenny, Honour of, 300 

Abliilton, M., 144, 144n. 

Account, annual, 1885-6, 220 

Acton, 331, 334 

Acton, de, 151, 317n., 331 

Adams, 324 

Adeleminton, M., 140 

Adrian IV., Pope, 247n. 

Adye, 289 

^Ifflajd, 248 

Alfred, K., 855 

^Ifric, 110 

^thelred II., K., 356 

JEthelswitha 248 

Agg-Gardiner, J. T., on Com. foF restor- 
ing Saxon chapel, Deerhurst, 187. 
Agmead, Hund , 331, 334 
Ailburton, M.—See Aylburton. 
Aix-la-ChapeJle, 249 
Albans, St., 300 
Albans, St., Abb. of, 247n. 
Aldaret, 248 
Albemarl, 150n. 
Albini, d' 298, 320n. 
Alcock, Bp., 228 
Alderley. 210, 212 
Alfred, K., 91 
Alford, 254 

AUard, Mr. W. , appointed Local Sec. for 

Tewkesbury, 190 
Allen, Rev. W. T., 96, 97, 179, 204, 212, 

259 ; prop, grant of books to Revd. 

T. P. Wadley, 212, 298 
All Saints'. Bristol, 91 
AJmeby, 288 
Almondeston, 102 
Alphege, St. , 115 
Alphington, Ch., Devon, 91 
Alvington, de, 147 
Alvington. M., 147, 147n. 
Alweston^ M., 148 
Amando,'St., 149 
America, 343-348, 350, 358 
America, English in— Puritan Colonies. 

By J. A. Doyle, noticed, 348-353. 
Amfray, 326 
Amney, 150. 
Amney, Crucis, 150 
Anderson, 96 
Angeston, 281, 286 
Anne, Q., 163 
Anne, de, 322 

Antiquary, The Western, noticed, 363 

Ap Adam, 139n, 206, 328 

Apecote, de, 140 

Ap Hoel, 215 

Apperleye, 2, 5, 93 

Archer, le, 142, 238 

Ardern, 120 

Arm.^— 

Berkeley of Cubberley, 4 
Barrow, 209 
Bruges, 4 
Cassey, 2, 3, 5 
Cbandos, 4 



Arms {continued)— 

Chadworth, 118 

Dixton, 156 

Fettiplace, 5, 5n. 

Germany, Emp., 253 

Gifford, 5n. 

Mills, 3 

Rous, 3 

Russell, 156 

Talboys, 209 

Unknown, 218 
Arragon, Alphonso, K. of, 316 
Arthur, 125 
Arundel, 326 

Ashleworth, M., 148, 148n, 187 ; cross, ih. 

Ashmead, 289 

Ashton, Long, 84 

Aston, Cold, 145, 145n, 150n, 325 

Aston, de, 144 

Aston Somerville, M., 144, 144n, 319,319n. 

Asturias, 171 
Athelney, 91 
Athelstan, 91, 355 
Attwood, 203 
Atwood, 292 
Audeley, Lord, 305 

Augustine, St., Bristol, Abbots of, 142, 

215 227 
Aure, de, 322, 323 
Aure, M , 323 
Aurincone, M., 143 
Aust, M.,139 
Austen, 244, 353 
Aust Passage, 205 
Austria, Leopold, D. of, 315 
Avon, River, 357 
Awnells, 272 

Aylberton, M., 147, 147n, 323, 827n. 



Backeshore, de, 140 
Backeshore, M., 140, 140n. 
Bacon, 353, 554 
Baderon, 323 
Badminton; 5 
Bagendon, de, 151, 151n. 
Bagendon, M., 151, 151n. 
Baggb, 159 ' 
Badinage, 208n. 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs., her "Memoir on 
Church Embroidery," 246. — See also 
Oakeley. 

Bagpath, 213 

Baker, 123, 286, 292 

Baker, James, his "At Bosig," noticed, 
362 

Baker, W. M., on committeie for restoring 

Saxon Chapel, lb7 
Bakewell, 99 
Banchewell, 285 

Bannockburn, battle, 166, 230, 321n. 

Barber's Bridge, 187 

" Barclay, Perkins & Co," 219 

Baret, 323 

Barking, 234 

Barkly, Sir Henry, contributes " Kirby's 
Quest," with Introduction and An- 
notations, 130-154 ; at Dursley, 185 ; 
is eleofced President, 19^1 ; delivers his 



366 



INDEX. 



InaugTiral Address, ib.; is thanked, 
ib.; his remarks on Dursle}' Castle, 
196 ; presides at annual dinner, ib.; 
acknowledges toast of his health, ib.; 
in excursion, 204 ; his memoir on the 
Berkeley s of Dursley cited, 205 ; his 
remarks on Beverston Castle, 207 ; 
presides at concluding meeting, 212, 
is thanked ib. ; his remarks on Ozle- 
worth Church ; 216 ; his inaugural 
address printed, 221-242 ; 316, 317 ; 
his "Domestic Outrage in Glouces- 
tershire," 331-335 

Barnaby, 158 

Barnwell Stream, 286 

Barre, 157, 157n. 

Barrow, 209 

Barrye, de, 321n, 

Bartleet, Rev. S, E., at Deerhurst, 1; at 
Dursley, 185; prop, resol., 191; his 
remarks on local sports, pastimes, &c. 
204; 212, 321n. 

Barton on Humber, 61, 62 

Barton Regis, M., 327, 356 

Bartrum, 126, 129 

Base Bullen, 273 

Basset, 151, 156 

Bassettes meade, 285 

Batchelor, 275 

Bath, 126, 210, 242 

Bath, Prior of, 325, 325n. 

Bath and Wells, Bps. of, 135, 231 

Bathon, de, 150 

Bathurst, Lord, 125n, 128n. 

Baugh, 291 

Baunton, M., 151 

Bavaria, Duke of, 317 

Bawsdale, 291 

Bayley, 287, 2S8, 289, 290 

Bayly, Col., 185, 204, 212 

Bazeley, Rev. W., {Hon. Sec.) at Deer- 
hurst, 1 ; remarks on Cassey Brasses, 
ib. ; reads memoir on Cassey family, 
2 ; at Durbley, 185 ; reads Report of 
Council, ib.; re-elected Gen. Sec, 
190 ; his remarks on Dursley Church, 
Tanner's Chapel, 196, 197 ; on Dursley 
Castle, 198 ; 204 ; his remarks on 
Beverston Castle, 205-207 ; exhibits 
British gold coin found at Beverston, 
207 ; reads paper on "Dursley Puff 
Stone," 210 ; at concluding meeting, 
212 

Beach, 264, 265, 275 

Beauchamp, de, 140, 141, 146. 146n, 147, 

148, 235, 308, 320, 320n., 323, 329n. 
Beaumont, 158 
Bee, Abbey, 158n. 
Bccket, 86 

Beddoe, Dr., his remarks on "Three 

Skulls found at Gloucester, 266, 267 
Bedford, 235 
Bedminster, 357 
Beccher, 291, 292 
Bcfford, de, 150 
BehriTigs Straits, 344 
Bek, Bp., 164 
Belliers, 157, 159 
Bellows, 266. 267 
Benconibe, 281 
Benet, 158, 216 
Bere, de la, 157n. 
Berkeley, 3 

Berkelev, Barony, 232, 357 
BcrkeU^v, Bor., 142, 230 
Berkeley, Castle, 306, 308n. 



Berkeley, de, 134n, 142, 146, 148, 149, 151, 
153, 153n, 156, 199, 205, 207, 210, 211, 
211n, 213, 214, 214n, 215, 216, 217, 219, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 
230, 231, 232, 2.33, 234, 235, 236, 237, 
238, 239. 240, 241, 245, 283, 286, 364, 
305, 306, 307, 308n, 311, 323, 323n, 
324n, 326, 327, 328, 3i9n, 330, 357, 
358 

Berkeley, Hernesse, 226, 227, 229, 305, 306, 

307, 313, 326 
Berkeley, Hund., 134, 142, 148n, 221, 229, 

230, 313, 326, 327 
Berks, Co., 168 
Bernard, 225, 226 
Bernewode, de, 237, 239 
Berrow, 292 
Berton, de, 145 
Bertram, de, 145n. 
Berye, 245 
Bet, de, 149, 149n. 
Betty, 360 

Beverston, 134n, 148n, 149, 149n ; the 
castle visited by the Society, 204 ; 
notes on by the Rev. W. Bazeley, 
205-207 ; British gold coin found at, 
207, 227, 236, 260, 262, 264, 327, 328, 
336 

Beverston, Rectors of, 192 

Bicknor, Eng. Ch., 91, 271, 279 

Bicknor, English, Manor, Court Roll of. 

Communicated by Sir John Maclean, 

269-279 ■ 297 
Bicknor, Street, 272, 273, 274, 275 
Birkem, 285 
Birmingham, 358 
Birmingham, de, 2 
Birt's Morton, 187 
Biscay, Bay of, 171 
Biscay, Prov. of, 171 
Bisley, Hund, 141, 146n, 150n. 
Bitton, 157n ; embroidery at, 258, 325n. 
Blaake, 291 

Blacker, Rev. B. H., his "Gloucester- 
shire Notes and Queries," noticed, 
363 

Blackheath, Hund., 162, 164 

Blackwell, 291 

Blakeford, de, 143 

Blakenham, 143, 143n, 146n. 

Blanch, da. of K. Henry IV., 317, 319, 322, 

324, 326, 328 
Blaunket, 142 
Blathwayte, 204 
Blideslow, de 146 

Blideslowe, Hund., 135, 147, 147n, 323 

Blideslow, M., 147 

Blissett, 291 

Blomfield, 185 

Bloxam, M. H., 84n. 

Bluet, 151 

Blundell, 159, 320n. 

Blundevil, 142n. 

Blunt, le, 325 

Blunt, Rev. J. H., 192, 193, 222, 225, 228 
Bock, Dr., 249 
Ischemia, 362 

Bohun, de, 143, 149, 150, 152 
Bond, 215 

Borhunt. de, 169, 171 
" Bosig," by Mr. James Baker, noticed, 
362 

Botetourte, 134n, 149, 149n, 235, 241 
Botiller, le, 145n, 327 
Botloc, Hutid., 141n, 317n, 322 
Botolph, St., Bishopsgate, Registers of, by 
A. W. C. llallcn, noticed, 181, 363 



i 



INDEX, 



367 



Bottelawe, M., 152 
Boughara, 269, 275 
Bour, 322 
Bourchier, 158n. 

Bowden, H, S., his edition of "Dante's 

Divina Commedia," noticed, 340 
Bowdler, 291 
Bowen, 292 

Bower, Rev. E. J., on com. for resto ring- 
Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, 187 
Bowles, 291 

Bowley, C, retires from Council, 190, 

and re-elected, 191 
Box, 210 

Boxe, de la, 146, 146n. 
Boxebush Down, 278 
Boxwell, M., 208 
Brace, 270, 278 
Bradbury, 256 
Bradenstoke, 155 
Bradfield House, 156 
Bradford, 350 
Bradley, S07 

Bradley Hund., 143n., 145n. 
Brasses, Monumental, 210 
Bradestoke, Prior of, 157 
Bradestone, 325n. 
Bradwey, 319 
Brady, 178 

Brakelonde, Joscelyn de, 117 
Brandesley, M., 143 
Branton, de, 141 
Breuse, de, 146, 146n. 
Bray, 168 

Brecknock, Hon., 301 
Bredon, 187 
Bremhill, 156 
Bremelan, 152 
Bremesfield, 317n, 
Breuse, de, 152 
Bret, le, 150, 152, 152n. 
Brewster, 350 
Briavels, St , 259 

Briavels, St., Castle, 277, 294, 295, 297, 
301, 327 

Briavels, Castle, Constables of, 297, 298 
Briavels, St., Hund., 147n, 297 
Bridges, 122 
Bridgnorth, 290 
Brimsfield, 331, 334 
Brimsfield, M., 146, 148n. 
Bristol, 155, 207, 230, 275, 358 
Bristol, Bishopric of, 358 
Bristol, Cathedral, 98 
Bristol, Deanery of, 228 
Bristol, History of, by "W. Hunt, noticed, 
355, 356 

Bristol, List of Merchants' Hall of, 291- 
292 

Bristol Wills, 188 

Britford, Ch., 99 

Brithampton, 144n. 

Britwoldesbourn Hund., 135n, 142 

Brocas, Family of Beaurepaire & Roche- 
court, Hist, of, by Prof. Burrows, 
noticed, 165 

Brockhampton, M., 144, 330 

Brokemoncote, M., 142 

Brockworth, 326, 329 

Bromdeffeld, de, 136 

Bromyard, Ch., Heref., 88 

Brooces, 271, 298 

Brown, 355 

Brown, Rev. C. M., at Deerhurst, 1 ; at 
Dursley. 185,199; reads paper "On 
the Decline & Fall of the Cloth Trade 
of Dursley," 399-203 



Browne, 97, 100, 101, 264, 269, 272, 273, 

279 291 
Browning, 285, 286 
Bruern, Abbot of, 143 
Bruerne, M. , 327 
Bruges, 4, 156. 
Brugge. 326, 329, 329n. 
Brumpton, de, 149, 149n. 
Brun, le^.145, 145n, 146, 151 
Brushfield, 363 
Brut, 326 

Bruton, W. H., appointed on Council, 

191 ; 204 
Bryd, 328 

Brynkworth, R., 159 
Bucer, Martin, 177 

Buckland, Ch., 250 ; embroidery at, 255 
Buckler, J. C, his description of Deer- 
hurst, &c., 2, 81 ; 82, 103, 115 
Buckoll, 126 
Bueld, 158 
Bugden, 275n. 
Burere, de la, 145 
Burghill, M., 323 
Burn, 180 

Burnel, de, 140, 147n. 

Burrows, Prof., his "Hist, of the Family 
of Brocas of Beaurepaire and Roche- 
court," noticed, 165 

Bury St. Edmonds, Abbot of, 117 

Buteler, 139 

Butler, 275, 331, 334 

Butterfield, 258 

Butter worth. Miss, 99 

Butterworth, Rev.G., 1, 2, 3 ; his notes on 
Mr Buckler's description of the 
Priory and Church of Deerhurst, 9, 
11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24. 25, 26, 
28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 43, 44, 
46, 47, 56, 93, 103; his monograph 
on the Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, 
105-116, 187 ; on committee for restor- 
ing the same, ib.; subscribes thereto, 
ib.; further note on, 280 

Bybury, M., 143. 

Bymmek. — See Dymock. 



Cadurcis (Chaworth), de, 143, 143n. 
Caedmon, 98 
Caen, Abbey of, 248 

Caermarthen, (Osborne) Marquis of, 163 
Cailloue, 331, 334 

Calcot Barn, visit of Society to, 204 ; bas- 
relief in, ib.; remarks of Rev. A. K. • 
Cornwall thereon, 204 

Caldecote, 217 

Caly, de, 146 

Cam, 148, 227, 289, 290, 304 
Cambridge, 167, 210 
Cambodia, 343 
Camme, de, 237, 239 
Camme Broke, 285 

Campden, Ch., 250 ; embroidery at, 256 
Campden, Bor., 230 
Campden, Hund., 138, 142, 153n. 
Campden, M., 142, 153, 304, 320, 320n, 

321, 321n. 
Cancok, de, 139 
Cancok, M., 139 

Cantabria, The Highlands of, by Mars 
Ross, & Stonehewer Cooper, noticed ; 
171-174 

Cantec, 324n. 

ICantelowe, 324, 324n, 326 
Canterbury, 355 
Canterbury, Arch bps., of, 215, 247n 



368 



INDEX. 



Canterbury, St. Martin, 88 
Cape Ann, 352 
Cape Cod, 350 
Cappadocia, 254n. 
Cappe, 322 
Carburton, 180 
Cardiff, 171 
Carew, 162 

Carpenter, Bp., 228, 228n, 243, 276 
Cassey ]<"'amily, brasses of, 1 ; memoir on, 

by Mr. Bazeley, 2-5, lln. 
Cassamajor, 292 
Castle Morton, 65n, 103 
Catherine of Braganza, Q., 163 
Cat's Castle, 281 
Catterick, Co. York, 87 
Cawhill, 215 
Caynis, de, 152 
Cecil, 127, 128, 206 
Caerwent, 301 
Celchyth, 108, 108n. 

Census = Census Forestce, meaning of, 
295n. 

Cerney, North, M., 146, 146n. 
Chad, St., 94 
Chalford, 210 
Chalk, Knt., 86 
Challoner, 178, 292 
Chamberlain, 292, 307 
Champneys, 292 
Chandos, de, 145, 151, 151n , 156 
Chantries, 121, 122, 124, 210, 211, 211n. 
243-245 

Chantry, Jones's, 121, 122, 124 

Chapultepec, 343 

Charingworth, de, 140 

Charlecombe, 157n. 

Charles II., K., 163 

Charles V., King of France, 341 

Charleton, M., 144, ?09, 319 

Charleton, par., 163, 164 

Charnay, Desird, his " Ancient Cities of 

the New World," noticed, 343-348 
Charts' Edge, 161 
Chedringworth, de, 320n. 
Chedworth, Bp., 118 
Chedworth family, 118 ; arms, ib. 
Chedworth, M , 146, 146n. 
Chelsea College, 179 
Cheltenham, 92, 101, 214n, 
Cheltenham, de, 152n, 153 
Cheringworth, M., 140 
Cheshunt, 290 
Chester, Cathedral, 89 
. Chevelinworth, M., 147, 147n. 
Chevelinworth, de, 147 
Chinham, 307 

Chirchedon, see Churchdon. 

Chirethedon, B^rony, 144 

Chirington, M., 152, 153 

Chrington, de, 152 

Christchurch Priory, Hants, 91 

Chobham Church, Surrej', 90 

Church, Dean, his remark on " Dante's 

Divina Commedia," 342 
Churchdown, 144n, 146, 146n, 328 
Churcheland, 272, 273, 275 
Cirencester, Abbots of, 145n , 153, 157, 

255 

Cirencester, Ancient Embroidery at, 254 
Cirencester, Bor., 119, 12u, 127, i50n, 156, 

157, 205, 3U5 
Cirencester Chapel, 158 
Cirencester, Deanery of, 117 
Cirencester, Grammar School at, Memoir 

on, by Rev. E. A. Fuller, 117-129, 155, 

255 



Cirencester, Hund., 146n. 
Cirencester, Parish Church, 117, 118 155, 
254 

Cirencester, Schoolmasters, 118, 120, i21, 
124, 125 

Clare, de, 135, 142n, 143, 148, 150, 153, 

153n, 321n 
Clark, G. T., 223n. 
Clarke, 185, 269 
Claverton, House, 213 
Clayton, 291 

Clerkenwell, mint of, 232, 233 
Clcuche, 159 
Clewer, 168 

Clifford Chambers, 364 
Clifford, de, 145, 333 
Clift at Hoo, Kent, 182 
Clissold, 216 

Clive (Bishops') M., 142, 330 
Clive, 144 

" Cloth Trade of Dursley and it Neigh- 
bourhood," paper on, by Kev. C. C. M. 
Brown, 199-203 

Clurrugge, 144 

Clutterbuck, 213 

Clyvedon, 306, 324 

Cnut, K., 114, 253 

Coaley, Church, 227 

Coder3'ngton, 244, 325 

Cogenhoe, Church, 244 

Cogenhoe, de, 244 

Cokerel, 150 

Cold Harbour, 281 

Cold Newynton, 326 

Colesborne, 146 

Colesborne, Parva, 145 

Coleville, 147 

Colewall, 270, 278, 324 

Colewey, 332, 335 

Colhuacan, 346 

Collins, 105, 187, 211 

Colston, 291 

Colverdene, M., 327 

Comalcalco, 347 

Combe, 292, 304 

Combe, de, 210 

Common Grove, 270, 278 

Compton, M., 4, 5, 144, 144n. 

Compton Abdale, M., 144n. 

Compton Grenville, M., 140 

Comyn, 143, 145 

Condycote, M., 321 

Conant, Helen S., 343 

Cooke, 159, J. H., his death, 186, 206 

Cooper, 291 

Cooper, Stonehewer, his " Highlands of 

Cantabria, noticed, 171 
Cope, 324 
Copovere, 326 
Corbet, 139, 151, 151n. 
Cormeilles, Barony of. 146 
Cornewalle, de, 158, 158n. 
Cornwall, 111, 363 
Corse, 2 
Cote, 87, 144 
Cotes, de, 150 
Cotes, M., 154 
Cother, 291 

Cotton, William, his "History of the 

Drama in Kxeter," noticed, 358 
Coltcswold, Hills, 94, 205 
(/Ourtetiav, 162, 358 
Covt-ntry", Prior of, 141 
Coverleyc, 139 
Coysgurne, 292 

Craiihourne, Hund., 13S, 153, 153n, 154 
Crawley, 281, 2o6 



* 



INDEX, 



369 



Crawley-Boevej-, A. W., his "Notes on 
Milo de Gloucester, & his connection 
with the Forest of Dene," 293-303 

Crediton, 356 

Crescy, 168 

Crese, 328 

Cressum, 145 

Creswiclt, 291, 292 

Cripps, 181, 182 

Crok, 140 

Crome, de, 146 

Cromhale, 148, 148n 

Cromwell, 92, 142n, 320n, 321n 

Cromwell, Injunctions of, 180 

Croose, 269, 275 

Cross, 292 

Crosson, 322, 322n 

Croyland, Abbey, 253 

Crump, 292 

Crupes, de, 145 

Cubberley, M., 146, 148, 156, 264, 329n, 330 
Culherton, 213, 217 
Curly, de, 147 
Curtis, 292 
Cuthbert, St., 248 

Dangerfield, 203 

D' Argent, E. A., at Dursley, 185; seconded 

resolution, 191 ; 204, 212 
D'Agincourt, 86 
Daglingworthj M., 161 
Dalingrugge, 321 
Dampier, 291 
Dansey, 159 

" Dante's Divina Commedia," noticed, 340 
Danvers, 128, ]28n, 171 
Danyell, 159 
Daubeney, 329n 
Daunceys land, 285 

Davies, Rev. W. S., at Dursley, 185 ; pro- 
poses resolution, 191 
Davies, C. T., 2, 219 
Dawesey, 159 
Day, 291, 292 

Day F., appd. on Council, 191 
Dead Pool, 271 

Dean, Forest of, 135, 152n, notes on in 
connection with Milo de Gloucester, 
by A. W. Crawley-Boevey, 293-303, 
323n, 327, 327n 

Dean, Little, Emb. at, 257, 258 

Deane, 163 

Deerhurst, M., 2, 112, 113, 114, 116, 280, 

Deerhurst, Hund., 113, 142, 313, 330 

— Priors of, 9n 

Abbey Ch. visited, 1, 4, ; Mr. Buckler's 
description of Church and Priory, 6 ; 
contributed by Mr A. E. Hudd, anno- 
tated by Rev. G. Butterworth, ib. ; 
Drawings contributed for by Mr. T. S. 
Pope; Priory destroyed by the Danes, 
9n ; Description of the Church and 
Priory of, by Mr. Buckler, 6-81 ; Mr. 
Hudd's description of the Saxon Font 
there, 84-104 ; 109, illust. PI. viii ; 
Plans of the Church, Plates i and ii ; 
View of Tower from the Nave, PI. iii ; 
Details of Door-ways, &c., PI. iv ; de- 
tail ot Window in Tower, PI. v ; Plan 
and Details of Priory, PI. vi., PI. vii.; 
114, 115, 313 

Deerhurst, Spring Meeting at 1 ; Saxon 
Chapel at,i6., 15n. ; Monograph on, by 
Rev. G. Butterworth, 1U5-116 ; Plan 
and Details of the same, PL ix.; In- 
scribed Stones and Details relating to, 
PI. X.; 114, 187, Further Note on, 280 



Dene, de, 152, 297 
Dene, M., 297 

Denis, St. Abbey of, lln., 109, 114 ■ 

Denton, Church, 88 i 

" Derby, Feudal History of," by J. P. 

Yeatman, Sir George R. Sitwell, Bt., 

and C. J. S. Foljambe, noticed, 174 
Deptford, 162, 164, 353 
Derby, Co., 132 
Derham, 524, 324n 
Derhurst, 319, 322, 324, 326, 327 
Despenser, 2, 144, 144n, 152, 160, 218n, 

305, 325, 329 
Deva, riv., 172 
Devereaux, 143 
Devon, 111, 132, 358, 363 
Didworth, 168 
Dinas, Mowddwg, 90 
Dixton, par., Mon., 155 
Dixton, Rich., his will, communicated by 

the Rev. E. A. Fuller, 155-166 
" Documents Original," 109, 127, 139-154, 

156-160, 269-279, 291-292, 312-330, 333- 

335 
Dodd, 178 

Dodington, M., 153, 153n, 225 

Domesday, Anniversary of, 189 

"Domesday Survey," 205, 222, 312, 313 

Donegal, E. of, 265 

Doolan, 4 

Doppyng, 326 

Dorset, 111, 132, 153n, .352 

Doudeswell, the, 145 

Doughton, de, 152 

Doughtom M. House visited, 208, Sale of 

Manor, 208, 209 
Douning, 291 
Dover, 205 

Dowdeswell, Rev. E.R., on Committee for 
restoring Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, 
187 

Downamney, M., 149, 149n 
Downham, 281, 282, 288 
Dowle, 271, 274, 278 
Dowton, 368 

Doyle, J, A., his "The English in Amer- 
ica—Puritan Colonies," noticed, 348. 
Drainie, 198 
Drake, 161, 162 

Drake, Ur. H. H., his " History of Kent," 

noticed, 161-166 
Drew, Dr., 204 
Driby, de, 306 
Driffield, 150n 
Droitwich Ch., 3 
" Drosten's Stone," 98, 101 
Dublin, 357 
Ducommon, 292 

Dudestan, Hund., 135, 144n, 327, 328 
Dudley, 352 
Dukeinfield, 291, 292 
Dumbledon, M. , 144, 322, 322n 
Dunham, 39, 61, 63 
Dunvyle, de, 152n, 153 
Dunstan, St., 154 
Duntesborne, Lear, 146, 146n 
Duntesburn, Rous, M., 151, 15 In 
Durham, 62, 164, 248 
Durham, Bp. of, 255 
Durham, Cath., 250 
Durham, de, 150 

Dursley, M., 149, 149n, 151, 151n, 153n, 
200, 206, 224, 232, 237, 238 

Dursley Castle, visit to the supijosed site 
of, 198; remarks on by Rev. W. Baze- 
ley and Sir J. Maclean, ib.; by Sir 
Henry Barkly, 199 ; 223, 224, 238, 239 



370 



INDEX. 



Dursley, I34n, 146 ; annual meeting at, 
185 ; church visited under the guid- 
ance of the Vicar, the Rev. Canon 
Madan, 191 ; his address on the same, 
192 ; Chantry Chapel, ancient reg- 
isters of, 192n, 193, 194n; briefs at, 193; 
various restorations of 193-196 ; pew- 
ing, 194 ; Sir John Maclean's remarks 
on, 196, 197 ; Mr. Bazeley's remarks 
on, ib., Ewelme visited, 197; the nun- 
nery visited, ib., the Priory visited, 
ib., remarks on inscription over the 
door by Sir John Maclean, 197; legend 
on, 198 ; evening meeting, 199; paper 
on "Local Names" read by Rev. W. 
Lett, 210; on "Dursley Puff Stone" 
by Rev. W. Bazeley, ib.. 210, con- 
cluding meeting, 212 ; 213, 215, 217, 
221, 225, 227, 231, 232, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 262, 281, 282, 288 

Dursley Barony, 223, 239 

Dursley Bor., 229, 230, 231 

Dursley Nunnerj^, 233 

Dursley, Rectors of, 228 

Dymock, 152, 152n, 187, 322, 323 

Dyrham, M., 148, 148n 



Ealdred, 109 

Ealfric, 109, 111, 112, 114, 116 

Earle, 265, 291 

Earl's Barton, 61, 63, 72 

Earstfield, 206 

East Indies, 280 

Eastleach, M., 143 

Eberle, E. F., communicates "List of 

Merchants' Hall, Bristol." 291-292. 
Ecton, 326 
Edgar, 225 
Edgworth, M.,141 
Edmund Ironside, K , 114 
Edric, 299 
Edui, 2 

Edward the Elder, K., 248, 355 

Edward, K., Conf., 2, 15, 15n, 26, 39, 51, 
109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 164, 205, 
207, 213, 222, 225, 285, 293, 312 

Edward I. K., 130, 133n, 164, 166, 204, 
253, 316 

Edward II. K., 164, 167, 170, 315 

Edw. K. III., 2, 164, 167, 170, 312 

Edward IV., 133n, 163 

Edw. VI. K., 121, 182 ; " Supreme Head,'^ 

by Fred. G. Lee, D.D., noticed, 176, 

250 

Edward, Black Prince, 164, 167, 168, 312, 
318 

Edwinsthorp, 180 
Edwy, King, 87 
Efenechtyd, 9G 
Egypt, 98 

Eleanor, Queen, 166 
Eleanor, Q., 253 
Eleanor, d. K. Edw. I. 316 
Elbridge, 291 

Elizabeth, Q., 120,123, 128n, 163, 171, 208, 

209, 215, 349, 354 
KIkston, M., 146, 146n 
EUacombe, Canon, 258, 353 
Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., his death, 186 
EUys, 121, 122 
Ehnncs lane, 285 

Elmstone Ilardwick, 100, 101, 102, 103 
Elmstone, M., 4 
Elmsworth, 180 
Ehington, 122, 123 



Eltham, John, of, 167 
Elthani, M., 164 
Elton, 291, 292 
Elvira, 253 
Ely, 272 

Ely. Bps. o', 130n 

" Embroidery," Church, Memoir by Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, 246 259, 364 

Emma, Q., 253 

Erlingham, 148, 148n 

Erdington, 142n, 320n 

Esbach, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276 

Esbach, Brook, 271 

Esbatch Cross, 276 

Esbach Court, 271 

Essex Co., 241, 242, 264 

Estcourt, 204, 237 

Eston, 292 

Estwode, 325 

Estynton, 159 

Eton, Co., Berks, 143, 167 

Eustace, Count, 205 

Evans, J. B., retires from Council, 190 

Ewelme, or Broadwell visited, 197 ; deri- 
vation of name, 197n, 203 ; 281, 282, 
286 

Evelyn, 353, 354 
Eventon, 329, 329n 

Evesham, Abbots of, 141, 157, 319, 319n 
Evroult, St., Abbey, 247 
Exe, i-ivei", 355 

" Exeter, History of," by E. A. Freeman, 

D.C.L., noticed, 35ti 
" Exeter, History of the Drama in," by 

W. Cotton, noticed, 358 
Exeter, Bps. of, 299, 321, 321n 
Exeter Cath., 253 
Eyles, 286, 287, 288 
Eyles, John, Monument of, 200 
Eynesford, 323 

Eynesham, Abbot of, 117, 140 
Eynk, 254n 

Eyton, Rev. R. W., 88, 131, 314n 



Fairford, M., 135n 

Farmington, M., 143, 143n, 144n, 146, 146n 
Farquhar, 188 
Farren, 360 
Fasterne, 156, 160 
Faucit, 360 

Fecamp, Abbey of, 136 
Felde, 322 
Felde, de la, 326 
Ferdinand, III., 362 

Ferdinand, the Catholic K. of Arragon, 
253 

Ferdinand, the Great K. of Castile, &c., 

253 
Fermor, 5 
Ferre, 148 
Ferrers, 322, 329n 
Fettiplace, 4, 5, 5n 
Fisher, 269, 271, 272 

Fisher, Major, 179 ; retires from Council, 

190 ; re-elected, 191 
Fitz, 162 

Fitz Benedict, 146 
Fitz Hamon, 154 

Fitz Harding, 139, 199, 205, 206, 207, 223, 

226, 231, 232, 233, 234, 328 
Fitzharding, Lord, 186 
Fitzherbcrt, 144n, 292, 296, 297, 298, 299 
Fitz Milo, 301 
Fitz Nichol, 326, 326n 
bMtz Norman, 29;{, 295 
Fitz Osborne, 146u 



INDEX. 



371 



Fitz Otto, 231, 233, 234, 235-242 
Fitz Peter, 145, 146, 326 
Fitz Ralph, 149 
Fitz Thomas, 149n 
Fitz Waryn, 148, 236 
Flaxley Abbey, 258, 277 
Fleg-ge, 157 
Fleetwood, 206 
Fie welly n, 322 
Florence, 340 
Foard, 125 
Foley, 178 

Foljambe, C. J. S,, his "History of the 

County of Derby," noticed, 174 
Folyot, 152, 302 
Foote, 360 

Forbes, Col. at Deerhurst, 1, 219 ; Hon. 

Local Sec. at Dursley, 185 ; at annual 

dinner, 199, 204 
Ford, Barony of, 150, 150n 
Forde, 322 

Forster, Rt. Hon. W. E., his death, 186 

Fortibus, de, 153 

Fountains Abbey, 62 

Fowler, 362 

Foxcote, M., 145, 145n 

Foy, 291, 292 

Frampton, 324 

Frampton Cotterell, 324, 324n 
Frampton Mansell, M., 142 
France, 171, 357 
Franklin, 292 
Freeman, 294 

Freeman, Dr E.A., his " Hist, of Exeter," 

noticed, 355 
Frend, 238, 239 
JMdeswide, St., Prior of, 117 
Fryer, K. H., his death, 186, 190 
Fuestone, 332, 335 

Fuller, Rev. E. A., his paper on " The 
Grammar School at Cirencester," 117- 
129 ; communicates " Will of Rich. 
Dixton, 155-166 

Gael, S H., on Committee for restoring 

Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, 187 
Gamages, de, 136 

" Garden Literature, Gleanings in Old," 
by W. Carew Haslett, noticed, 353-355 
Gardino, de, 146 
Gardner, 292 

Gardyner, 269. 271, 273, 274, 275, 277 
Gascony, 165, 166 

Gaunt, de, 206, 207, 232, 233, 2£3n, 328, 

334n 
Gaveston, 321n 
Genevil, de, 149 
Genoa, 354 
George, 122 
George, L, K., 311 
Geor-e, III., K., 359 
Ghent, Abbey of, 163, 164 
Giffard, 139, 146, 148, 305, 319, 319n, 320n, 

331, 382, 333, 334 
Giffard (Stoke), M., 139 
Gifford of Chillingham, 5, 5n 
Gijon, 174 

Gillewethars, 238, 239 
GiJmyn, 244 

Gillow, Joseph, his " Literary and Bio- 
graphical History or Bibliographical 
Dictionary of the English Catholics," 
noticed, 177 

Gloucester, 1, 214, 230, 231 ; Remarks on 
three skulls found there, by Dr. 
Beddoe, 266 ; 2S!9, '322, 325, 327; 328, 



Gloucester Abbey, 117, 136, 192, 196, 213, 
215, 216, 217, 226, 227, 228, 232, 324, 
327 

Gloucester, Abbots of, 117, 136n, 138, 145n, 

196, 213, 327, 329 
Gloucester, Archd. of, 192, 194, 228 
Gloucester, Bps. of, 121, 123, 124, 179 
Gloucester, Earls of, 138, 299, 314, 321n 
Gloucester, Friars, preachers, 157 
Gloucester, Hon. of, 153n, 241, 289 
Gloucester, Mayor and Council of , thanked, 

191 

Gloucester, Milo de. Notes on, and his 
connection with the Forest of Dene, 
by A. W. Crawley-Boevey, 293-303 

Gloucester, Sheriffs of, 184, 230, 234, 294, 
295, 319, 322, 331, 333, 360 

Gloucester, Tower and Castle, 299, 302 

Gloucestershire, 137,. 204, 205, 222, 234, 
235, 254, 260, 303, 304, 315, 317, 318, 
319, 320, 325, 327, Domestic Outrage 
in, 331-335 

Gloucestershire, Knights' Fees in, hj Sir 

J. Maclean, 312-330 
Gloucestershire, Number of Manors in, 313 
Goatzacoalco, 347 
Goderynton, 330 
Godhelp, 361 
Godiva, 111 
Godwin, E., Ill, 205 
Godwyn, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 278 
Golafre, 140 
Goldeclewe, 158, 158n 
Goldney, 99 
Gomonde, 92, 93, 94 
Goodman, 179 
Gorno, J., 343 
Gowts, 39 
Graham, 292 
Grandigall, de, 146 
Grant, 291 

Grectisdon, Hund , 144, 144n, 322n 
Grecton, 144 
Green, 1 

Gregory, Pope, 319, 322, 325, 327 
Grenevile, de, 140 
Greenstreet, 132n 
Greenwich, 162n, 163, 164 
Crete, 144 
Grey, 308, 322 

Greyndour, 157, 157n, 158, 158n, 159 
Griffits, 273 
Grimaldi, 133 

GrimbaldeshamHund., 148, 151, 153n 
Grooby, 126 

Grumboldsash, Hund., 136, 148n, 324, 332, 

332n, 335 
Grymes, 269 
Guienne, Dukes of, 166 
Guildford, 167 

Guise, Sir W., at Deerhurst, 1 ; remarks on 
Wainlodc Cliff, ib. ; presides at lunch, 
ib. ; on Committee for restoring Saxon 
Chapel at Deerhurst, 187 ; subscribes 
thereto, ib. ; re-elected Pres. of Coun. 
190 ; proposes vote of thanks to Sir 
H. Barkly for his inaugural address, 
191 ; at annual dinner, 199, his health 
drunk, ib.; returns thanks, ib ; pro- 
poses health of the President, ib.; 
his remarks on Rural Customs, Sports 
and Pastimes, 204 

Guiting, 321 

" Gula Augusti," meaning of, 238n 
Gunkede, see Turketon. 
Gurnay, 134n, 139, 147, 147n, 148, 149, 
149n, 151, 151n, 327n, 328 



372 



Guthrum, K., 91 
Gwynn, 216, 125 



Haddiscoe, 52 

Hagemede Hund., 138, 153, loSn 
Hahmington, M., 140 
Hailes, Abbey, lln 
Hale, 216 

Hale, Major-Gen., 210 
Hall, Rev. J. M., 184, 185 
Hall, 269, 276, 277 

Hallen, Uev. A. W. C. Hallen, presents 
books to the library, 188; his "Reg- 
isters of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate," 
noticed, 181, 363 

Hallinges, 144 

Halvey, de, 238 

Hamelecton, 150 

Hamme, M.,148 

Hampden, de, 151 

Hampen, M,, 145, 145n 

Hampnet, M., 146, 146n 

Hampton, see Shirehaunpton. 

Hampton Court, Conference, 349 

Hamwell, 319 

Handel, 311 

Hanley Castle, 187 

Hannys, 269 

Harding, 213 

Harding, Stephen, Abb., 249n 
Hardwick, 4 
Hardyng, 159 
Hare, 291 
Harescombe, 2 
Haresfield, 2, 326 
Harfield, 272, 307, 329 
Harnhall, M., 150, 150n 
Harnhall, de, 150, 150n 
Harold, E., Ill, 247 
Harold, 205 
Harrington, 192 
Harris, 89 
Hart, 291, 292 

Hartland, E., (Hon. Treas.)!; atDursley, 

185, re-elected Treasurer, 190 ; 204 
Hatheway, 157n, 203 

Haslett, \V. Carew, his "Gleanings in Old 
Garden Literature," not/iced, 353-355 

" Hasted's History of Kent," by Rev. T. 
Streatfeild, Rev. L. B. Larking and 
Dr. Drake, noticed, 161-165 

Hastings, 144, 146n 

Hatherop, M., 143 

Hauker, 328 

Harvey, 185 

Hawkins, 162 

Hawys, 158 

Haye, de la, 139 

Hayles, Abbots of, 255, 320 

Hayling, Ch., Hants., 89 

Hay man, 291 

Hazle, 292 

Hazleden, 213, 217 

Hedenet de, 142 

Hedrestan, Hund., 153n 

Hefferman, 185 

Helmes, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128 

Helyon, 141 

Henburv Hiuid., alias Burntrec, 139, 149n 

Henbury, M., 139 

Henrietta, Maria, Q., 1C3 

Honry L, K.,293. 296, 297, 298, 299, 302, 314 

Henry U., K., 130, 165, 170, 175, 205, 3ul, 

302, 314, 357, 360, 361 
Henry, UL, K., 164, 166, 254, 314, 320n, 

357 



Henry IV., K., 169, 170 

Henry V., K., 163 

Henry VL, K., 196, 197 

Henry VH., K., 163, 197 

Henry VIH., K., 163, 164, 171, 176, 182, 

256n, 348 
Henvill, 292 
Herbert, 207 
Herblinge, 307 

Hereford, Bps. of, 144, 145, 302 
Hereford, Castle, 302 
Hereford, Co., 139, 144, 204, 265, 2S8 
Hereford, de, 294 

Hereford, Earls of, 296, 297, 299, 300, 3:i. 
302 

Hereford, Grey Friars, 157 

Herseleye, de, 237, 239 

Hertfordshire, 234, 241, 290 

Hettinger, Dr., his treatise on "Dai.te's 

Divina Commedia," noticed, 34J 
Heyward, 275 
Hewelsfield, M., 147, U7n 
" Hewkes," meaning of, 159n 
Hewys, 159 
Heydon, 328 

Hicks, 206 ; Fam., Paper on, by Rev. J. 

Poynton, read, 210 ; the same printed, 

260-265 ; ped. 264-265 
Hicks-Beach, Rt. Hon, M. 186, 206, 207, 

265 

Highgrove, 209 
'Hilcote, see Holdecote 
Hilda, St., 248 
Hilhouse, 291 
Hill, 216, 326, 354 
Hillersland, 274, 278 
Hilton of Cadbol, 98 
Hingeston- Randolph, 363 
Hintells, 273 
Hobbs, 291 
Hobhouse, 292 
Hop.kall, 143, 143n 
Hodges, 125 

Hodgkin, The Misses, 197 
Hogue, la, 168 
Holdecote, 145, 145n 
Holford, 206, 210, 336 
Holland, 169, 349 
HoUidge, 291 
Holhster, 292 
Hollow Brook, 271, 278 
Holm Lacy, 155n 
Holt, Co. Wore, 86 
Holy Land, 98, 333, 315 
Honep', 32in 
Honeyburn, M , 140, 319 
Horetield, M., 148, 148n 
Hoskins, 291 
Howe, 260, 265 

Hudd, A. E., contributes "Memoir of 
Deerhurst Church and Priory," 6 ; 
82 ; his memoir on [the Saxon Font 
there, 84-104 ; elected on Council, 190 

Hughes, 358, 359 

Huitzilopochtli, 344 

Hiillavington, 155, 156 

Hull, or Hill, M., 149, 149n, 322, 326 

Humfroy, 140 

llundemille, 322n. 

Hungerford, 124 

Ilntit, 291 

Hunt, W., his "History of Bristol," 

noticed, 355, 353 
Hunter, J , 218n. 
Huntley, Uev. R. W., 208 
lluse, or Ilusscy, 142, 321, 321n. 
Hutton, 5 



INDEX. 



373 



Huxham, 363 



Ichinton, M., 139 
Innys, 291 

Innocent IV., Pope, 249 

Inscriptions, Monumental, 2, 3, 4 ; 108 ; 

PI. X.; 237, 238, 239, PI. XVI. 
Ireland, 95, 357 

Isabel, d, of King John, 315, 320n. 
Isles, 291 



Jackson, 160 
James, 125 

James I., K., 163, 349 
Java, 343 
Jefferis, 291 
Jenkyn, 270, 278 
Jenning-s, 185 
Joce, 322 

John, K., 117, 228, 304, 315, 327, 357 
Johnston, 292 
Johnson, Dr., 359 
Jones, 292 

Jones' lands, 122, 124 
Jones, Owen. 97 
Jorden, 209, 272, 274, 275, 277 
Joseph II., Emp., 362 
"Jubilee Book,' by Walfcrd D. Selby, 
7ioticed, 183 



Karl IV., Emp., 362 

Katherine of Arragon, Q., 253, 256, 256n, 
257n. 

Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., at Dursley, pre- 
sides at meeting, 185; retires from 
Presidentship, 191 ; introduces Sir 
Henry Barkly as President, ib.; is 
thanked, ib.; at annual dinner, 199, 
204 

Kaylly, 317n. 

Kean, E., 358, 360 

Kelway, 120 

Kemble, 359, 360 

Kemerton, 3-29, 329n. 

Kemsford, M., 143 

Kempley, 187, 322 

Kenmerford, M., (see Kemsford) 

Kensington, S., 89 

Kent, Co., 132n. 

Kent, Hasted's History of, by Rev. Thos. 

Streatfeild and Rev. Lambert B. 

Larking Edited by Di-. Drake, 

noticed, 161-165 
Kent, Church Plate of, by Rev. W. A, 

Scott Robertson, noticed, lul 
Kerslake, T., retires from Council, 190n ; 

355 
Ketel, 299 

Kiftesgate Hund., 134, 142n, 143n, 144n, 

147n, 150n, 3:7n, 319, 322 
Kilpek, 152 
Kimsbury Camp, 205 
King, 265, 292 
Kingescote, de, 149 
Kingesholme, :^29, 329n. 
Kingeston, 149 

Kingesvveston, M., 149, 149n, 327n, 328 
Kingsb ridge, 363 
Kingscote, 148, 148n. 

Kinusvvood Abbey, memoir on, read by 
Mr. V R. Perkins, 204; 2iln, 213, 
214n, 216, 217 
Kingsvvood, Abbot of, 149, 152, 204, 213 
"Kirby's Quest," 316, 317, 322n. 



Kirk, 178 

Kirkeby, 130, 130n, 132, 134, 316 

Kitcat, Rev. D., 336, 337 

Knights' Templars, 215, 216 

" Knights' Fees in Gloucestershire," by 

Sir John Maclean, 312-314 
Kunigund, Q., 362 
Kyneleye, de, 237, 339 
Kuyte, 324 
Kyng, 326 



Lacham, 151 

Lacock, Abbess of, 143 

Lacy, de, 147 ; 150n. 

Lambaunk, 320n. 

Lambeth, 262, 263 

Lane, 291 

Laneshouse, 273 

Langley, Hund., 148, 148n. 

Langley, de, 141, 141n, 145, 149, 160 

Langport, Som., 91 

Langtree, Hund., 152 

Lantarnam, Abbot of, 158 

Lantony Abbey, 147, 147n, 214 223, 228, 

Larking, Rev. L. B., his " Histor3' of 

Kent," noticed, 164, 166 
Lasborough, M., 152; 336 
Las Playas, 347 
• Lateridge, M., 151, 151n. 
Laugher 292 
Leach, de, 143 

Le Blanc, A., at Dursley, 185 ; prop.i'esol. 

101 ; 204 
Lebank, 141n. 
Leheld, 265 
Lechlade, M., 142 
Lee, M., 164 
Legh, de, 2 
Leigh, W., 185, 204 
Leisons, 292 
Leminton, 329 
Lewisham, M., 103, 104 
Leicester, 298 
Leicester., Co., 132 
Leland, 198 
Leofric, 111, 112 
Lerich. 157 

Lett, Rev. W.,at Dursley, 185, 204 ; reads 

paper " On Local Names," 210 
Leydon, 349 
Leye, de, 142, 146, 151 
Library, duties of Librarian, 189 
Lincoln, Bp. of, 118 
Lincoln, city, 230 
Lincoln, Co., 132, 175, 334n, 
Lincoln, Minster, 52 
Lindsaj^ 210 
Linley, Salop, 88 
Lindisfarne, 95, 96 
Lire, Abbey of, 146n. 
Lisle House, Wotton, 311 
Lisle, de, B21n. 
Lisle, 4 

Little Billing, Ch., North Hants, 88 
Littleton, Rectors of, 211 
Littleton, M., 148, 148n, 322n, 324 
Lloyd, 122, 291 

London, 91, 92, 170, 290, 354, 355, 358, 

359 

London, St. Paul's Cath., 251, 252 
London, Tower of , 137 
Long, 163, 274, 336n. 
Longborough, M.,141, 143n, 320, 520 
TiOngchamps, 144n. 
Longdon, Ch., 93, 103 
Longespee, 143, 150, 331, 333, 334 



374 



INDEX. 



Long-man, 291 

Long Marston, see'Marston. 
Lonhed, 146 
Lort, 291 
Lovel, 170 
Low, 213, 216 
Lucas, 324 
Lucy, 321n. 
Lucy, W.G.,1 
Ludgarshall, 281 
Ludlow, 142n, 320, 320n. 
Luthington, 143, 143n. 
Lyce, 292 

Lydbrook, 270, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278 
Lyde, 292 

Lydiard Millicent, 155 
Lvdney, M., 147, 323 
Lydyerd, 158 
Lye, 329n. 
Lyndfield, 160 



Mabbett, 185 

Maclean, Sir J., at Deerhurst, 1; 91, 137 ; 
Note on the Greyndour and Barre 
families, 158, 159 ; at Dursley, 185 ; 
on committee for restoring Saxon 
Chapel at Deerhurst, 187 ; subscribes 
thereto, ib.; presents books to the 
library, 188 ; seconds vote of thanks 
to Sir Henry Barkly for his Inaugural 
address, 191 ; his remarks on Tanner's 
Chapel, 196, 197 ; on Dursley Castle, 
198, 199 ; guides party to the Rectory, 
199; at annual dinner, ib.; his re- 
marks on Rural Customs, Sports, and 
Pastimes, 204 ; his Chan. Certificates, 
cited, 211 ; at concluding meeting, 
212 ; at annual dinner, 199 ; his Notes 
on Ozleworth, 21 In., his remarks on 
a Shield of Arms, and on Arabic 
Numerals at Kingswood Abbey, 218 ; 
his notes on Tanner's Chapel, Durs- 
ley, '243-245 ; 263 ; Conmmnicates 
Court Roll of M. of English Bicknor, 
269 ; meaning of Census, 295n;297 ; his 
note on a Berkeley marriage, 308n., 
his " Knights' Fees in Gloucester- 
shire, 312; his " Notes on a Roman 
Inscribed Stone at Weston Birt," 336. 

Marshall, Dr. G. W., his "Registers of 
Perlethorpe," co. Notts, noticed, 180 

Madan, Rev. Canon, at Dursley, 185 ; his 
remarks on the church, 191-196 ; at 
the annual dinner, 199 

Madan, F., at Dursley, his notes on Local 
Names, 203-204 

Machyn, 269, 270, 271, 278, 292 

Macready, 360 

Mac Regol, 94 

Maddox, 314 

Maitland, 331n., 332n. 

Malmsbury, Abb., 148, 148n, 157, 324 

Maltravers, 153 

Malvern Parva, Prior, 321 

Mainstone, 194 

Mandeville, 147 

Manor Rolls, &c., will be taken charge of 

by the Society, 188 
Mansell, orMaunsell, M., 142 
Mare, de la, 146. 150, 153 
Marisco dc, 14 5 
Mariscus, de, 148 
Marius, de, 140 
Markgate, Abbess of, 247 
Margaret, Q. , 196 
Margaret, da. of Henry III., 315 



Marmilun, de, 145 

Marmion, 141, 143n, 145, 317n. 

Marnford, 159 

Marsden, 351, 352 

Marseilles, Bp. of, 248 

Marsell, 362 

Marsh, 277 

Marshal], 151, 262, 269, 274, 275, 331, 333, 
334 

Marston, Long, or Sicca M., 141 

Martin, A. T., elected on committee, 190 

Massachusetts, 350, 3-32 

Massasoit, 351 

Martyr, Peter, 177 

Mary, Q., 120, 176, 177 

Mason, 269 

Massey, 206, 207 

Master, 124, 128n. 

Matertera, meaning of, 233n. 

Mattesdon, 329 

Mattesdon, de, 151, 328, 329 

Matilda, Q., 234, 247, 248 

Matilda, da. of Henry II., 314, 326n. 

Matthews, 126 

Maud, Emp., 296, 299, 300, 30 

Maunsel, 139 

"Mayflower, The," 350 

Mayo, 185, 216 

Mercel, or Martel, 144, 144n. 
' Mercia, 114 

Merewether, 292 

Merionetshire, 90 

Mettus, insc. stone to, 337 

Mevagissey, Cornw., 86 

Mexico, 343, 344, 345, 346 

Middleton, Prof., on committee for re- 
storing Saxon Chapel at Deerhurst, 
187 ; subscribes thereto, 187 

Mildmay, 120, 122 

MilUns, 273 

Millman, Col., 185 

Mills, "2 

Milton, 326 

Miners, de, 145n. 

Mint, Masters of, 235, 240-242 

Minstersworth, 254 ; embroid, at, 257 

Mody, 158 

Molyn, de, 2 

Mongeys, 271, 276 

Monmouth, 269, 272, 276 

Monmouth, Co., 155 

Monnifieth, 98 

Mowsell, 269, 274 

iVIontalt, de, 153 

Monte Caniso, de, 141 

Monte de Fraile, 346 

Moore, J. P., 188 

Moors, 285, 288 

Mora, de, 147 

Morden, 164 

More, de la, 325n. 

Moreland, 118 

Moreslade, 327 

Morgans, 273 

Morin, 144n. 

Morse, 269, 272, 273, 288 

Mortimer, 141, 141n, 143n, 144, 144n, 157, 
169, 305, 306, 323n. 

Morton, Bp , 117 

Morton, Valence, M., 152 

Morvill, Salop, 88 

Morye, 143 

Moy'ne, dc, 152, 152n. 

Moryn, 319 

Moscow, 163 

Mount, 264 

Mountiord, 320n. 



INDEX. 



375 



Muceg-ros, de, 144n. 

Much Leyes, 264 

Mug-gleworth, 292 

Muleford, de, 151 

Multon, de, 146 

Mune, M., 141, 317n, 320, 320n. 

Munk, Dr., 363 

Muntriche, de, 146, 146n. 

Musard, 140, 141, 141n, 149, 149n, 150, 

150n, 333 
Musarden, M., 141, 150n. 
Muscovy — See Russia. 
Mustell, 142 
Mynour, 328 



Nailsworth, 210, 288 
Nasse, 147n. 
Nasse, de, 147 
Naunton, M., 321, 322 
Navy Office, 3, 4 
Neckham, A., Bp., 255 
Nervion, river, 171 

Nesley Farm, Roman Inscr. Stone found 

there, 336 
Nether Avon, 265 
Nethercote, 319 
Netherlands, 354 
Newark, 213 
Nevi'brook, 286 
New England, 349 
Newent, 5, 187 
Newenton, de, 235, 237, 239 
Newington Bagpath, 204, 213, 217, 237, 

239 

Newington, West, 217 
Newinton, 144, IW, 217, 227, 321 
Newland, Abbot, 222 
Newland, Church, 158n. 
Newland, par., 277 
Newnham, Bor., 230, 301, 303 
Newnton, Abbot, 215 
Newport, 6 

Newport, Berkeley, chantry at, 210 

Newport, Mon., 158n. 

New World, Ancient Cities of, by Desir^ 

Charnay, noticed, 343-348 
Nibley, 134, 304 

Nibley Green, battle of, 4, 308n. 
Niblett, J. D. T., 207 
Nimpsfield, 149n. 
Nokys, 159 
Norfolk, 331, 334 
Norham Castle, 89 
Norman, 291 
Normandy, 215, 247 
Northants, Co., 168 
Northleach.embroid., 258 
Norton Giffard, M., 141 
Norton-sub-Edge, 319, 319n. 
Norwich, Dioc, 92 

Notes and Queries," Gloucestershire, 
noticed, 363 

Notes and Queries," Northern, noticed, 
363 

"Notes and Queries," Scottish, announ., 
363 

Nottingham, Co., 132, 175 
Nourse, 292 

Numerals, Arabic, Remaiks on, by Sir 

John Maclean, 218, 218n. 
Nurse, 276 
Nutgrave, M,, 145 



Oakeley, Mrs. Bagnall-, her Remarks on 
Rural Customs Sports, and Pastimes, 
2 B 



204 ; 212 ; her Memoir on " Ancient 
Church Embroidery in Gloucester- 
shire," 246-259. An addendum there- 
to, 364 

Oakeley, Rev. W. Bagnall-, at Deerhurst, 

1 ; at Dursley, 185 
Odda, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 

280 

Oldestone, Vicars of, 211 
Olepen, 14§ 
Olveston, 245, 325 
Oliver, 178 
O'Neill, 360 

Ornament, characteristics of Byzantine, 
Egyptian, Celtic, Saxon, Norman, 
and other styles.— See Mr. Hudd's 
Monograph on the Saxon Font at 
Deerhurst, 84-104. 

Oselton, M., 216 

Oselworth, de, 237, 239 

Osleworth Church visited, 213, 216, 217 

Osleworth, M., 149 ; remarks on, by Mr. 
V. R. Perkins, 213, 214, 214n.; the 
church visited under the guidance of 
Mr. Perkins, his Notice of the Manor, 
213, 214, 215 ; succession of Vicars, 
213, 216 ; of Rectors, 216 ; Sir Henry 
Barkly's remarks on the Church, 216 

Osmond, 118n. 

Osseneye, Abbot of, 145 

Otakar, 362 

Othelthorpe, 207 

Otho, 3, 231, 232 

Otto Family, 231, 232, 233, 240, 242 
Ottyngton, 321 

Over, M., 148, 148n.— *See also Olepen. 
Owlpen, 286 
Oxford, 169, 300 
Oxford, Dean Rural of, 117 
Oxford, Exter College, early use of Arabic 
numerals at, 218 



Paget, 264 
Paine, Dr., 1 
Painswick, M., 141 
Palenque, 347 
Paley, 85, 87n. 
Palgrave, Sir F., 218n, 
Palmer, 1, 238, 239 
Parker, 159, 256 
Parker, J. H., 85 
Parkinson, 125 
Parry, 128n. 
Parsons, 254 
Passages, 171 
Passelewe, 237, 239 
Partridge, 203 

Paul, A. H., at Dursley, 185 S appointed 
Local Sec. forTetbury, 190; exhibits 
old documents there, 208 ; 336, 336n. 

Paul, family. Lords of Doughton, 209 

Paulinus, 87, 88 

Pauncefote, 147, 320n. 

Pavy, 147 

Pearse, 290 

Pebworth, M., 141 

Pedigrees— 

Ap Adam, ib, 

Fitz Harding, 328 

Gurney, ib. 

Hicks, 264-265 
Pelton, de, 145, 145n. 
Penbridge, 141, 152, 319n, 322, 322n 



376 



INDEX. 



Pendock, 187 
Penne, de la, 144 
Pennington, 121 
Pepys, 163, 357 
Percival, 1 
Periton, de, 144n. 

Local Sec. for Wotton-under -Edge. 
ai?k' *"^o^f P^Pei" on Kingswood 
Ph^^; o?^ ' "otes on Wortley 
Chapel, 210 ; guide to Ozleworth Ch., 
/irf , reads paper on the Manor, 213 : 
oil l^^J^^rks on the Church, ib., 
i -^l ' 216 ; guide to Kingswood 
Abbey, 217, 218; his paper on 
" The Manor House of Wotton-under- 
Edge and its Inhabitants, printed, 
304, 308. 

Perlethorpee, IJegisters of, edited by Dr. 

Marshal, noticed, 180 
Perley, 326 
Pershore, M., 113 

Pershore, Abbey, 112, 113, 114, 116, 187, 
280 

Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, 163, 353 

Peterborough, Cath,, 62 

Pettat, 365 

Petitt, 216 

Pevensy, 306 

Phelps, 86, 203, 272 

Philibert, de, 146n, 

Phillimore, 289, 290 

Philliniore, W, P. W., at Dursley, 185 ; 

his notes on Wresden, 281-290 
Phillyes, 271 
Philpotts, 185 
Picos Mountains, 173 
Pierce, 292 
Piggot, 292 
Pill, 204 
Pillsons, 272 
Pipard, 184, 360 

Pipe Roll Hoc, publications, of , Vol. VI., 
noticed, 183, 184 ; Vol. VIII., noticed, 
360-361 

Piriton, 322 

Piseley, 144 

Piryhale, 322 

Plantagenet, 141, 142, 143n, 145, 149, 153, 

155, 155n, 157, 160, 163, 166, 169 
Pleasaunce, M., 163 
Plesy, de, 143 
Plomer, 307 
Plunkenet, 147, 152n 
Plymouth, 358, ^63 

Plymouth, New England, 350, 351, 35S, 
359 

Plymstock, Devon, 87 
Poer, le, 142, 146 
Poictiers, 206 
Ponneye, de, 150 
Pontherius, de, 2 
Pool, 207 
Poole, 4, 123, 124 
Poolway, 272 
Pope, 291, 292 

Pope, T. S., contributes drawings for 
Deerhurst Priory, 6 ; his remarks on 
the Conventual Buildings there, 81- 
83 ; 99 ; elected on Council, 190, 218n, 
244 

Potes, 173 

Potley, 188 

Potter, 269 

Powell, 129, 270, 



Poynton.Rev. F. J., 204 ; reads notes on 
the Hicks family, 210-212 ; the same 
printed, 260-265 

Poyntz, 148, 206, 211n. 213, 214n. 

Prankerd, P. D., 1 ; elected on Council, 
190 

Prees, 270, 278 
Prelatte, 155, 159, 160 
Prothero, 2 

Pucklechurch, Himd., 135, 325 

" Puff Stone," found at Dursley, Chalford, 

Bath, and Nailsworth, 219 
Pulye, 144, 144n. 
Purnell, 194, 203 
Pylsworth, 215, 216 
Pym, 2 

Pynchencombe, 326 
Pynchyn, 326 
Pynkeney, de, 146 

Pypard, 145, U5n.—See also Pipard. 
Pyrenees, 171 



Quenton, M.,141 
Quincy, 141 
Quintin, St., 143 



Radmore, 157 

Ramesdem, de, 146 

Rapsgate, Hund., 145, 146n, 317n 

Reades, 272 

Reading, Abbey, 226, 227 
Redvers, de, 153, 153n 
Rede, 361 
Reeves, 125, 362 
Reginald, Abbot, 136 
"Religious Houses of the United King- 
dom," noticed, 180 
Remains, Roman, 210, 336, 339 

Saxon, 6-116, 280 

Rendcombe, M., 146 ; Ch., 218 

Report of Council, 185 

Revenna, 341 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 359 

Rich, 336 

Richard, 127 

Richard, K. of the Romans, 254 

Richard, II., K., 170 

Ricketes, 277 

Rigge, 157n 

Rio Gonzales, 346 

Ripple, 187 

Rivers, 151 

Rivet, 211n, 213, 214n, 215 

Robert, E. of Mortaine, 313 

Roberts, 101, 102, 292 

Robertson, Rev. W. A. Scott, his " Church 

Plate of Kent," noticed, 181 
Robertson, 1 
Robinson, 350 
Roche la, 291 
Roches, de, 169 
Rochester, Cath., 182 
Rochford, fam., 213, 216, 217 
Rockhampton, M., 148, Castle, 170 
Rockstowes, 281, 286 
Rodborough, 145n 
Rodmerton, de, 152 
Rodmerton, M., 152 
Rogers, 185, 292 
Roit, 214 
Rome, 88 

Ronmey, Abbey, 253 
Rosemarkie, 98 

Ross Mars, his " Highlands of Cantabria," 
noticed, 171 



INDEX. 



377 



Rotherwas, 157n 

Round, 184, 300 

Rous, 2, 332 

Rowden, 4, 288 

Rowell, 134, 139, 149n 

Rowthall, Bp., 126, 127 

Ruardene, M., 148, 148n, 157n 

Rudd, 124 

Ruddock, 292 

Rudhall, 192 

Rudolf, L, 362 

" Rural Customs, Sports and Pastimes," 

observations on, 204 
Rus, le, 151 

Russia, Cloth Trade with, 201 

Russia, Czar of, ] 63, 353 

Russel, 139, 148n, 150, 155, 156, 158, 159 

319, 321, 324, 324n, 326, 327, 328, 334! 

335 

Ruthal, Rich., Bp., 255 
Ruthwell, 98, 99, 101 
Rutland, Co. of, 175 
Ru3'dale, 3 
Ruyhale, 323 
Ryarsh, Kent, 161 
Rye, 136 
Ryll,(?)329 
Rysindon, 321, 321n 
Ryvesland, 276 

Samson, Abbot of. 117 

Saintesbury, M.. 140 

Sale, de la, 150 

Salmondsbury, Hund.,135 

Salperton, M., 145 

iSamfordes leaze, 285 

Samlord, 285 

Sancha, 253 

Sandhurst, 327, 329 

Sandwich, 111 

Sapcote, Leic, 87 

Sapperton, 4 ; M., 142 ; Ho., 207 

Sarinis, de, 150 

Saunders, 291 

Savage, 139 

Sayes Court, 353 

Saxony, Duke of, 314 

Sayvell, 118n 

Scharneston, 168 

Schnider, 311 

Scrope, 292 

Scotland, Alex. K. of, 315 
Sebrok', 324 

8elby, W. D., " Jubilee Book," noticed, 
183 ; 300 

Semperingnam, Conv., 331, 334, 334n. 
Senlac, battle of, 313 
Setvans, de, 241 
Sevenhampton, 144 
Severn End, 187 

Severn, riv., 73, 93, 114, 148n, 205 
Sewell, Rev. H., guide to Church at Wot- 

ton-under-Eoge, 219; his notes on the 

same, 309-311 
Seymour, 145, 258 
Se'ynesbury, M., 150n, 319, 319n 
Shadwell, 281, 319 

Shakespeare, his familiarity with Dursle}- 

and its neighbourhood, 203 
Shandvvick, 98 
Sheene, Priory of, 163 
Sheepstiesgrove, 270 
Sheppard, 291 
Shibleyfields, 288 
Shiplesbrook, 286 
Shipton Moyne, M., 152, 152n 



Shipton-on-Stour,3; suggested as place for 

meeting next year, 212 
Shirborne, 319 
Shirehampton, M., 139 
Shrewsbury, County of, 211 
Siddington, M., 149, 149n 
Siddons, 358, 359 
Side, Chantry at, 210 
Silverstraam, 282 
Singleton, 168 
Sinwell, 304, 309 

Sitwell, Sir George, his " Feudal History 
of the County of Derby," noticed, 
174 

Siward, 111 

Skipton, 144, 144n, 145, 14r.n, ICS 

Skipton, de, 152 

Skrine, H. D. at Dursley, 185 

Slanning, 162 

Sleight, 194 

Slimbridge, M., 148; Ch. 227 
Small, 288 

Smith, 7, 291, 292, 311 
Smvth, 134, 137, 324 
Snodhulle, 322 
Snoweshull, 144 
Sodbury, 323, 325 
Soer, le, 143 
Solar, de, 140, 150 
Solers, de, 145, 150 
Soller's Meadow, 272 
Somerford, 260, 263, 265 
Somerfbrd Magna, 155, 156 
Somerset, 236 

Somerset, Co., Ill, 132, 157n, 

Somerville, 144n, 319, 322, 324, 325, 327 

Somery, 142n, 153n, 304 

Southam, 326, 330 

South Cerney, 149 

Southrop, M., 143, 143n 

Southwark, 4, 362 

Sowls, 288 

Spain, 171, 357 

Springald, 151, 151n 

Stafford, 158n, 321, 321n, 325 

Standish, 351 

Stanley, 144 

Stanley Regis, M., 152, 326 

Stanley, S. Leonard's, 151, 151n, 196, 213, 

215, 215n, 216, 226, 228, 238, 239, 240, 

325 

Stanton, Heref., 265 

Staunton, Bailiwick, 327n 

Staunton, de, 146, 327, 327n 

Staun'on, Glouc, 91, 144, 319, 327 

Stephen, K., 205, 227, 301, 357 

Sternholde, 119, 120n 

Stevens, 276 

Stokes, Miss, 97 

Stoke, see Brockmancote 

Stoke Archer, 330 

Stoke Bishop, M., 140 

Stonhouse, de, 238 

Soughton, T, A., his death, 186 

Stowe, bor., 230 

Stowell, M., 144, 144u 

Stowfield, 273, 273 

Stowteshill, 281 

Stratford-upon-Avon, appd. as place of 

meeting next year, 212 
Stratton, Cornw., 87 
Stratton, M., 4 
Straunge, le, 296 
Strensham, 187 

Streatfeild, Rev. T., his "History of 
Kent," noticed, 161-166 



2 B 2 



378 



INDEX. 



Strickland, 93 

Strickland, A., on Com. for restoring 

Saxon Chapel at Peerhurst, 187 
Stubbs, 298 

Sudley, U2n, 144, 144n, 321 

Sudley de, 144 

Suffolk, 242, 352 

Suly, 320n 

Sumpnur, 326 

Surrey, Co , 132 

Sussex, Co., 132 

Suthington Langeley, M,, 149, 149n 
Suthington Musard, M., 450, 150n 
Swale, riv., 87 

Swayne, S. H.,1,99 ; retires from Council, 

190, and is re-elected, 191 
Swell, M., 141 
tSwej'n, 205 
Sweyne, 111, 269 
Swindon Ch., 214n 
Swinesheved, Hund., 148n 
Swynburne, de, 235, 236, 241 
Swyndon, 160. — See also Swindon 
Swymmer, 292 
Syde, M., 146, 146n 
Sylvester, St., 88 
Symondshall, 205, 305, 306 
Symondeshall, de, 238, 239 



Tabasco, 347 

Talbot, 148, 148n, 157n 

Talboys, Fam., 209 ; arms, ib. 

Tanner, Thomas, his Chapel, 192, 194, 196, 
197 ; Mr. Bazeley's remarks on, 196, 
197 ; Sir John Maclean's remarks on, 
196-197, 243 

Tartary, 344 

Tattersall, 311 

Taverner, 328 

Taylor, Rev. C. S., 113 

Taylor, 120, 122 

Tecpaucaltzin, K., 346 

Tedbaldeston, Hund., 142, 330 

Templars, Knts., 145, 321, 326 

Temple Ch., Lond., 91 

Temple Guiting, 150n, 321, 326 

Templeman, 292 

Tench, 296 

Teotihuacan, 347, 348 

Tetbury, visited by the Society, 207 ; Sir 
H. Barkly presides at lunch, ib.; ex- 
hibition of antiquities by Mr. A. H. 
Paul, ib.; population of, 208, 208n, 
Church, Mon. in, 209, 305 

Tetbury, Local Sec. for, appd., 190, 208, 
306 

Tetbury, M., 152, 152n 
Tette worth, 324 
Tetis, Senor, 172 

Tewkesbury, 105, 187; Local Sec. for appd., 

190, 328, 329, 330 
Tewkesbury, Abbey, 9, 109, 158n 
Tewkesbury, Abbots of, 154 
Tewkesbury, Hund., 135, 314 
Texenco, 346 
Thames, riv., 113 
Theobald, Archp., 215,216 
Th'omes, 323 
Thorns, W. J., 363 
Thornbury, 215n 
Thornbury Ch., Glouc, 91, 91n 
Tnornbury, Hund., 135n, 153n, 325 
Thornbury, M., 151, 151n, 325 
Thonncrtoii, see Farinin<jton 
Thoriier, 260 
Throckmorton, 329n 



Tierny, 178 

Tintern, Abbot of, 147, 147n 

Tippets, 203 

Todinton, 144, 320n 

Tokinton, M., 148, 245 

Tokyngton, Chapel, 245 

Tolle, 127 

Toltec, tribe, 343 

Tony, de, 140, 150 

Topp, 124, 125, 128 

Torbye, M., 151, see Thornbury 

Torrelavega, 172 

Tracy, 319, 320n 

Trebell, 158 

Tredynton, 3 

Trelawny, 162 

Tremayne, 162 

Tresviso, 173 

Trewman, 185 

Trewsbury, M,, 150, 150n 

Tudemor, de, 149 

Tula, 343, 348 

Turbervill, de, 145 

Turkedon, M., 145, 145n 

Turner, 125 

Twenyng, 144, 144n, 319 
Tyboton, 319 

Tyddington, M., 151, 151n 
Tyes, Lord, 219 
Tylee, 185 

Tyniberden, M., 142 
Tyning, 288 
Tyrel, 145 
Terrel, 276 

Tytherton Kelways, 155 



Uley Bury, 200, 281, 286 
Uley, M., 148, 149 

Uley par., 200. 201, Notes on, by Mr. 
Barwick Baker, 201-202, Poor rates of, 
lOl, population, 201n ; 203, 236 ; 281- 
290 

Ullington, de, 140 
Ullington, M., 140 
Unquera, 172, 173 
Upleaden, 187 

Upton Manor, sale of, 208, 209 
Upton-on-Severn, 187 
Usk, river, 157 



Valence, de, 152, 323n 
Valers. de. 149, 149n 
Vallery, bt . 146n, 152 
Verdon, 143, 150, 151 
Vaughan, 158n 
Vavasor, 168 
Veci, 164 
Vele, le, 149, 306 
Vera Cruz, 343 
Vere, 298 

Vigan's, St., 98, 101 

Villeyne, 319 

Vincent, 290 

Virginia, 206, 349, 350 

Vizard, 185, 195, 203, 285 

Vizard, Gen., Chairman of Local Com. at 
at Dursley, 185, at Annual dinner, 199, 
204, at concluding meeting, 212 



Wades, 271 

Wadley, Kev. T. P., elected an Hon. 

Member, 188, grant of books, 212 
VValdiiig, 327n 
Walcnsteine, Count, 362 



i 



INDEX. 



379 



Wales, Meeting there suggested for next 

year, 212 
Waleys, le, 150 

Waleraund, 146, loOn.—See also Walrand 

W alker, 324 

Waller, F. S., 299, 311 

Wallingford Castle, 306 

Wallingford,Hon., 153, 302, 327 

Wallington, 203 

Wallwyns, 272, 276 

Walpole, 354 

Walrand, 148n 

Walter 328 

Walter! the Constable, 298 
Walton, 216 

Wainslode Cliff, Sir W. Guise's remarks 
on, 1 

Wardrobe, de la, 159 
Ware, de la, 151, 151n 
Warren, 219, 305 
Warrenne, E., 135 
Waryn, 147, 147n, 322 
Washbourn, 126 
Wastell, 159 
Watkins, 291 
Watson, 171 
Watts, 264 
Wauton, de, 148 
Wayfer, 332, 335 
Weare, de, 206, 233 
Wearefield, 271, 278 
Webb, 203, 291 
Weldon, Little, M., 170, 171 
Wenlock, 75n 
Wensley, 269 
Werinton Parva, M., 322 
Werkesburn, de, 140 
Wernly, 237, 239 
Werstan, Prior of Deerhurst, 9n 
Westbury, de, 139 
Westbury Hund., 135, 297, 323, 329 
Westbury-on-Trym, 243 
Westminster, 302, 332n 
Westminster Abbey, 63, 112, 113,ni6, 169, 
280 

Westminster, Abbots of, 2, 115, 142, 329 
v\ estminster, Hund., 317n, 329 
Weston, Birt, M., 152, 152n, 153, 206, 208, 

visited, 210, Notes on an inscribed 

stone there, 336 
Weston Cantelupe, 141, 141n 
Weston Mauduit, M., 141 
Weston-on-Avon, M., 140 
Weston, St. Lawrence, M., 139 
Weston-sub-Edge, 319, 3iyn 
Weston, T., 351, 353 
Westwood, 94, 95, 98 
Wethur, 328 
Weymouth, 358, 359 
Weyn, de, 139 
Whitby, 248 

AVhite, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265, 291, 352 
White Cleeve, 277 
Whitchurch, W., Abbot, 4n, 292 
Whitecourt, 281 
Whitfield Court, 1, 2, 5n, lln 
Whitfield, M., 3, 5, 142, 329 
Whitston, Hund., 136, 326 
Whitwick, 125 
Whorkmorefield, 275 
Whychurch, W., Abbot, 255 
Whytyngton, 319, 322, 324, 325, 327 
Wickhff, 214 

Wickwar, M., 151, 151n, 329 
Widcombe, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265 
Wig wold, M., 151, 15 in 
Wilberforce, Bp., 92 



Wilebi, Philip, de, 316 
Willersley, M., 141 
Wilie, M., 321n 

William, Conq., lln, 113, 213, 223, 247, 

248, 293, 313, 356 
William, III., K., 164, 193, 356 
Williams, 274 

Willington, de, 139, 144, 144n, 147, 324, 

324n 

Willough%, 291, 292 
Wilton, 269 

Wilts, Co., 155, 160, 260, 263, 265, 269 
Winchcombe, 118, 120 
Winchcombe, Abbey, 118, 120 
Winchcombe, Abbots of, 140, 141, 141n, 
144,319 

Winchcombe, Ch., Emb. at, 256 
Winchelsea, 136 
Winchester, 248, 355 
Windsor, 167, 168, 169 
Wing Ch., Bucks, 36n 
Winterbothani, Mr. A. B., 203 
Winthrop, 352 

Witts, Rev, F. E. B., 1; on Committee for 
restoring Saxon Chapel, Deerhurst, 
187 

Witts, G. B., re-elected on Council, 190, 

191, 204 
Wodewarde, 328 
Wokelton, M., 140 
Wolston, Bp., 210 
Wood, 126, 127 

Woodchester, 100, M., 153, 153n 
Woodmancote, 134n, 149n, 231, 232, 233, 

234, 235, 241, 242 
Woolsthorpe Abbey, 246n 
Woolwich, M., 164 
\SJorcester, 155, 254 

Worcester, Archdeaconry of. Church Plate 
of, 1S2 

Worcester, Bps. of, 117, 139, 139n, 140, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 192, 210, 
228, 228n, 243, 280, 319n, 330 

Worcester, Co., 3, 5, 103, 142, 159 

Worgans, 271 

Worthy, 324, 324n 

Wortley Chapel, 217 

Wortley hamlet, 304 

Wotton Basset, 156, 157, 160 

Wotton-under-Edge, Ch., 158, Notes on, 
by Rev. H. Sewell, 309, the same 
illust., ib. 

Wotton de, 311 

Wotton Grammar School, 306 

Wotton, xM., 148, 149 ; Local Sec. appd. 190 
Par , 200, 208, 214, 215 ; remarks on 
Brasses in the Church by Mr. Perkins, 
219, 227 ; the M. House, remarks on, 
by the same, 304, 308 

Wren, Bp-, 92 

Wresden, Uley, Notes on, by W, P. W. 

Phillimore, 281 
Wright, T., 85, 94 

Wright, W. H. K., his " Western Anti- 
quary," noticed, 363 
Wulfstan, Bp,, 280 
Wyatt, 214 

Wye, riv., 173, 271, 278, 803 
Wylebi, 130, 132 
Wygmore, Abb., 246n 
Wykeham, W., 168 
Wykes, 224, 229, 237 
Wyneston, M.. 145, 145n 
Wynne, 90 
Wynyarde, 328 
Wyrrall, 269, 271 
Wytenhurst, M., 152 



380 



INDEX. 



Wyttington, M., 141 



XochitI, 346 
Xolotl, 347 



Yate, 291 
Yate, M.,139 
Yates, 360 
Yatman, 209 

Yeatman, John Pym, his "Feudal History 

of the County of Derby, noticed, 174 
Yerdeshulle, M.,323 
Yersley, 277 
Yerworth, 269, 274, 276 
Yedford's Cross, 271 



Yewsland, 276 
Yhill, 142 
Yoland, de, 232 
Yonge, 363 

York, Archbps. of, 144, 144n, 146, 146n, 

319n, 328 
York, City, 293, 355 

York, Co., 87, 132, 133, 133n, 135, 135n, 
175, 235 

Yorke, J. R., on Com. for restoring Saxon 

Chapel at Deerhurst. 187 
Youlgrave Ch., Derby, 92 
Yrap, 144 
Yutacan, 347, 348 



Zerdeshill, 323n 



i 



BKISTOL & 6L0UCESTEESHIEE AKOHiEOLOGIOAL 

SOCIETY 



^XBt of ^tmhtX8 

SEPTEMBER 5th, 1887 



Names of Life Members aee given in heavier type 
An asterisk is aifixed to -the names of Members of Council, 1887-8 

The Secretary 7vill feel obliged by any correction of error in List 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Grloucester 

Adlam, William, F.S.A., Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol 

Agg-G-ardner, James Tynte, M.P., c/o J. Shinner, Esq., Original Brewery, 

Cheltenham 
*Allard, W., Tewkesbury 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., St. Bria vol's Vicarage, Coleford 
Alston, Rev. A. E., Kingsholm, Gloucester 

Ames, Reginald, 2, Albany Terrace, Park Square, East, London. N.W. 

Armitage, W. H., Wotton-under-Edge 

Arrowsmith, J. W., 24, Westfield Park, Redland, Bristol 

Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Baillie, Colin Campbell, Clenure House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Baily, W. A., 129 Dyer Street, Cirencester 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Bristol 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke, Gloucester 

Baker, James, Plantagenet Villa, Portishead 

Baker, W. Proctor, Broomwell House, Brislington, Bristol 

Baker, William Mills, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud 

Banks, C, Longford, Gloucester 

Barker, Rev. Canon H. C. R., M.A,, Daglingworth Rectory, Cirencester 
Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., G-.C.M.G-., 1, Bina Gardens, South Kensington, 
London, S.W. 

*Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., St. Mark's Vicarage, Gloucester 

Bartholomew F.M., B.A., 28, College Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Barthropp, Rev. Nathaniel S., M.A., Itton Rectory, Chepstow, Monmouthshire 

Bathurst, The Right Hon. the Earl, Cirencester 

Baynes, C. R., The Lammas, Minchinhampton 

* Bazeley, Rev. William, M.A., Matson Rectory, Grloucester (Hon. Member), 

(Hon. Secretary and Librarian) 
Beach, The Et. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 

Williamstrip Park, Fairford 
* Beddoe, John, M.D., F.B.S., Manor House, York Place, Clifton, Bristol 



ii. 



Bell, Eev. Canon Charles Dent, D.D., The Rectory, Cheltenham 
Bevir, E. J., Q.C., 110, Harley Street, London, W. 
Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris 

Bidden, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 
Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Grioucester 
Birchall, Miss, Lanesfield, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham 
Blacker, Rev. B. H., M.A., 26, Meridian Place, Clifton, Bristol 
Blakeway, G-. S., Myton House, G-loucester 
Blandy, F., Birchamp House, Newland, Coleford 

* Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Rectory, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrham, Chippenham 
Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester 
Blathwayt, Colonel, Batheaston, Bath 

Bodleian Library, Oxford 

Boevey, A. Crawley, East India United Service Club, 14, St. James' 

Square, London, S.W. 
Boevey, Sir T. H. Crawley, Bart., Elaxley Abbey, Newnham 
Boevey, Rev. R., Crawley, M.A., Flaxley Vicarage, Newnham 
Booth, Abraham, Belle Vue House, Grioucester 
Booth, W. S., Belle Vue House, Gloucester 
Bonnor, Benjamin, Barnwood, G-loucester 
Boughton, J. H., Tewkesbury 

* Bourne, Rev. Gr. D., M.A., D.L., F.S.A., Weston-sub-Edge, Broadway 
Bower, Rev. E. J., Holy Apostles Vicarage, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

* Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16, Royal Crescent, Bath 

Bramble, Lieut-Col. James Roger, Cleeve House, near Yatton, Somerset 
Bra vender, T. B., The Firs, Cirencester 

BriggS, William, St. Stephen Street, Bristol [Birmingham 
Browne, Rev. C. E. Murray, M.A., St. Paul's Vicarage, Balsall Heath, 

* Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester 
Buchanan, James, " Standard" Office, Gloucester 

Burder, G. F., M.D., F.M.S., 7, South Parade, Clifton, Bristol 
Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 24, Bridge Street, Bristol 
Bush, Edward, Alveston, R.S.O. Gloucestershire 
Bush, James Day, 3, Miles' Buildings, Bath 
Bush, John, 9, PemlDroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Bush, T. S., Cheese Lane, St. Philip's, Bristol 

Bute, The Most Noble the Marquis of, Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire 
Butterworth, Rev. George, M.A., Deerhurst Vicarage, Tewkesbury 

Caldicott, Rev. J. W., D.D., Shipston-on-Stour Rectory, Worcestershire 
Campbell, Sir James, Bart.,Whitemead Park, Coleford 
Cardew, C. E., c/o. King, King & Co. , Bombay 
Cardew, G. A., Bayshill Villas, Cheltenham 

Cardew, Rev. John Haydon, M.A., 1, Springrove Villas, Cheltenham 

Cartwright, F. F., 1, St. Stephen Street, Bristol 

Cashmore, Samuel, Norton Malreward, Pensford, Bristol 

Cave, Charles, D., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton Park, Bristol 

Chamney, Rev. R. M., M.A., Training College, Cheltenham 

Chance, T. H., " Journal" Office, Gloucester 

Cheetham, Joshua Milne, Eyford Park, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Cheltenham Library, 5, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham 

Chilton, George Horace David,! 

Church A. H., M.A., F.G.S.; Shelsley, Kew, Surrey 

Clarke, Alfred Alex., Wells, Somerset 

* Clark, George T. F.S.A., Talygam, Llantrissant 
Clark, Rev. Thomas E., M. D., Ballargue, Peel, Isle of Man 



Clarke, Rev. Canon, D.D., Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Clarke, Miss, 86, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Clarke, John A. G-raham, Frocester, Stonehouse 
Clegram, William Brown, Saul Lodge, near Stonehouse 
Clifton College Library 

* ClifEord, The Hon. and Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Cockshotb, Miss, Hazlehurst, Ross 

Cole, Rev. E. P., B.A., 4, Gt. George Street, Bristol 

Coles, W. C, M.D., Bourton-on-the-Water 

Collier, Col. James A., Stanley Hall, Stonehouse 

Collins, J. C, M.D., Steanbridge House, Slad, Stroud 

Collins, Thomas, The Cross, Tewkesbury 

Cook, Francis, M.D., 1, Suffolk Lawn, Cheltenham 

Cook, Surgeon General, H.N.D., Prior's Mesne, Lydney 

Cooke, W. H., Q.C., F.S.A., 42, Wimpole Street, London 

Cornock, Nicholas, .S Oval Terrace, Addiscombe, Surrey 

Cornford, Rev. Edward, M.A., Etchowe, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham 

Cornwall, Rev. Alan Kingscote, M.A. Ashcroft, Wotton-under-Edge 

Cossham, Handel, M.P., F.G.S., Weston Park, Bath 

Cowburn, Major J. Brett, Dennil Hill, near Chepstow 

Cowley, Charles, L.L.D., 12 Middle Street, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

* Cripps, Wilfred, F.S.A., Barrister-at-Law, Cirencester 
Crisp, H., West Park, Redland, Bristol 

Croggan, Edmund, 4, Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Crossman, George D., Rudgeway, Gloucestershire 
Crothers, Capt, Wallace G. , Highfields, Chew Magna 
Cruddas, C. J., Oakfield, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
CuUimore, J., The Friars, Chester 



Dale, Henry F. 

Dancey, Charles Henry, 6, Midland Road, Gloucester 
Davenport-Hill, Miss Florence, 25, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Vicarage, Enfield Highway, 
London 

Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., 2, Montpellier Road, Gloucester 
Davis, Major Charles E., F.S.A., 55, Gt. Pulteney Street, Bath 
Davis, Cecil Tudor, The Court House, Painswick 
D 'Argent, Edward Augustus, Bibury Cottage, London Road, Cheltenham 

* Day, Francis, Kenilworth House, Cheltenham 
De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham 
Denton, C. Lord, Orielton, St. Briavels, Coleford 
Derham, Henry, The Manor House, Frenchay, near Bristol 
Derham, James, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 119 Lansdowne Rd., Kensington Park,W. 
Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Willsbridge, near Bristol 
Dolman, G. T. C, St. Mary's Hill, Inchbrook, Stroud 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester Stonehouse 

* Dorington, Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt Park, Stroud 
Downing, William, Springfield House, Olton, near Birmingham 
Drew, Joseph, M.D., Pembroke Lodge, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.C., F.R.S.,Tortworth, Wotton- 
under-Edge 

Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud 
Dynevor, The Right Hon. Lord, Dynevor Castle, Llandilo, S. Wales 



iv. 



Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol 

Eberle, J. F., 96, Pembroke Road. Clifton 

Edkins, William, 12, Charlotte Street, Park Street, Bristol 

Edwards, Alderman George W., Sea-wall Villas, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

* Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol 

Ellett, Robert, Oakley Cottage, Cirencester 

Emeris, Rev. John, M.A., The Rectory, Upton St. Leonard's, Gloucester 

Emeris, William, Upton St. Leonards Rectory, Gloucester 

Evans, I. B., 6, Douro Villas, Cheltenham 

Evans, Edward E. , Brimscombe Court, Thrupp, near Stroud 

Evans, Rev. E., M.A., Preston Rectory, Ledbury 



Farquhar, Rev. E. M., M.A., Bradley Court, Wotton-under-Edge 
Fawn, James, 18, Royal Promenade, Queen's Road, Bristol 
Fendick, R. G-., 3 Claremont Place, St. Paul's Road, Clifton 
Fenwick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham 

* Fisher, Major C. Hawkins, The Castle, Stroud 
Fitzhardinge, Craven, Hyde Dubbo, New South Wales 
*Flower, Edgar, The Hill, Stratf ord-on-Avon 
Foljambe, Cecil, G. S., M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark 
Flux, Edward HitchingS, 144, Leadenhall street, London, E.C. 

* Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley 
Foster, R. G., The Knap, Birdlip Hill, near Gloucester 

Fox, Alderman Francis Frederick, Yate House, Chipping Sodbury 
Fox, Charles Henry, M.D., The Beeches, Brislington, Bristol 
Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Ashwick Grove, Oakhill, Bath 
Francis, George Edward, Buckstone Cottage, near Coleford 
Francis, R. G., Broadwell Villa, Broadwell, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Fry, Francis J., 104, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Fry, Lewis, M.P., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol 
Fuller, Rev. E. A., M.A., St. Barnabas Vicarage, Ashley Road, Bristol 



* Gael, Samuel H., Porturet House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Gaisford, Rev. Thomas Amyas, M. A., 2, Devonshire Place, Wells Road, Bath 
Gaisford, Edward Sands, 23, Bassett Road, N. Kensington, London 
Gallenga, Antonio, The Fall, Llandogo, Coleford 

Gloucester, The Very Rev. The Dean of. The Deanery, Gloucester 
George, C. E. A., Henbury Hill, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol 
George, W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
George, William, 3, King's Parade, Clifton, Bristol 
Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax-Bourton, Somerset 
Giles, Oliver, The Crescent, Bromsgrove 

Giller, William Thomas, County of Gloucester Bank, Gloucester 

Godman, E.T., Banksfee, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Godwin, George, F.R.S., 6, Cromwell Place, London, S.W. 

Godwin, J. G., 15, St. George's Row, Pimlico, London, S.W. 

Golightly, Rev. Canon T. G., M.A., Shipton Moyne Rectory, Tetbury 

Gray's Inn Library, London, W.C. 

Green, Rev. J. F., M.A., Whiteshill, Stroud 

Greenfield, Benjamin Wyatt, 4, Cranbury Terrace, Southampton 

Griflath, Robert W., The Old House, Llandaff 

Grist, William Charles, Brookside, Chalford, Stroud 

* Guise, Sir William Vernon, Bart., D.L., F.L.S., F.G.S., Elmore Court, 

Gloucester 

Gwinnett, Wm. Henry, Gordon Cottage, Cheltenham 



4 



T. 



Hale, 0. B., Claremont House, London Road, Gloucester 
Hale, Major Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge 
Halsall, Edward, 4, Somerset Street, Kingsdown, Bristol 

* Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud 
Hall, Rev. R., M.A., Saul Vicarage, Stonehouse 

Hallen, Rev. A. W. Cornelius, Tbe Parsonage, Alloa N.B. 

* Hallett, Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath 
HaUett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath 

Hallewell, Joseph Watts, D.L., Stratford House, Stroud 
Harding, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Pentwy^i, Monmouth 
Harding, Thomas, Wick House, Brislington, Bristol 
Hardy, Rev. H. H., M.A., The Rectory, Mitcheldean 
Hare, Sholto Vere, Knole Park, Almondsbury, Bristol 
Harford, William Henry, Old Bank, Bristol 

* Hartland, Ernest, M.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow, (Hon. Treasurer.) 
Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Triibner & Co., Ludgate Hill, London 
Harvey, Rev. W. H. Peyton, M.A., The Vicarage, Chipping Sodbury 
Harvey, Charles Octavius, Bedford Villa, Richmond Hill, Clifton, Bristol 
Harvey, Edward, 3, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Harvey, John, Glenside, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 
Hayward, Venerable Archdeacon, The Vicarage, Cirencester 

* Heane, William Crawshay, The Lawn, Cinderford 
Heffernan, Surgeon-General, Eton Villa, The Park, Cheltenham 
Helps, Arthur S., Gloucester 

Hemming, Rev. B. F., M.A., Bishop's Cleeve Rectory, Cheltenham 
Henderson, W., Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham 
Henly, E. H., Wotton-under-Edge. 

Herapath, Howard M., Penleigh, Canynge's Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Hill, Charles, Clevedon Hall, Somerset 

Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Sandhurst Rectory, Gloucester 

* Holford, Robert S., D.L., Weston Birt House, Tetbury 
HoUoway, G., M.P., Farm Hill, Stroud 

Holmes, Mrs., Whithorne, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Hopgood, P. Downing, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Howard, Edward Stafford, The Castle, Thornbury 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, N. 
Howsin, E. Arthur, M.D., 11, Rowcroft, Stroud 

* Hudd, Alfred E., 94, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Hudden, William Paul, 11, Windsor Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 
Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 
Hulbert, Edward, Enfield Cottage, Stroud 

Hutchinson, Joshua Hutchinson, 42, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, London 
Hyett, F. A., Painswick House, Painswick 

* Jacques, Thomas W., The Grange, Backwell, Somerset 
James, Francis, Edgeworth Manor, Cirencester 
Jefferies, James E. , Yeo Bank, Congresbury, Bristol 

Jefferson, David, Boston, U.S.A., c/o. Messrs. Sampson & Lowe, 188 Fleet- 
street, E.G. 
Jenkins, R. Palmer, Wyelands, Chepstow 

Jenkinson, Sir George S., Bart., D.L., Eastwood Park, Falfield 
Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse 
Jones, Rev. Thos. D., Caerwent, Chepstow 

Kane, Miss, The Grange, Monmouth 

* Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham, 

(President) 

Keble, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, Stroud 
Keeling, George Baker, Severn House, Lydney 



* Keeling-, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenliam 
Kempson, F. E,., Birchyfield, Bromyard, WorcestersMre 

Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham 
Kerslake, Thomas, 14, West Park, Clifton, Bristol 
King, William Poole, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Kitcat, Rev. D., M.A., Weston Birt Rectory, Tetbury 
Knight, James P., 2, Hatherley Place, Cheltenham 
Ejiowles, W., Albion Chambers, King Street, G-loucester 

Lamb, Rev. Matthias Mawson, M.A., Swinbrook Vicarage, Burford, Oxon 

Lancaster, Thomas, Bownham House, Stroud 

Lang, Robert, Beaumaris, Durdham Down, Clifton 

Latimer, John, 3, Trelawney Place, Bristol 

Law, William, Littleborough, near Manchester 

Lavars, John, 3, Saville Villas, Clifton, Bristol 

Lavicount, S. W., Elm Villa, Cheltenham 

Lay, Capt., Staverton Court, Cheltenham 

* Le Blanc, Arthur, Prestbury House, near Cheltenham 

* Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse 

Leigh, E. Egerton, Broadwell Manor House, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 
Lewis, Archibald M., Upper Byron Place, Bristol 
Lewis, Harold, B.A., " Mercury " Office, Bristol 

Lindsay, W. A., M.A., Q.C., Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms, 17, Cromwell 

Road, South Kensington, London, S.W. 
Little, E. Caruthers, Field Place, Pakenhill, Stroud 
Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud 
Liverpool Free Library 

Llewellin, John, jun., Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol 

Lloyd, Captain Owen, 4, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 

London Library, 12, St. James' Square, London 

Long, Lieut. Col., William, Newton House, Clevedon 

Low, Charles Hoskins, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 

Lowe, Colonel A. E. Lawson, F.S.A., Shirenewton Hall, Chepstow 

Lower, Nynian H., Olveston, Almondsbury 

* Loxley, Rev. Arthur, M.A., Vicarage, Fairford 

* Lucy, William C, F-G-S., Brookthorpe, Gloucester 
Lynes, Rev. W., .D.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Xewnham 
Lysaght, John, Springfort, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Maclaine, Wm. Osborne, D.L., Kington, Thornbury 

* Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A., Glasbury House, Richmond Hill, Clifton, 

Bristol, (Hon. Editor) 
Macpherson, J., Invercargill, New Zealand 
Madan, Falconer, Brasenose College, Oxford 
Majendie, Rev. S., Brookthorpe Vicarage, Gloucester 
Manchester Library, Manchester 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud 
Marling, Capt. Walter B., Clanna, Lydney 

* Martin, A. T., MA., 10 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Matthews, Bernard, Worcester Banking Company, Gloucester 
Matthews, W. G., Wotton-under-Edge 

Meadway, G., South Lawn, The Park, Cheltenham 
Medland, Henry, Kingsholm, Gloucester 
Medland, James, Clarence Street, Gloucester 
Merrick, Frank, 7, Hughenden Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Middleton, J. H., M.A., F.S.A., King's College, Cambridge 
Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Upton Helion Rectory, Crediton, 
Devon 



Miles, H. Cruger W., 71, Queen S'quare, Bristol 
Mills, H. Hamilton, The Field, Stroud 
Mills, John, 87, Ryecroft Street, G-loucester 
Monk, C. J., 5, Buckingham Gate, London, S.W. 
Moore, John, Bourton-on-the-Water 
Morgan, Sir Walter, Naish House, Nailsea, Somerset 
Mott, Albert J., F. Q. S., Crickley Hill, Cheltenham 
MuUingS, John, Cirencester 
Murrell, J., G-loucester 



Nairn, Charles J. 

Nash, Rot. Canon R. S., M. A., Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury 

Needham, Frederick, M.D., Barnwood House, Gloucester 

Nevins, Rev. Willis Probyn, M.A., 8, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 

* New, Herbert, Green Hill, Evesham 

Noel, Colonel, D.L., Elston Hall, Newark-on-Trent 

Norman, George, Alpha House, St. George's Road, Cheltenham 

Norris, Venerable Archdeacon, D.D., 3, Great George Street, Bristol 



* Oakeley, Rev. W. Bagnall, M. A., Newland, Coleford 
Oakeley, Mrs. W. Bagnall, Ne'wland, Coleford 
O'Fflahertie, Rev. T. R., M.A., Capel Vicarage, Dorking, Surrey 
Owen, Rev. Richard Trevor, Llangedwyn, Oswestry, Salop 



* Paine, Wm. Henry, M. D., F. G. S., Corbett House, Stroud 
Palmer, Rev. Feilding, M. A., Eastcliffe, Chepstow 

Parker, Rev. Canon Charles J., M. A., Cathedral House, Gloucester 

* Parry, Thomas Gambler, D. L., Highnam Court, Gloucester 
Pass, Alfred, 15, Upper Belgrave Road, Durdham Down, Bristol 

* Paul, Alfred H., The Close, Tetbury 

Pearse, General G., C.B., Godfrey House, Cheltenham 
Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Henbury, Bristol 
Percival, E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester 

* Perkins, Vincent, R., Wotton-under-Edge 
Peters, Rev. Thomas, 5, The Circus, Bath 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M. A., B.C.L., 18 Priory Road, Bedford Park 

Chiswick, London 
Phillipps, J. 0. Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A., Hollingbury Copse, 

Brighton 
Philips, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross 

Phillott, G. H., Trevor House, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham 
Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath 
Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M A., Moukton Combe Vicarage, Bath 
Pitt, Theophilus, King's College, London, W.C. 
Playne, Arthur T., Longfords, Minchinhampton 
Playne, A. W., Morning Side, Nailsworth 

Pouting Albert, Sneedham Green, Upton St. Leonards, Gloucester 

* Pope, T. S., 3 Unity Street, College Green, Bristol 

Powell, His Honour Judge John Joseph, Q. C, The Lawn, Denmark Hill, 
London, S.E. 

Power, Edward, 16, Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 
Poynton, Rev. Francis John, Kelston Rectory, Bath 

* Prankerd, P. D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Price, William P., D.L. Tibberton Court, Gloucester 
Price, Rev. H. T., M.A., Elkstone Rectory, Cheltenham 
Pritchard, J. E., Guy's ClifE, Sydenham Road, Bristol 



( 



viii. 



Pritchard, Augustin, F.R.C.S., 4, Chesterfield Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Pritcliett, Charles Pigott, 5, Hillside, Cotliam, Bristol 

Protheroe, Frank, 11, Alfred Place West, Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 



Reed, J. H., 4 Swanbourne Villas, Cotliam, Bristol 

* Reynolds, John, Manor House, Redland, Bristol 

Rice, The Honourable Maria Elizabeth Rice, Matson House, Gloucester 
Richardson, Charles, 10, Berkeley Square, Bristol 
Riddiford, George Francis, Barn wood Lodge, Gloucester 

* Robertson, J. D., MA., 11, College Green, Gloucester 
Robinson, Wm. Le Fleming, Hillesley House, Wotton-under-Edge 
Rogers, William Frederick, Tetbury 

Rome, T., Charlton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

* Royce, Rev. David, M.A., Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold 



Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham 
Saunders, Joshua, Sutton House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

* Scarth, Rev. Prebendary, M.A., Wrington Rectory, R.S.O., Somerset 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 
Scott, Charles, 52, London Road, Gloucester 

Selwyn, Rev. E. J., M.A., Pluckley Rectory, Ashford, Kent 
Sewell, Edward C, Elmlea, Stratton, Cirencester 
Sewell, Rev. H,, M.A., The Vicarage, Wotton-under-Edge 
Sibbald, J. G. E., Accountant General's OflB.ce, Admiralty, London 
Shand, Miss, Old Hill House, near Ross 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 11, Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 
Shaw, Rev. George F. E., M.A., Edgeworth Rectory, Cirencester 
*Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 28, St. James' Place, London, S.W., (President) 
Shipley, Alfred, Westbury-on-Trym 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A. Belcombe Brook, Bradford-on-Avon 
Simpson, J. J., Ljnwood, Cotham Gardens, Bristol 

* Skillicorne, W. Nash, D.L., 9, Queen's Parade, Cheltenham 
Skrine, Henry Duncan, Claverton Manor, Bath 

Slater, Alexander, Waynflete, Hampton Road, Bristol 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., The Pynes, Keynsham, Bristol 

Smith, Thomas Somerville, Sittingbourne, Kent 

Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth 

Smith, Richard Henry, Grigshot, near Stroud 

Smith, William, Sundon House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Society of Merchant Venturers, Bristol 

Sommerville, Williain, Bitton Hill, near Bristol 

Stackhouse, Rev. J. Lett, The Chantry, Berkeley 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow,M.A., 65, RedclifEe Gardens, London, S, W. 

Stanton, Walter John, Cooper's Hill, Stroud 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse 

Stanton, Rev. W, H., M.A., Haselton Rectory, Cheltenham 

Stevens, Henry, Cheltenham House, Bishopston, Bristol 

Stokes, Miss, Tyndale House, Cheltenham 

Stone, John, 12, Royal Crescent, Bath 

Street, Ernest, 43, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Strickland, Edward 

Strickland, Algernon, Lindors, Coleford 

* Sturge, Joseph Young, Thornbury 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M. D., 74, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swayne, Miss, 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

* Swayne, S. H., 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swinburne, T. W., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe 



i 



Tait, C. W. A., M.A., College Gate, Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 
Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, Bristol 

* Taylor, John, Bristol, City Librarian, 87, Clyde Road, Bristol 
Taylor, Rev. C S., M-A., l, Gruinea Street, Redcliffe, Bristol 
Taylor, Robert, Edge House, Stroud 

* Thomas, Christopher James, Drayton Lodge, Durdham Park, Bristol 
Thomas, William, 7, Charlotte Street, Queen Square, Bristol 
Thompson, Rev. H. L., M.A., Iron Acton Rectory, Bristol 

Thorp, Disney Launder, M.D., (Cantab.,) I^piatt Lodge, Cheltenham 

Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

Tomes, R. F., South House, Littleton, Evesham 

Townsend, Charles, Avenue House, Cotham Park, Bristol 

Townshend, R. B., Hillfields, Redmarley, Newent 

Trinder, Edward, Perrots' Brook, Cirencester 

Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, Bristol 

Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester 

Turner, A. H., Wotton-under-Edge 

Turner, A. M. Sydney, Barton Street, Gloucester 

Turner, T. 

Twells, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke Gate, Clifton, Bristol 

Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham 

Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis, B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham 

Vizard, Major Gen., Enderby House, Dursley 

Waddingham, John, Guiting Grange, Winchcombe 
Wadley, Rev. T, P., M.A., Naunton Beauchamp Rectory, Pershore, Hon. 
Member 

Waldy, Rev. J. E., B.A., Claverton Rectory, Bath 

Walker, General Sir 0. P. Beauchamp, E.C.B., 97, Onslow Square, 

London, S.W. 
Walker, 0. B., Wotton, Gloucester 

Walker, John, M.A., Westbourne House, Pittville, Cheltenham 

* Waller, Frederick S., F.R.I.B.A., 18, College Green, Gloucester 
Walters, Charles Astley, Wharfdale House, Cheltenham 
Warren, Robert Hall, Sunnyside, Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Wasbrough, H. S., 7, Gloucester Row, Clifton, Bristol 
Waters, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Staverton Vicarage, Daventry 
•Wenden, James Gordon, 16, Wharton Street, Lloyd Square, W.C. 
Weston, Sir J. D., Dorset House, Clifton, Bristol 

Weston, John, Leslie Court, Barnwood, Gloucester 

Wethered, Charles, West Grange, Stroud 

Wethered, Edward, 5 Berkeley Place, Cheltenham 

Wethered, Joseph, Heatherfield, The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol 

Wheeler, A. C, Upton Hill, Gloucester 

White, George, Didmarton, Chippenham 

Whitwill, Mark, The Shrubbery, Weston-Super-Mare 

* Wiggin, Rev. William, M.A., Hampnett Rectory, Northleach 
Williams, Rev. Augustin, Todenham Rectory,, Moreton-in-Marsh 
Williams, Adin, Lechlade 

* Williams, John, 16, Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Wills, Frederick, Avonwood House, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 
Wills, George, 3, Worcester Villas, Clifton, Bristol 
Wingfield, E. Rhys, Barrington Park, Burford 
Wintle, Charles, Queen Square, Bristol 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S., 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath 
Wiseman, Rev. H. J., M.A., Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 

* Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham 



X. 

* Witts, Eev. F. E. Broome, Upper Slaughter, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Wood, Walter B., Denmark Road, G-loucester 
Woodward, J. H., Richmond Park, Clifton, Bristol 
Wright, J., Marlborough. Lodge, Marlborough Hill, Bristol 

Yabbicom, Thomas Henry, C.E., 23, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Yatman, William Hamilton Highgrove, Tetbury 

Zaohary, Henry, Cirencester 



Literary Societies, exchanging Transactions with this Society— 

The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Edinburgh 
The Royal Archgeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 16, New 

Burlington Street, London, W. 
The British Archaeological Association, 32, Sackville Street, London 
The Birmingham Institute, Archaeological Section 

The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. B. Hudd, Esq., 94, Pembroke 

Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
The Cotteswold Field Club, Hon. Sec. , Edward Wethered, Esq., 5, Berkeley 

Place, Cheltenham 
The Royal Institution of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall 
The Derbyshire Archseological and Natural History Society, Derby 
The Essex Archseological Society, Colchester, Essex 
The Kent Archseological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent 
The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool 
The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 

Taunton 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec. Major Gen. 

The Hon. G. Wrottesley 
The Wiltshire Arch^ological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts 
The Yorkshire Archseological and Topographical Association, Hon. Sec. 

G. W. Tomlinson, Esq., F.S.A., The Elms, Huddersfield 



i 



zi. 



TEEMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining' the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 



I. As Life Members, for a Composition of £5 5s., and an Admission 

Fee of 10s. 6d. which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members, upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 

an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volumes of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 22nd of April, and the 
Treasurer, Mr. Eenest Hartland, will be obliged if mem- 
bers will send their subscriptions to him at Hardwicke Court, 
Chepstow. Subscriptions may also be made payable on the 
22nd of April in each year, through Members' Bankers to the 
Treasurer at the County of G-loucester Bank, Gloucester. 

By order of Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those Members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as Members to be made to the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester, Honorary Secretary. 



List of Books. 



1 



4-' ' 



Itist of Donors and Donations to the Society's Library. 



1879-1886. 

The Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Association. 
Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park. By the Rev. W. H. Bathurst, M.A. 

with Notes by G. W. King, M.A. London, 1879, 8vo. 

Goldcliff and the Ancient Roman Inscrib * Stone found there, 1878. By 
Octavius Morgan, F.R.S., F S.A. Newport, 1882, 8vo. 

Papers relating to the History of Monmouthshire, read at the meeting of 
the Cambrian Archseological Association, held at Newport in 1885. 

Newport, 1886, 8vo. 

The Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A.— 
Brief Sketches of the Parishes of Booterstown and Donnybrook, in the 
County of Dublin. By the Rev. B. H. BlacTcer, M.A. 3rd and 4th parts. 

Dublin, 1872, 1874, 12mo. 
Monumental Inscriptions in the Parish Church of Cheltenham. Transcribed 
by the Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A. London, 1877, 4to. 

Gloucestershire Notes & Queries, Vol. I. London, 1881, 8vo. 

The Royal Arch^ological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland — 

Archseological Journal, Vols. VI-XXV. London, 1849-1868, 8vo. 

N,B, — The Society has since acquired the other 22 vols, by purchase and exchange. 

The Royal Historical and Arch^ological Association of Ireland — 
Proceedings and Papers, 4th series, Vols. I-IV. Dublin, 1871-1878, 8vo. 

Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c.— 
The Grammar School of Leigh, Lancashire. By J. E. Bailey, F.S.A. 

Leigh, 1879, 8vo. 

An attempt to identify the arms formerly existing in the windows of the 
Parish Church and Austin Friary at Warrington. By W. Beaumont and 
J. Paul Rylands, F>S.A. Warrington, 1878, 4to. 



2 



List of Books. 



The Following Parochial Histories hy Sm John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. — 
The Parish of Helland, Cornwall. Exeter, 1873, 4to. 

The Parish of St. Menefreda, alias St. Minver, Cornwall. Exeter, 1876, 4to. 
The Parishes of Tintagel and Trevalga, Cornwall. Exeter, 1877, 4to. 

Iron-making in the Forest of Dean. By the Rev. H. G. Nicholls, M.A. 

London, 1866, 8vo. 

Description of the Paintings in the church of Kempley. By J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite, M.P. London, 1866, 8vo. 

The Life and Letters of Florence MacCarthy Reagh. By Daniel MacCarthy. 

(Glasgow). London, 1867, 8vo. 

Paintings of Henry VIL, Prince Arthur and Cardinal Morton on Screen 

of Plymtree Church, Devon, with a Notice by the Bev. T. Mozley, M.A. 

E-ector of Plymtree. London, 1878, atlas fol. 

The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury. By J. L. Petit, M.A. Cheltenham, 1848 

8vo. 

Scraps of Ancient Bristol, engravings from drawings hy F. W. Lockwood. 

Belfast, 1880, fol. 

A short sketch of the Life of Major-General and Admiral Richa'^fd Deane. 

By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 4to. 
Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute at Winchester, 1845 ; York, 1846 ; 

Norwich, 1847 ; Lincoln, 1848 ; Salisbury, 1849 ; Bristol, 1851 ; Oxford ; 

and Chichester, 1853. London, 1846-1856, 8vo. 

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates. Svo. 



C. F. Playne, Esq. Stroud — 
Ancient Camps of Gloucestershire. Svo. 



George RoLLESTON, Esq., M.D., F.R.S.— 
British Barrows. By W. Greenwell, M.A., F.S.A., and G. Eolleston, M.D., 
F.E.S. Oxford, 1877, 8vo. 

Archaeological Magazine of Bristol, Bath, and South Wales, and the South 
Western Counties. Edited by T. H. Sealey. London, 1843-4 (3 parts) 8vo. 

W. Long, Esq. — 

Stonehenge and its Barrows. By W.Long^ M.A., F.S.A. Devizes, 1876, 4to. 

Miss Stokes, Tyndale House, Cheltenham — 
Letters from the Archives of Zurich. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1846, Svo. 
Extracts from Accounts of Churchwardens of Minchinhampton. By John 
Bruce, Treasmxr S. A . London, 1854, 4to. 



Christopher J. Thomas, Esq., Clifton — 
A Water-colour Drawing of St. Briavel's Castle. 



List or Books. 



S 



1881. 

C. Weathered, Esq., Stroud — 
On Restoration. By E. Viollet-le-Duc. Translated by G. Wethered. 

London, 1875, Svo. 



1882. 

James Greenstreet, Esq., 2, Dartmouth Villas, Standstead Road, 
Catford, S.E. 

Reference List of the Rolls of Arms and other early authorities for Ancient 
Coat Armour. Compiled hy James Greenstreet and Charles Russell. Svo. 



Rev. F. J. PoYNTON, M. A., Rector of Kelston — 
The Baves of Bath and of Barrow Court, Tickenham, co. Somerset. By Rev. 

F. J. Poynton, M.A. London, 1885, 4to. 

The Sculptured Monuments in the Church of St. Dubricius, Porlock, Somer- 
set. By Maria HallidaylliOiqu&j, 1882. Svo. 
Memoranda relating to the Parish of Kelston, Somerset. By the Rev. F. J. 
Poynton, Rector. Part 3, 1880, 4to. 



The late Rev. E. Estcourt, M.A., F.S.A., Leamington — 
History of the City of Gloucester. By T. D. Foshroole, M.A., F.S.A . 

London, 1819, fol. 

Memorials of the Civil War in Herefordshire, 2 vols. By the Rev. J. Webb, 
M. A., F.S.A. London, 1879, 8vo. 

Remains of Roman Art in Cirencester. By Professor Buckman, F.L.S., 
F.G.S., and G. H. Newmarch. London, 1850, 4to. 

Domesday for Wiltshire. By Rev. W. H. Jones, M.A., F.S.A. 

Bath, 1865, 4to. 

Report of the Committee on Sepulchral Monuments, London, 1872, fol. 



1883. 

J. G. Godwin, Esq., London — 
Monumental Inscriptions in the Churches at Bath. TaTcen in July, 1676, hy 
Anthony A. Wood. London, 1881, 4to. 



1884-6. 

Science and Art Department, South Kensington — 
List of Buildings having Mural Decorations. 3rd edition, London, 1883, 8vo. 
Chart of Royal Genealogy and British Architecture. Compiled hy Archibald 
Barington, M.D. n.d , 4to. 

Sir Brook Kay, Bart. — 
Annalia Dubrensia (MS. Title Page and Dedication). London, 1636, sm. 4to. 
Histoiredes Chevaliers Hospitallers par Mon. VAhhe de Vertot, 5 vols 

Amstersdam, 1772, 12mo. 



4 



List of Books. 



Church and Monastery of Moche Malverne. By James Nott. 

Worcester, 1885, 8vo. 

Our Old Country Towns. By Alfred Rimmer. London, 1881, 8vo. 

The Forest of Dean. By H. G. NichoUs, M.A. London, 1858, 8vo. 

Legends, Tales and Songs in the Gloucestershire Dialect, n.d., London, 12mo. 

1885-6. 

The Kent Arch^ologtcal Society — 

ArchaBologia Cantiana, Vol. IX. London, 1874, 8vo. 

N.B.— This Society has acquired the other vols, by purchase and exchange. 



The Rev. A. W. C. Hallen, M.A., F.S.A., Scot. &c.— 
An Account of the Hallen Family. By A. W. C. Hallen, M.A. 

Edinburgh, 1885, 4to, 

The Registers of St. Mary, Woolnoth, and St. Mary, Woolchurch, 1538-1760. 

By J. M. S. Brooke, M.A. and A. W. G. Hallen, M.A. Svo. 
The Registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 1558-1628, Part I. Transcribed 

by A. W. a Hallen, M.A. London, 1886, 8vo. 

Northern Notes and Queries, Vol. I. Nos. 1-3. Edited by A. W. G. Hallen. 

Edinburgh, 1886, Svo. 



The Rev. Reginald Hill, M.A., Bromsberrow — 
Reports and Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies, 6 parts. 

Lincoln, Svo. 

N.B. — The Society has nearly completed this series by purchase. 



1886. 

T. W. Jacques, Esq., Bristol. 
The Architectural History of Gloucester. Bg John Glarke. 

Gloucester, n.d. Svo. 

F. A. Hyett, Esq., Painswick — 
Memorials of S. S. Dickinson. Gloucester, 1882, Svo. 



E. C. Sewell, Esq., Cirencester — 
Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis (Civil War Tracts). Edited by J. Washbourn. 

Gloucester, 1825, 4to. 
History of Cheltenham. By Dibden. Printed by H. Ruff. 

Cheltenham, 1803, Svo. 
The History of Cirencester. Printed and sold by S. Rudder. 

Cirencester, 1800, Svo. 

The History of Tewkesbury. Sold by Dyde A Son. Tewkesbury, 1790, Svo. 
Historical Notices of St. Fillan's Crozier. By John Stuart, LL.D. 

Edinburgh, 1877, sm. 4to. 

i 



List Of Books. 



5 



Caer Pensauelcoit By Thomas Ker slake. London, 1882, Svo. 

The Liberty of Independent Historical Research. By Thomas Kerslahe. 

London, 1885, 8vo. 

What is a Town ? By Thomas Kerslake. London, 1878, Svo. 

The Welsh in Dorset. By Thomas Kerslake. Bristol, 1880, 8vo. 

Annual Report of the Oxford Architectural Society, for 1847. 
Survey of the Church of the College of Mailing. By John Robert Daniel- 

Tyssen, F.S.A. Lewes, 1870, Svo. 

A Tract on Tomb Stones. By F. E. Paget, M.A. Rugeley, 1843, Svo. 

Life of C. B. Trye, F.R.S. By Daniel Lysons, M.A. Gloucester, 1812, 4to. 
Fairford Graves. By W. M. Wylie, B.A. Oxford, 1852, 4to. 

Court Rolls of the Manor and Hundred of Cirencester, temp. Edward VI. 

Mary and Elizabeth, MS. Translations of the same. By W. H. Hart^ 

F.S.A. MS. fol. 

Sir Thomas Phillips' Extracts from the Parochial Registers of Buckland 

and Weston-sub-Edge, ex Lithographia Medio -Montana. 1854, fol. 

Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1684. Printed at Thirlestane House, Chelten- 
ham, N.D. fol. 

Gloucestershire Subsidy Roll, 1st Edw. III. a.d. 1327. 

Typis Medio-Montanis, n.d. fol. 
Autobiography of Henry Herbert, a Shoemaker, of Fairford. 

Gloucester, 1866, Svo. 



F. F. TucKETT, Esq., Frenchay, Bristol— 

The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy. By Ordericus 
Vitalis, 4 vols. London, Bohn, 1853, Svo. 

The Bibliographer, Vols, i.-vi. London, 1882-4, 4to. 

Book Lore, Vols i.-iii. London, 1884,5, 4to, 

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By Edward 
Gibbon, 8 vols. London, 1823, Svo. 

The Catacombs of Rome. By the Rev. W. Ingraham Kip, D. D. 

New York, n.d. Svo. 
A Concise Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture. 

Oxford, J. H. Parker, 1846, Svo. 
History of Grensted Church, near Ongar. By P. W. Ray. 

Chipping Ongar, 1869. Svo. 
Also a donation of £1, which has been expended in the purchase of 
A Manual for the Genealogist, Topographer, Antiquary and Legal Professor. 

By Richard Sims. London, 1856, Svo. 

Costume in England. By F. W. Fair holt, F.S.A. London, 1860, Svo. 

History of the Cheltenham Grammar School. Edited by A. Harper. 

Cheltenham, 1856, Svo. 



6 List of Books. 

George T. Clark, Esq., Dowlais — 
Mediaeval Military Architecture in England. By George T. Clark. 2 vols. 

London, 1884, Svo. 



Francis James, Esq., Edgeworth Manor — 
The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales. By B. H. 

Malkin, M.A., F.A.8. 2 vols. London, 1807, Svo. 

A History of Croydon. By G. S. Stainman, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

London, 1834, Svo. 

William Briggs, Esq., Bristol — 
The History of the Abbey of St. Alban. By Rev. Peter Newcome, Rector of 

Shenley. London, 1795, 4to. 

The Whitefriargate Papers, February to July, 1872. Hull, 1872, 4to. 

Notices relative to the Early History of the Town and Port of Hull. By C. 

Frost, F.S.A. London, 1827, 4to. 

Notes relating to Whitby, Malvern and Scarborough. Svo. 
Hullinia, or Selections from Local History of Hull. By John Symons, 

M.B.I. A. Kingston-upon-HuU, 1872, Svo. 

Incidents in the History of Kingston-upon-Hull. By C. S. Todd, F.S.A. 

London, 1869, Svo. 

History of Cottingham. By Rev. Charles Overton. Hull, 1861, Svo. 

The Abbey of Saint Alban. By the late Rev. H. J. B. Nicholson, D.D., 
F.S.A. London, 1874, Svo. 



Alexander W. Playne, Esq., Nailsworth — 
Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections relative to the County 
of Gloucester. By Ralph Bigland. Vol. I. and Vol. II. to page 214. 

London, 1786 

Abstracts of Records and Manuscripts respecting the County of Gloucester. 

By Thomas Dudley Fosbroohe, F.A.S. 2 vols. Gloucester, 1807, 4to. 
The History of the Town & Parish of Tetbiiry. By Rev. Alfred T. Lee, M.A. 

London, 1857, Svo. 

W. C. Lucy, Esq., Brookthorpe — 
Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Vol. I. London, 1858, Svo. 

Robert Taylor, Esq. , The Edge — 
Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
Vols. I-III. Shrewsbury, 187S-1880, Svo. 

The History, Art, and Palaeography of the Utrecht Psalter. By Walter de 
Gray Birch, F.R.S.L. London, 1876, Svo. 

A Treatise on Ancient Armour and Weapons. By Francis Grose, F.A.S. 

London, 1786, 4to. 



i 



List of Books. ' 7 

Charles Pigott Pritchett, Esq., Gotham — 

A Compleat Treatise on Perspective. By Thomas Malton. London, 1778, fol. 
Etudes relatives a I'art des Constructions recueillies jpar L. Bruy^re. 2 vols. 

Paris, 1823, fol. 

D. L. Thorpe, Esq., M.D., Cheltenham- 
Fifty volumes of the works of the Camden Society, sm. 4to., and a donation 
of £5. 

iThe vols, marked with an asterisk have been purchased for £4 lis. 9d. 



Restoration of King Edward IV. 

Kyng Johan. By Bishop Bale. 
*Deposition of Richard II. 

Plumpton Correspondence. 

Anecdotes and Traditions. 
■^Political Songs. 

Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth. 

Ecclesiastical Documents. 

Norden^s Description of Essex. 

Warkworth's Chronicle. 

Kemp's Nine Dales Wonder. 

The Egerton Papers. 
*Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonde. 

Irish Narratives, 1641-169D. 
^Rishanger's Chronicle. 

Poems of Walter Mapes. 

Travels of Nicander Nucius. 

Three Metrical Romances. 
* Diary of Dr. Dee. 

Apology for the Lollards. 
*Rutland Papers. 

Diary of Bishop Cartwright. 

Letters of Eminent Literary Men. 

Proceedings against Alice Kyteler. 

Promptorium Parvvilorum, Tom. 1. 
■^Suppression of the Monasteries. 

Leycester Correspondence. 

French Chronicle of London. 
*Polydore Vergil (Henry VI. to 
Richard III. 

The Thornton Romances. 
*Verney's Notes of Long Parliament. 



Grants of Edward V. 
Camden Miscellany, Vol. III. 
*Household Roll of Bishop Swinfield, 

Vol. II. 
Charles I. in 1646. 

*Chronicle of the Reigns of Richard II., 
Hen. IV., Hen. V. and Hen VI. 

*Knight Hospitallers in England, 1338. 

*Diary of John Rous. 
The Trevelyan Papers to 1551, Part I. 

*Journal of Rowland Davies, Dean of 
Ross, 1689. 

*Domesday of St. Paul, Manor of the 
Church. 

*Liber Famelicus of Sir James White- 
locke. 

♦Romance of Blonde of Oxford and 

Jehan of Dammartin. 
*Camden Miscellany, Vol. IV. 

* Journal ol Richard Symonds, temp. 

Charles I. 
Original Papers illustrative of Milton. 
*Letters from G. Lord Carew to Sir 

Thomas Roe. 
*Correspondence of James VL and 

Sir R. Cecil. 
*Letters of J. Chamberlain to D. 

Carleton. 

* Parliamentary Debates in 1610. 
Trevelyan Papers to 1643, Part II. 

*Life of Marmaduke Rawdon of York. 
*Wills from Doctors' Commons. 



8 



List of Books. 



*Autobiography of Sir J. Bramston. 
Correspondence of James, Earl of 
Perth. 

Liber de Antiquis Legibus. 

The Chronicle of Calais. 

Polydore Vergil's History, Vol. I. 

Italian Relation of England. 

Church of Middleham. 

The Camden Miscellany, Vol. 1. 

Life of Lord Grey de Wilton 
*Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq. 
*Diary of Henry Machyn. 
*Visitation of Huntingdonshire. 

Obituary of Richard Smyth. 

Twysden on Government of England. 
*Letters of Elizabeth and James VI. 

Chronicon Petroburgense. 

Queen Jane and Queen Mary. 
*Bury Wills and Inventories. 

Mapes de Nugis Curialium. 

Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guylford. 

Secret Service of Chas. II. & Jas. II. 

Chronicle of the Grey Friars. 
' The Camden Miscellany, Vol. IL 

Verney Papers to 1639. 

Letters of Lady Brilliana Harley. 
*Household Roll of Bishop Swinfield. 



*Foreign Residents in England, 1618- 
1688. 

*Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou 
and others. 

*Camden Miscellany, Vol. V. 

*Promptorium Parvulorum, Vol. III. 
Letters of Sir Robert Cecil to Sir 
George Carew. 

*Pope Alexander VII. and the College 
of Cardinals. 

*Accounts and Papers relating to Mary, 
Queen of Scots. 

*Manipulus Vocabularum, a Diction- 
ary by Peter Levins, 1570. 

*Sir Kenelm Digby's Voyage into the 
Mediterranean, 1628. 

*Relations betwen England and Ger- 
many, Vol. IL 

*Notes of the Treaty at Ripon, 1640. 

■^Spanish Account of the proposed 
Spanish Marriage Treaty. 

■^'Debates iu House of Lords, 1621. 
The Camden Miscellany, Vol. VI. 
Trevelyan Papers, Part III., with 

Introduction. 
Letters to Sir Joseph Williamson, 
Vol. I. 



Rev. W. Bagnall-Oakeley, Newland— 
Ancient Glass in the Church of St. Mary, Credenhill, &c. By F. T. Haver- 
gal, M.A. Walsall, 1884, 4to. 

Francis F. Fox, Esq. , Chipping Sodbury— 
Ancient Fraternity of Merchant Taylors of Bristol. By ^ rancis F. Fox. 

Bristol, 1880 



Miss Clarke, 86, Pembroke Road, Clifton— 
Britannia, or a Chorographical Description of Great Britain and Ireland. 
By Wm, Camden. 2nd edition, with additions by Edmund Gibson, D.D. 
Bishop of Lincoln. 2 vols. London, 1722, fol. 

18S7. 

A. T. Martin, Esq,, Clifton College- 
Six Volumes of the Works of Camden Society, 2nd series, sm. 4to : — 
Political Memoranda of Francis, oth Duke of I^eeds. 



* 



List of Donors and Donations to the Society's Library. 



1879-1886. 

The Monmouthshire and CAERLEuisr Antiquarian Association. 
Roman Antiquities at Lydney Park. By the Rev. W. H. Bathurst, M.A. 

with Notes by G. W. King, M.A. London, 1879, Svo. 

Goldcliff and the Ancient Roman Inscribed Stone found there, 1878. By 

Octavlus Morgan, F.B.S., FS.A. Newport, 1882, Svo. 

Papers relating to the History of Monmouthshire, read at the meeting of 

the Cambrian Archiseological Association, held at Newport in 1885. 

Newport, 1886, Svo. 

The Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A.— 
Brief Sketches of the Parishes of Booterstown and Donnybrook, in the 
County of Dublin. By the Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A. 3rd and 4th parts. 

Dublin, 1872, 1874, 12mo. 
Monumental Inscriptions in the Parish Church of Cheltenham. Transcribed 
by the Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A. London, 1877, 4to. 

Gloucestershire Notes & Queries, Vol. I. London, 1881, 8vo. 

The Royal Arch^ological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland— 

Archfeological Jot" nal, Vols. VI-XXV. London, 1849-1868, 8vo. 

N.B. — The Society has since acquired the other 22 vols, by purchase and exchange. 

The Royal Historical and Arch^ological Association or Ireland — 
Proceedings and Papers, 4th series. Vols. I-IV. Dublin, 1871-1878, 8vo. 

Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. — 
The Grammar School of Leigh, Lancashire. By J. E. Bailey, F.S.A. 

Leigh, 1879, Svo. 

An attempt to identify the arms formerly existing in the windows of the 
Parish Church and Austin Friary at Warrington. By W. Beaumont and 
J. Paid Rylands, F.S.A. Warrington, 1878, 4to. 



2 



List of Books. 



The Folloioing Parochial Hktories by Sm John Maclean, F.S.A,, &c. — 
The Parish of Helland, Cornwall. Exeter, 1873, 4to. 

The Parish of St. Menefreda, alias St. Minver, Cornwall. Exeter, 1876, 4to. 
The Parishes of Tintagel and Trevalga, Cornwall. Exeter, 1877, 4to. 

Iron-making in the Forest of Dean. By the Rev. H. G. Nicholls, M. A . 

London, 1866, 8vo. 

Description of the Paintings in the church of Kempley. By J. T. MicUe- 
thivaite, M.P. London, 1866, 8vo. 

The Life and Letters of Florence MacCarthy Reagh. By Daniel MacCarthy. 

(Glasgow). London, 1867, 8vo. 

Paintings of Henry VII., Prince Arthur and Cardinal Morton on Screen 

of Plymtree Church, Devon, with a Notice by the Rev. T. Mozley, M.A. 

Rector of Plymtree. London, 1878, atlas fol. 

The Abbey Church of Tewkesbury. By J. L. Petit, M.A. Cheltenham, 1848 

8vo. 

Scraps of Ancient Bristol, engravings from drawings by F. W. LocJcioood. 

Belfast, 1880, fol. 

A short sketch of the Life of Major-General and Admiral Richard Deane. 

By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 4to. 
Proceedings of the Archaeological Institute at Winchester, 1845 ; York, 1846 ; 

Norwich, 1847; Lincoln, 1848 ; Salisbury, 1849; Bristol, U'^Sl ; Oxford; 

and Chichester, 1853. London, 1846-1856, 8vo. 

Cheshire and Lancashire Funeral Certificates. 8vo, 



C. F. Playne, Esq. Stroud — 
Ancient Camps of Gloucestershire. 8vo. 

George RoLLESTON, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. — 
Britisli Barrows. By W. Oreenwell, M.A., F.S.A., and 0. Rolleston, M.D., 
F.R.S. Oxford, 1877, 8vo. 

Thomas Kekslake, Esq. Clifton — 

Archajologieal Magazine of Bristol, Bath, and South Wales, and the South 
Western Counties. Edited by T. H. Sealey. London, 1843-4 (3 parts) 8vo. 

W. Long, Esq. — 

Stonehenge and its Barrows. By W.Long^ M.A., F.S.A. Devizes, 1876, 4to. 

Miss Stokes, Tyndale House, Cheltenham- 
Letters from the Archives of Zurich. Parker Society. Cambridge, 1846, 8vo. 
Extracts from Accounts of Churchwardens of Mincbinhampton. By John 
Bruce, Treasurer S. A. London, 1854, 4to. 

CiiKisTorHEU J . Thomas, Esq., Clifton — 
A AVatcr-coIour Drawing of St. Briavcl's Castle. 

i 



List of Books. 



3 



1881. 

C. Weathered, Esq., Stroud — 
On Restoration. By E. Viollet-le-Duc. Translated by C. Wethered. 

London, 1875, Svo. 



1882. " 

James Greenstkeet, Esq., 2, Dartmouth Villas, Standstead Road, 
Catford, S.E. 

Reference List of the Rolls of Arms and other early authorities for Ancient 
Coat Armour. Compiled by James Gree?} street and Charles Russell. Svo. 



Rev. F. J. PoYNTON, M. A., Rector of Kelston — 
The Baves of Bath and of Barrow Court, Tickenham, co. Somerset. By Beih 
F. J. Poynton, 31. A. London, 1885, 4to. 

The Sculptured Monuments. in the Church of St. Dubricius, Porlock, Somer- 
set. By Maria Ilalliday, Torquay, 1882. 8vo. 
Memoranda relating to the Parish of Kelston, Somerset. By the Rev. F. J. 
Poynton, Rector. Part 3, 1880, 4to. 



The late Rev. E. Estcourt, M A., F.S.A., Leamington — 
History of the City of Gloucester. By T. D. FosbrooJce, M.A., F.S.A . 

London, 1819, fol. 

Memorials of the Civil War in Herefordshire, 2 vols. By the Rev. J. Webb, 
M.A., F.8.A.. London, 1879, 8vo. 

Remains of Roman Art in Cirencester. By Professor BucTcman, F.L.S., 
F.G.S., and C. H. Newmarch. London, 1850, 4to. 

Domesday for Wiltshire. By Rev. W. H. Jones, 31. A., F.S.A. 

Bath, 1865, 4to. 

Report of the Committee on Sepulchral Monuments, London, 1872, fol. 



188.3. 

J. G, Godwin, Esq., London — 
Monumental Inscriptions in the Churches at Bath. Taken in Jidy, 1676, by 
Anthony A. Wood. London, 1881, 4to. 



1884-6. 

Science and Art Department, South Kensington — 
List of Buildings having Mural Decorations. 3rd edition, London, 1883, 8vo. 
Chart of Royal Genealogy and British Architecture. Compiled by Archibald 
Barington, 3J.D. n.d , 4to. 



Sir Brook Kay, Bart. — 
Annalia Dubrensia (MS. Title Page and Dedication). London, 1636, sm. 4to. 
Histoire des Chevaliers Hospitallers par 3Ion. VAbbe de Vertot, 5 vols 

Amstersdam, 1772, 12mo. 



4 



List of Books. 



Church and Monastery of Moche Malverne. By James Nott. 

Worcester, 1885, 8vo. 

Our Old Country Towns. By Alfred Rimmer. London, 1881, 8vo. 

The Forest of Dean. By H. G. Nicholls, M.A. London, 1858, Svo. 

Legends, Tales and Songs in the Gloucestershire Dialect, n.d., London, 12mo. 

1885-6. 

The Kent ARCHiEOLOGicAL Society — 
Archseologia Cantiana, Vol. IX. London, 1874, 8vo. 

N.B. — This Society has acquired the other vols, by purchase and exchange. 



The Rev. A. W. C. Hallen, M.A., F.S.A. Scot. &c.— 
An Account of the Hallen Family. By A. W. C. Hallen, M.A. 

Edinburgh, 1885, 4to. 

The Registers of St. Mary, Woolnoth, and St. Mary, Woolchurch, 1538-1760. 

By J. M. 8. Brooke, M.A. and A. W. C. Hallen, M.A. Svo. 
The Registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 1558-1628, Part I. Transcribed 

by A. W. G. Hallen, M.A. London, 1886, 8vo. 

Northern Notes and Queries, Vol. I. Nos. 1-3. Edited by A. W. G. Hallen. 

Edinburgh, 1886, 8vo. 

The Rev. ReCxINALd Hill, M.A., Bromsberrow — 
Reports and Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies, 6 parts. 

Lincoln, 8vo. 

N.B.— The Society has nearly completed this series by purchase. 



1886. 

T. W. Jacques, Esq., Bristol. 
The Arcliitectural History of Gloucester. Bg John Clarl-e. 

Gloucester, n.d. Svo. 

F. A. Hyett, Esq., Painswick— 
Memorials of S. S. Dickinson. Gloucester, 1882, 8vo. 

E. C. Sewell, Esq., Cirencester — 
Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis (Civil War Tracts). Edited by J. Washhonrn. 

Gloucester, 1825, 4to. 
History of Cheltenham. By Dibden. Printed by H. Rvff. 

Cheltenham, 1803, 8vo. 
The History of Cirencester. Printed and sold try S. Rudder. 

Cirencester, 1800, Svo. 

The History of Tewkesbury. Sold by Dyde Son. Tewkesbury, 1790, Svo. 
Historical Notices of St. Fillan's Crozier. By John Stuart, LL.D. 

Edinburgh, 1877, sm. 4to. 



List of Books. 



5 



Caer Pensanelcoit By Thomas Kerslalce. London, 1882, 8vo. 

The Liberty of Independent Historical Research. By Thomas Kei^slahe, 

London, 1885, 8vo. 

What is a Town? By Thomas Kei^slaTce. London, 1878, 8vo. 

The Welsh in Dorset. By Thomas Kerslalce. Bristol, 1880, 8vo. 

Annual Report of the Oxford Architectural Society, for 1847. 
Survey of the Church of the College of Mailing. By John Robert Daniel- 

Tyssen, F.S.A. Lewes, 1870, 8vo. 

A Tract on Tomb Stones. By F. E. Paget, M.A. Rugeley, 1843, 8vo. 

Life of C. B. Trye, F.R.S. By Daniel Lysons, M.A. Gloucester, 1812, 4to. 
Fairford Graves. By W. M. Wylie, B.A. Oxford, 1852, 4to. 

Court Rolls of the Manor and Hundred of Cirencester, temy. Edward VI. 

Mary and Elizabeth, MS. Translations of the same. By W. H. Hart, 

F.S.A. MS. fol. 

Sir Thomas Phillips' Extracts from the Parochial Registers of Buckland 

and Weston-sub-Edge, ex Lithographia Medio-Montana. 1854, fol. 

Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1684. Printed at Thirlestane House, Chelten- 
ham, N.D. fol. 

Gloucestershire Subsidy Roll, 1st Edw. III. a.d. 1327. 

Typis Medio-Montanis, n.d. fol. 
Autobiography of Henry Herbert, a Shoemaker, of Fairford. 

Gloucester, 1866, 8vo. 



F. F. TucKETT, Esq., Frenchay, Bristol— 
The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy. By Orderims 
Vitalis, 4 vols. London, Bohn, 1853, Svo. 

The Bibliographer, Vols, i.-vi. London, 1882-4, 4to. 

Book Lore, Vols i,-iii. London, 1884,5, 4to. 

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By Edward 
Gibbon, 8 vols. London, 1823, Svo. 

The Catacombs of Rome. By the Bev. W. Ingraham Kip, D. T). 

New York, n.d. Svo. 
A Concise Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture. 
» Oxford, J. H. Parker, 1846, 8vo. 

History of Grensted Church, near Ongar. By P. W. Ray. 

Chipping Ongar, 1869. Svo. 
Also a donation of £1, which has been expended in the purchase of 
A Manual for the Genealogist, Topographer, Antiquary and Legal Professor. 

By Richard Sims. London, 1856, Svo. 

Costume in England. By F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. London, 1860, 8vo. 

History of the Cheltenham Grammar School. Edited by A. Harper. 

Cheltenham, 1856, 8vo. 



6 List of Books. 

George T. Clark, Esq., Dowlais— 
Mediaeval Military Architecture in England. By George T. GlarTc. 2 vols. 

London, 1884, 8vo. 

Francis James, Esq. , Edgeworth Manor — 
The Scenery, Antiquities and Biography of South Wales. Btj B. H. 

Malhin, M.A., F.A.8. 2 vols. London, 1807, Svo. 

A History of Croydon. By G. S. Stainman, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

London, 1834, 8vo. 

William Briggs, Esq., Bristol — 
The History of the Abbey of St. Alban. By Rev. Peter Newcome, Kector of 

Shenley. London, 1795, 4to. 

The Whitefriargate Papers, February to July, 1872. Hull, 1872, 4to. 

Notices relative to the Early History of the Town and Port of Hull. By C. 

Frost, F.S.A. London, 1827, 4to. 

Notes relating to Whitby, Malvern and Scarborough. 8vo. 
Hullinia, or Selections from Local History of Hull. By John Symons, 

M.R.I.A. Kingston-upon-Hull, 1872, Svo. 

Incidents in the History of Kingston-upon-Hull. By G. 8. Todd, F.S.A. 

London, 1869, Svo. 

History of Cottingham. By Rev. Gharles Overton. Hull, 1861, 8vo. 

The Abbey of Saint Alban. By the late Rev. H. J. B. Nicholson, D.D., 
F.S.A. London, 1874, 8vo. 



Alexander W. Playne, Esq., Nailsworth — 
Historical, Monumental and Genealogical Collections relative to the County 
of Gloucester. By Rali^h Bigland. Vol. I. and Vol. II. to page 214, 

London, 1786 

Abstracts of Records and Manuscripts respecting the County of Gloucester, 
By Thomas Dudhy Foshroohe, F.A.S. 2 vols. Gloucester, 1807, 4to. 
The History of the Town & Parish of Tetbury, By Rev. Alfred T. Lee, M.A. 

London, 1857, Svo. 



W. C. Lucy, Esq., Brookthorpe— 
Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Vol. I. London, 1858, Svo. 

Egbert Taylor, Esq, , The Edge- 
Transactions of the Shropshire Arclu^jological and N